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Mavrogianni V S - - 2007
A total of 87 clinically healthy ovine teats were examined bacteriologically (by scraping the mucosa) and histologically. Teats examined were those of lactating mammary glands with no bacteria isolated (n = 23); of mammary glands after cessation of lactation with no bacteria isolated (n = 25); of lactating mammary glands ...
Ozbek Ozlem Y - - 2007
Cow's milk protein enteropathy is a symptom complex that composed of severe diarrhoea and malnutrition. This disorder is caused by non-immunoglobulin E-mediated food allergy. Its clinical features and natural course have been explained in many reports, of different types of cow's milk and soy reactions. In the present article, we ...
Maloney Jennifer - - 2007
Cow's milk protein allergy is the most common food allergy in infants and young children. It is estimated that up to 50% of pediatric cow's milk allergy is non-IgE-mediated. Allergic proctocolitis is a benign disorder manifesting with blood-streaked stools in otherwise healthy-appearing infants who are breast- or formula-fed. Symptoms resolve ...
Le Faouder J - - 2007
Fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide introduced for pest control on a broad range of crops, can also affect non-target insects such as honeybees. More widely, non-target environment such as milk produced by dairy cows fed with maize silage from treated seeds (=silage T) can be affected. To assess the potential transfer ...
Eigenmann Philippe A - - 2007
Childhood cow's milk allergy is a diagnosis encompassing various syndromes. Antigen-immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody interaction is classically involved in mast cell degranulation in IgE-mediated food allergy, while non-IgE mediated cow's milk allergy is mostly mediated by cellular mechanisms. The diagnosis of cow's milk allergy largely relies on a good knowledge ...
Kawashima C - - 2007
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between characteristics of the lactation curve, on the basis of daily milk yield, and ovulation within 3 wk postpartum as an indicator of early return to luteal activity in dairy cows. Lactation records from 46 lactating Holstein cows between ...
Tucker C B - - 2007
Our aim was to evaluate the effects of once-daily milking on the welfare of dairy cows in a pastoral-based farming system. There are concerns that cows milked only once daily may experience discomfort associated with udder distension. We evaluated the behavior, including lying time and postures, grazing patterns, and kicking ...
Na Younghwa - - 2007
The solvolysis rates for the substituted C(7)-cyclohexylamino- or C(8)-cyclohexyliminomitomycins 8-19 were determined in buffered methanolic solutions (0.06 M bis-Tris.HCl, pH: 5.5) at 25 degrees C and then compared with mitomycin C (1) and porfiromycin. Kinetic studies showed that C(8)-cyclohexyliminomitomycins 8-13 underwent solvolysis 150-230 times faster than mitomycin C (1) to ...
Hernandez-Mendo O - - 2007
This study tested whether providing cows a 4-wk period on pasture would improve gait and change lying behavior. Eighteen groups, each of 4 lactating Holstein cows initially housed in a freestall barn, were assigned to either continued housing in the same freestall barn, or moved to pasture to provide changes ...
Soylu Alper - - 2007
Gut permeability to antigens is immature at birth, and while early administration of antigenic foods delays its maturation, breast-feeding accelerates it. We aimed to evaluate whether exposure to antigenic foods in early life is associated with a predisposition for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Three groups of children with IgAN (group ...
Young Karen W H - - 2007
A whey protein concentrate prepared from the milk of cows that have been immunized against Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and its toxins, toxin A and toxin B, is produced for use as a medical food for the dietary management of patients with C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) to prevent a relapse ...
Muniaraj M - - 2007
Tyndalized milk of goat, cow, and buffalo was found to be a potential substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the medium for the cultivation of Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The numbers (means) of promastigotes reached 2.6 x 10(7), 2.3 x 10(7), and 2.1 x 10(7)/ml, respectively, in the medium supplemented ...
Sogstad A M - - 2007
As part of a cross-sectional study of Norwegian Red Cattle, associations of lameness, lesions at the tarsus, claw shapes, claw lesions, and claw trimming with milk yield were examined. Fifty-five tie-stall herds and 57 free-stall herds were sampled by computerized systematic selection, and 2,665 cows were trimmed and limb and ...
Akerstedt Maria - - 2007
Milk somatic cell count (SCC) is the gold standard in diagnosis of subclinical mastitis, and is also an important parameter in quality programmes of dairy cooperatives. As routine SCC analysis is usually restricted to central laboratories, much effort has been invested in the search for alternative biomarkers of mastitis and ...
Rumph J M - - 2007
Carcass data from 6,795 Simmental-sired animals born from 1992 to 2001 were used to determine whether adjustment to a constant age, back-fat, HCW, or marbling score would result in differences in heritability of the carcass traits and, correspondingly, if EPD calculated using those variance components and adjustments would result in ...
Thomsen Peter T - - 2007
The objective of our study was to evaluate risk factors for the loser cow state in Danish dairy herds. A loser cow was defined on the basis of a clinical examination of the individual cow. Recordings of clinical signs were converted into a loser cow score and all cows with ...
Brewer P S - - 2007
A 2-yr experiment was conducted to compare carcass characteristics and meat palatability attributes of steers ((3/4) British, (1/4) Continental) finished postweaning as calves or yearlings. Calves and yearlings of the same contemporary group were designated to a finishing system at weaning. Calves (n = 73) were finished in the feedlot ...
Grimm Michael B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mares are a clinically important source of Rhodococcus equi for their foals. SAMPLE POPULATION: 171 mares and 171 foals from a farm in Kentucky (evaluated during 2004 and 2005). PROCEDURES: At 4 time points (2 before and 2 after parturition), the total concentration of R equi ...
Dyke Jason V - - 2007
Perchlorate has been considered a potential threat to human health, especially to developing infants and children due to its ability to inhibit iodide uptake by the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) of the thyroid. Although the U.S. has been the prime focus of perchlorate contamination, at least some of the similar ...
Kurien Biji T - - 2007
Fed up with life on earth, four scientists attempt to make it to space to live in the International Space Station (ISS) and carry out experiments. The difficulties in getting selected by NASA, the rigourous training to fly and the risks of the journey to life and health are the ...
Kuhn M T - - 2006
The overall object of this research was to characterize US Holstein (virgin) heifer fertility. This included investigation of factors influencing heifer fertility and estimation of heritability, as well as correlations with cow fertility and first-lactation milk yield. A secondary objective was to compare linear and logistic model estimates of fixed ...
Speroni M - - 2006
A comparative study was performed to evaluate differences in milk yield between an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional herringbone milking parlor system. Two herds of Italian-Friesian cows were reared in the same barn, located in the Po Valley in northern Italy. Twenty-five primiparous cows and 10 multiparous cows ...
Thurmond Mark C - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To estimate when foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) would first be detected in bulk tank milk of dairies after exposure to FMDV. SAMPLE POPULATION: Hypothetical dairy herds milking 100, 500, or 1,000 cows. PROCEDURES: For each day after herd exposure to FMDV, infection, milk yield, and virolactia were simulated for ...
Cone J W - - 2006
Experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of the adaptation of rumen micro-organisms on the degradation of native potato starch (PS) in the rumen. Cows were fed with rations used for gas production (GP) analysis (dry cows, 1.6% starch) and for the nylon bag (NB) technique (lactating cows, 23% starch, ...
Smith David J - - 2006
Perchlorate has contaminated water sources throughout the United States but particularly in the arid Southwest, an area containing large numbers of people and few water sources. Recent studies have demonstrated that perchlorate is present in alfalfa and that perchlorate is secreted into the milk of cows. Studies in lactating cows ...
Raisbeck Merl F - - 2006
It is widely accepted that ratios of dietary copper (Cu) to molybdenum (Mo) lower than 10:1 may produce molybdenosis in cattle, especially if sulfur concentrations are more than 3,000 ppm. Some authorities suggest that dietary Mo concentrations greater than 10 ppm are hazardous to cattle regardless of Cu concentration, but ...
de Alencar Figueiredo L F - - 2006
A sorghum core collection representing a wide range of genetic diversity and used in the framework of a sorghum breeding and genetics program was evaluated by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict food grain quality traits: amylose content (AM), protein content (PR), lipid content (LI), endosperm texture (ET), and hardness ...
de Souza Chagas Ana Carolina - - 2007
Eprinomectin is the only avermectin approved for use to control gastrointestinal nematodes in lactating cows. Some studies in the USA and Europe have also demonstrated that this drug is highly effective in small ruminants. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of pour-on eprinomectin in ...
Bach Alex - - 2007
A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows ...
König S - - 2006
Milking frequencies measured at official test days were used with repeated measurement analysis to reveal the environmental and genetic impact on the milking frequency of cows in automatic milking systems. Repeated measurements were 3 test-day observations per cow within days in milk (DIM) classes, with 1,216 cows in DIM class ...
Rodriguez-Zas S L - - 2006
Voluntary and involuntary culling practices determine the average parity when sows are replaced in a herd. Underlying these practices is the economic effect of replacing a sow at different parities. A dynamic programming model was used to find the optimal parity and net present value in breed-to-wean swine herds. The ...
Halachmi I - - 2006
If the milking frequency in an automatic milking system (AMS) is increased, the intake of concentrated pellets in the robot may be raised accordingly. Consumption of a large quantity of starchy grains within a short time can impair the appetite, decrease voluntary visits to the milking stall, and lower intakes ...
Cienfuegos-Rivas E G - - 2006
Genetic relationships between 2 fertility traits and milk production were investigated using mature-equivalent lactation records of 55,162 daughters of 1,339 Holstein sires in Mexico and 499,401 daughters of 663 Holstein sires in the northeastern United States. Data sets contained yields in first and second lactation, age at first calving (AFC), ...
Soder K J - - 2006
Twenty multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation grazed pastures of 4 forage mixtures in a 12-wk study repeated during 2 grazing seasons to determine if forage mixture complexity affected intake and productivity of lactating dairy cows. The forage mixtures were 1) orchardgrass plus white clover [2 species (SP)]; 2) orchardgrass, white ...
Hickson R E - - 2006
Effects of milking cows once daily throughout lactation at high stocking rates (17% more cows/ha than for those milked twice daily) were studied in 2 Friesian and 2 Jersey herds during 3 lactations. Cows were allocated to 2 herds within breed and were milked either once or twice daily, based ...
O'Reilly K M - - 2006
A sample of dairy farms in Great Britain with a monthly bulk milk somatic cell count of less than 150,000 cells/ml was enrolled into a 12-month prospective study. At the end of the study, a questionnaire on milking practice and other farm management practices was sent to the 482 farmers ...
Moore K - - 2006
The purpose of this overview is to review some of the major advances in reproductive technologies, and how they may be applied to meet the challenge of enhancing reproductive efficiency in the high-producing dairy cow of the 21st century. The current population of high-producing dairy cows is considered to be ...
Baker S D - - 2006
Relationships between residual feed intake (RFI) and other performance variables were determined using 54 purebred Angus steers. Individual feed intake and BW gain were recorded during a 70-d post-weaning period to calculate RFI. After the 70-d post-weaning test, steers were fed a finishing ration to a similar fat thickness (FT), ...
Yu Joyce W - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cow's milk allergy is one of the most common allergies in infancy. It has an excellent prognosis since most cases resolve by 4 years of age. The complications associated with milk allergy include delayed growth and atopic conditions, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and other food allergies. ...
Turvey S T - - 2006
Steller's sea cow, a giant sirenian discovered in 1741 and extinct by 1768, is one of the few megafaunal mammal species to have died out during the historical period. The species is traditionally considered to have been exterminated by 'blitzkrieg'-style direct overharvesting for food, but it has also been proposed ...
Bueno Válter Ferreira Félix - - 2006
The purpose of this survey was to describe the occurrence of bovine mastitis caused by Prototheca zopfii in Goiás State, Brazil. Samples of milk, environment and udder were taken from a herd of 120 Holstein cows. Sabourauds dextrose agar plates were incubated under aerobic conditions at 37 degrees C/96 h, ...
Losinger Willard C - - 2006
The welfare effects of increased milk production associated with the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) on dairy operations in the USA were examined for 1996. Results that derived from three different estimates of the milk-production response to rBST were evaluated and compared. One estimate, derived from a survey of ...
Jago Jenny G - - 2006
Cow throughput in an automatic milking system (AMS) is limited by system parameters such as the time required for pre-milking udder preparation and cup attachment, physiological responses of the cow (such as milk let-down and milking-out rate), milking machine features and cow behaviour. A single-factor cross-over design was used to ...
Malacarne Massimo - - 2006
The authors report the results of a study aimed at the comparison of the basic chemical composition, the main protein fractions distribution, rennet coagulation properties and Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese yield of vat milk from Italian Brown and Italian Friesian herds. Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese factories which manufacture milk separately from Italian Brown herds ...
Shamsuddin M - - 2006
Identified economic opportunities for planning interventions greatly increase farmers' compliance with an extension programme. We investigated opportunities for interventions to increase dairy farmers' income in four areas of Bangladesh, including the districts of Mymensingh, Khulna-Satkhira, Sirajgonj-Pabna and Chittagong. The data were collected from 1440 dairy farms at a one-day visit ...
Granzin B C - - 2006
An experiment (108 days) was conducted to examine effects of cooling and forage supplementation on the performance of grass-fed, early lactation Holstein cows in a coastal, subtropical environment during summer. When the temperature-humidity index (THI) between 09:00 and 14:00 was <72, cows grazed pastures containing shade. When THI reached 72 ...
Stachowiak M - - 2006
A missense G-A SNP in the porcine melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene that causes an Asp-Asn substitution at position 298 of the corresponding MC4R protein is considered to be economically important, although published results on its effect are inconsistent. We analysed the association of this MC4R polymorphism with production traits in ...
Mentink R L - - 2006
The goal of this observational study was to determine whether there were significant differences in feed bunk utilization patterns of dairy cows in free-stall pens with either 2 or 3 rows of stalls. Previously recorded 24-h videos of the high-yielding, mature cow group in 5 herds with 2-row pen designs ...
Kim B G - - 2006
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of dietary DL-methionine hydroxy analog-free acid (MHA-FA, 88%) compared with DL-methionine (DLM, 99%) as Met sources in pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 245 crossbred pigs (initial BW of 6.4 kg [SD = 0.5]) were allotted to 7 treatments in 7 ...
Szilagyi Andrew - - 2006
Dairy food consumption has been inconsistently shown to protect against colorectal cancer (CRC) in case-based studies, and no clear benefits against recurrent colonic polyps (CRP) have been reported. Based on population-based studies we have hypothesized that dairy food intake may have anti-CRC effects at both low intake lactase non-persistent (LNP) ...
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