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Massey L K - - 2001
Recent clinical and biochemical evidence supporting the hypothesis that consumption of dairy products may be associated with reduced blood pressure and risk of stroke is reviewed. The two prospective studies of dairy food consumption and stroke incidence both indicate that a higher intake of dairy foods reduces risk. It is ...
Schor A - - 2001
To determine the production responses to rumen undegradable protein (RUP) feeding in grazing conditions, we fed 18 multiparous Holstein cows concentrates containing either soybean meal (SBM) or blood meal (BM) during the first 8 wk of lactation. One cow from the SBM treatment was removed because of mastitis. Six additional ...
Brandhorst-Hubbard J L - - 2001
Relative preferences of green June beetle, Cotinis nitida (L.), adults and grubs for different organic fertilizers were determined in field and laboratory choice experiments. Six organic fertilizer treatments (low rate of broiler litter, high rate of broiler litter, cow manure, hay, Milorganite, or no fertilizer [the control]) were applied to ...
Fábregas J - - 2001
The impact of different microalgal semicontinuous cultures on growth and biochemical composition in the next link of the food chain was tested using the filter feeder Artemia species as a model. The marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica was cultured semicontinuously with renewal rates between 10% and 50% and used to feed ...
Finger R - - 2001
Food production processes are increasingly influenced by quality and safety concerns. For dairy production, one of the food quality outcomes is a low level of bacteria in unprocessed milk. A putative on-farm control point for low levels of bacteria is teat and udder cleaning before milking. Currently there are no ...
Ballard C S - - 2001
Three corn hybrids, Mycogen TMF94, Cargill F337 (which contains a brown midrib trait), and Pioneer 3861 were compared in a plot trial, an intake trial, and a lactation trial. In the plot trial, the three corn hybrids were planted in replicated 15.2 x 385-m plots. Mycogen TMF94 and Cargill F337 ...
Paranhos da Costa - - 2001
Dairy cows often have to choose which of two sides to enter in the milking parlour. Some cows are very consistent in this choice, and it is common to assume that when these cows are more disturbed are being milked in their non-preferred side. Such disturbance might involve significantly poor ...
Polk C - - 2001
The "stray voltage" problem on dairy farms is discussed briefly. By reference to published literature it is shown that a "step voltage" (SV), i.e., a potential difference between front and hind hooves of a dairy cow, much less than the often quoted threshold value of 0.5 V, when applied for ...
Beresford N A - - 2001
Countermeasures have been effectively employed within intensive agricultural systems in areas of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affected by the Chernobyl accident. However, ingestion doses continue to be elevated in some areas as a result of few foodstuffs which are collected from the wild or produced by the household. Forest ...
Schmidt S - - 2001
Sugar beet mash silage (BMS) was offered in amounts up to 35% of DM to dairy cows as a component of a total-mixed-ration (TMR). Barley and molasses in the control ration were replaced by BMS half in ration BMS 1/2 and in total in ration BMS 1/1 on the basis ...
Vaccaro E - - 2001
Byssal threads provide marine mussels with the tenacity to remain sessile in habitats of high flow. Under uniaxial tension, byssal threads are typical of other biological and synthetic fibers in exhibiting an initial linear region followed by yield. They differ, however, in their capacity to recover or "self-heal" following yield. ...
Dhiman T R - - 2000
We conducted three experiments to determine the influence of mechanical processing on corn silage utilization by lactating dairy cows. Total mixed rations contained either unprocessed or processed corn silage harvested between 1/4 and 3/4 milk line. In trial 1, 12 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated double switchback ...
Wang S J - - 2000
The objectives of this paper were to use a linear programming model previously described to evaluate different alternatives for reducing excess nutrients that may influence water quality on a case study farm (300 lactating cows on 430 ha of cropland growing alfalfa, grass, and corn). Several alternatives perceived to influence ...
Weinsier R L - - 2000
It is unclear whether dairy foods promote bone health in all populations and whether all dairy foods are equally beneficial. The objective of this review was to determine whether scientific evidence supports the recommendation that dairy foods be consumed daily for improved bone health in the general US population. Studies ...
Wilson D J - - 2000
This study was to test whether cows milked by an experimental pulsation method differed from cows milked with conventional pulsation milking in somatic cell count (SCC), intramammary infections (IMI) defined by milk bacteriological culture results, teat end condition, or milk flow rate. The study design was a 1-yr trial with ...
Kumar A - - 2000
Out of a total of 246 food samples of animal origin screened for isolation of Aeromonas spp., 33 (13.41%) were positive for these organisms. Maximum positivity was shown by the samples from fish (28.57%), followed by poultry meat (16.67%), poultry eggs (12.50%), goat meat (12%), buffalo meat (7.69%) and cow ...
Pajor EA - - 2000
Fear of humans is a source of stress for Holstein dairy cattle and can result when animals are handled aversively. We used aversion learning techniques to determine which handling practices cattle find most aversive. In an aversion race, the cows are repeatedly walked down a race and treatments applied when ...
Anziani O S - - 2000
A field study was conducted in central Argentina to evaluate the efficacy of ear tags containing 36% ethion against pyrethroid resistant populations of Haematobia irritans on grazing dairy cattle. The treated group consisted of 45 milking Holstein cows which received two tags per head and the control consisted of 22 ...
Oba M - - 2000
The effects of digestibility of corn silage neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and dietary NDF content on chewing activities were evaluated with eight multiparous high producing dairy cows in a duplicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Experimental diets contained corn silage from a brown midrib (bm3) hybrid ...
Bal M A - - 2000
Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut without processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theoretical length of ...
Kupek E - - 2000
The relationship between serologically confirmed cases of leptospirosis and the amount of rainfall in greater Florianôpolis, in southern Brazil, was studied retrospectively for the period 1991 to 1996. Maximum daily and total monthly rainfall for present and previous months were statistically significant predictors of the number of cases of leptospirosis ...
Wedlock D N - - 2000
The physiological effects of intramammary infusions of recombinant bovine cytokines in six lactating dairy cows on the quality and yield of milk and the bactericidal activity of milk neutrophils were investigated. Recombinant bovine interleukin-2 (rboIL-2) and interferon-gamma (rboIFN-gamma) were produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Two animals were given rboIL-2 ...
Stefanowska J - - 2000
In robotic milking there is always a slight chance of failure to attach the milking cluster. Attachment failure is most likely for cows whose udder conformation is less convenient for robot attachment. In general, after milking failure cows try to revisit the milking robot if they are not sent to ...
Todd S E - - 2000
The effects of food withdrawal for 30 hours and transport for up to 12 hours on 5- to 10-day-old calves were determined by monitoring plasma concentrations of glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate, urea, lactate and creatine phosphokinase. In addition gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, packed cell volume, total plasma protein concentration, bodyweight and rectal temperature ...
Day M L - - 2000
Two experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of a progestin-based estrus synchronization program that incorporated the use of estradiol at the initiation of progestin treatment and at 48 h after progestin withdrawal (Exp. 2). In Exp. 1, cyclic, lactating dairy cows (n = 112) were assigned to receive either ...
Kelly A L - - 2000
The influence of various factors on the concentrations of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMN) in milk samples from bulk tanks and individual cows was investigated. While somatic cell counts (SCC) and PMN level were in both cases significantly correlated, lower correlation coefficients were found between SCC and PMN for samples of ...
Heyman M - - 2000
The alteration of the intestinal epithelial barrier is often a consequence of various intestinal diseases but may also be the starting point of these diseases. Undigested food antigens are transported across the intestinal epithelium by a transcytotic mechanism, including a processing within the enterocytes, and leading to the passage of ...
Wolf J H - - 2000
Beginning in the 1880s, many mothers reported breastfeeding difficulties. Doctors blamed the stress of urban life. The "bad" human milk invariably produced by the mammary glands of urban women, some physicians charged, harmed babies as surely as the dirty and adulterated cow's milk common to the late nineteenth-century city. Mothers ...
Kuciel J - - 2000
To predict meat quality after slaughter, biopsy samples were taken from musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis of live pigs at approximately 40 kg and 80 kg of weight. The obtained values from biopsies for pH1 and EC50 (electric conductivity) were compared with measurements after slaughter at a weight of approximately ...
Naresh R - - 1999
Mean milk lead in cows with clinical or subclinical mastitis was 0.35 +/- 0.03 or 0.42 +/- 0.04 ppm whereas cadmium was 0.16 +/- 0.01 or 0.15 +/- 0.01 ppm. Concentrations in blood were 0.45 +/- 0.05 lead or 0.08 +/- 0.05 ppm cadmium in clinical and 0.47 +/- 0.06 ...
al-Katanani Y M - - 1999
The objective was to determine factors controlling seasonal variation in 90-d nonreturn rate to first service (90-d NRR) including effects of location, milk yield, and weather variables on specific days before and after breeding. Dairy Herd Improvement Association records on first services from 8124 Holstein cows in south Georgia (GA, ...
Omore A O - - 1999
Bovine mastitis and mastitis control were investigated on smallholder farms in central Kenya. After an initial observational study, a clinical trial to assess the impact of three different mastitis control strategies--(1) improved udder hygiene, (2) treatment of subclinical cases, and (3) a combination of these--was conducted on 100 randomly selected ...
Reksen O - - 1999
A comparative cohort study of reproductive performance in organic and conventional dairy husbandry was conducted using longitudinal data from the Norwegian National Board of Animal Production Recording from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1996. The present study is the first study comparing reproductive efficiency in organic and conventional husbandry ...
Thompson J C - - 1999
AIM: Description of factors relating to an outbreak of post-parturient haemoglobinuria in a dairy herd in New Zealand. HISTORY: Fifty cows out of 300 newly autumn calved cows, at about 3 weeks post partum, developed signs of anorexia, jaundice, anaemia, red urine, and 14 died. Many cows were severely inappetant. ...
Chrystal M A - - 1999
Teat end shapes were categorized for 1740 Holstein cows with 2261 lactations in nine herds. Frequencies of teat end shapes were pointed, 7%; pointed disk, 1%; round, 43%; round ring, 16%; round flat, 5%; round disk, 11%; flat, 6%; disk, 10%; and inverted, 0.8%. Teat diameters were measured 1.5 cm ...
Lamb G C - - 1999
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether milking beef cows two or five times daily in the presence or absence of their own nonsuckling calves would alter postpartum interval to first ovulation. Multiparous Angus x Hereford cow-calf pairs were assigned randomly between 13 and 18 d postpartum to treatments for ...
Businco L - - 1999
The phenotypic expression and natural history of food allergy vary widely according to the patient's age, disease presentation and type of offending food. Prevention of food allergy might be achieved by altering the dietary factors responsible for the sensitization and phenotypic expression of the disease. Owing to the peculiarity of ...
Eicher R - - 1999
The goals of this study were to determine the influence of the variations among udder quarters, the somatic cell count, the time of sampling during the day, sample conservation, and centrifugation on milk urea (UREA) concentrations, and to propose a sample collection procedure for herds that are not on a ...
Cartoni G - - 1999
The use of capillary zone electrophoresis to determine the adulteration of cows' milk in goats' milk products is described. The detection and quantification of cows' milk was based on the presence of the specific whey proteins: the relative calibration curve is reported. The peaks of interest were well resolved by ...
Frazier E L - - 1999
Field records from the American Angus Association were used to study the associations of sire marbling score EPD and sire weaning weight maternal (milk) EPD with age at first calving (AFC) and calving interval (CI). Cows were selected based on the accuracy of their sire's milk (> or =.7) or ...
Bannink A - - 1999
The present study was designed to describe the relationship between mineral metabolism and urine production by lactating dairy cows. Regression studies were performed to predict urine volume from either observed concentrations of K, Na, and N in urine or observed intakes of K, Na, and N. In addition, empirical equations ...
Cantani A - - 1999
Cow's milk is one of the first foreign proteins ingested by infants and is one of the most common and potent food allergens. The presence of cow's milk is widespread due also to its unlabelled inclusion as an ingredient, or to errors in cooking, processing and preparation, and in restaurant ...
Reksen O - - 1999
Relationships between light exposure, milk yield, and reproductive traits in Norwegian Red cattle were studied using data from 1538 farms in southern Norway during the darkest part of the year (November 1 to February 28). Production level was expressed as milk yield at first artificial insemination (AI) and 305-d milk ...
Rushen J - - 1999
To examine the ability of cows to recognize people and the effects of the fear of people by cows at milking, cows (n = 14) were handled by two people; one handled the cows gently, and the other handled them aversively. The handlers wore clothes of different color. After handling, ...
Lignot B - - 1999
The effect of the composition of the solvent on the peptic hydrolysis of bovine haemoglobin was studied to improve the preparation of two opioid peptides. Peptic hydrolysis was performed for 24 h at 23 degrees C in 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 4.5. A HPLC method was reported for ...
Nohara D - - 1999
Refolding of reduced and denatured Streptomyces griseus trypsin (SGT) was investigated. In the standard buffer of 50 mM Tris-HCl, the refolding yield of 1 microg/ml of SGT did not exceed 15%. This low yield was assumed to be due mainly to autoproteolysis and/or aggregation occurring concurrently with refolding. On the ...
Abdalla A L - - 1999
Productivity in most Brazilian dairy herds is low and depends exclusively on pasture. To study the productive potential of pastures and to devise strategies to further improve pasture and animal productivity in this production system, studies were carried out to obtain basic on-farm information. The constraints which affect productivity and ...
Yamagishi N - - 1999
Three parturient cows in lateral recumbency which were moaning and had tachycardia, arrhythmia and dyspnoea were thoroughly examined. They were hypocalcaemic (0.70-1.27 mmol/litre) and were euthanized within four days, because they failed to respond to calcium treatment. By light microscopy the most characteristic pathological changes in the heart were necrotic ...
Thompson J A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To describe effects of season on milk production in Holstein dairy cows and to determine the location and effectiveness of fans and sprinklers in the management of stress attributable to season. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. ANIMALS: 141 dairy herds for which owners used the Dairy Herd Improvement Association's database ...
Takahata Y - - 1999
There is wide interest in the effects of reproductive biology, mating partner preference, and rank on mating success (MS) and reproductive success (RS) in primates. In particular, theory stresses importance on the mechanisms for attaining RS. Most theory hedges on competitive ability and priority of access to resources, whether they ...
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