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Palomares Oscar O Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, - - 2014
"Biotechnology" has been intuitively used by humans since thousands of years for the production of foods, beverages and drugs based on experience without any scientific background. However, the golden era of this discipline emerged only during the second half of the last century. Incredible progresses have been achieved on all ...
Kral Tanja V E TV Department of Behavioral Health Sciences, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing and Perelman School of Medicine. Electronic address: - - 2014
The portion size of foods and beverages offered at meals has been shown to significantly affect human food intake. While portion size effects appear to be fairly robust across studies in adults, findings from studies in children are generally more variable and do not reliably predict a significant portion size ...
Aguilera Jose Miguel - - 2014
Although nanotechnology has opened opportunities in many fields this does not appear to be the case in foods where unanticipated adverse effects are resented by consumers. However, unknown to many people some of the most desirable properties of our daily foods reside in a microstructure where the nanolevel plays an ...
Kollberg Ida I Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden, - - 2014
Population densities of forest defoliating insects may be regulated by small mammal predation on the pupae. When outbreaks do occur, they often coincide with warm, dry weather and at barren forest sites. A proposed reason for this is that weather and habitat affect small mammal population density (numerical response) and ...
Segal Eve M EM Confluence Health Wenatchee Valley Medical Clinics, Wenatchee, WA; St Luke's Mountain States Tumor Institute; St Luke's Regional Medical Center, Boise, ID; and Froedtert and The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, - - 2014
Oral chemotherapy is rapidly becoming a popular dosage form for cancer treatment. These medications have a narrow therapeutic index, and their metabolism can be easily affected by food and/or drug interactions. These interactions can significantly reduce the effectiveness of oral chemotherapy, which could possibly result in harm to patients. A ...
Krasnova Irina N IN Molecular Neuropsychiatry Research - - 2014
In a rat model of drug craving and relapse, cue-induced drug seeking progressively increases after withdrawal from methamphetamine and other drugs, a phenomenon termed 'incubation of drug craving'. However, current experimental procedures used to study incubation of drug craving do not incorporate negative consequences of drug use, which is a ...
- - 2014
With new safety measures in place, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will allow Ariad Pharmaceuticals to resume marketing Iclusig, sales of which were suspended in October 2013.
Hong Insung I 0000-0002-4100-7765 School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 151-756, Republic of - - 2014
Owing to a paradigm shift toward Internet of Things (IoT), researches into IoT services have been conducted in a wide range of fields. As a major application field of IoT, waste management has become one such issue. The absence of efficient waste management has caused serious environmental problems and cost ...
Kumari Usha - - 2013
The histological organization and histochemical aspects of the pharyngeal jaw apparatus of the Indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala are described. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus consists of a lower pharyngeal jaw and a chewing pad. Histochemical analysis reveals that the epithelium covering the lower pharyngeal jaw is mucogenic and is involved ...
Chandran Alexander Palapatti - - 2013
To identify risk factors for common bile duct (CBD) stones in a south Indian population. Demographic characteristics and diet details were obtained from patients with isolated CBD stones (Gp I) and those with combined CBD and gallstones (Gp II) and age- and sex-matched controls. The risk factors were compared between ...
Blaser N - - 2013
Homing pigeons (Columba livia) are believed to adopt a map-and-compass strategy to find their way home. Surprisingly, to date a clear demonstration of the use of a cognitive map in free-flight experiments is missing. In this study, we investigated whether homing pigeons use a mental map in which - at ...
Singh Prashant - - 2013
Overuse of antibiotics in the medical and animal industries is one of the major causes for the development of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) food pathogens that are often difficult to treat. In the past few years, higher incidences of outbreaks caused by MDR Salmonella have been increasingly documented. The objective of this ...
Bayer Ronald - - 2013
On August 24, 2012, in R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company v. Food and Drug Administration, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia ruled that the regulations proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandating the inclusion of graphic warnings on cigarette packs (see photo) violated the First ...
Martin U - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder that is considered to affect approximately one in 100 people. In the UK, gluten-free (GF) foods can be prescribed by general practitioners (GPs) to treat this condition and there are national guidelines on the quantities of GF food an individual should receive on ...
Maguire David R DR Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, - - 2013
Drug abuse can be conceptualized as choice between drug and nondrug reinforcers in which drug choice is excessive; factors impacting drug taking can be examined using procedures in which subjects choose between drug and an alternative reinforcer. This experiment examined the effects of delayed reinforcement on choice between food and ...
Klemans R J B - - 2013
Food is one of the leading causes of anaphylaxis. In the Netherlands, patients visit a general practitioner (GP) as often as an emergency department (ED) in case of an acute food allergic reaction. So far, the management of food allergic reactions by GPs has not been investigated. Therefore, we explored ...
Stella Judi J Department of Veterinary Preventative Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine, 1920 Coffey Rd 100P Sisson Hall, Columbus, Ohio - - 2013
Feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) is a chronic pain syndrome of domestic cats. Cats with FIC have chronic, recurrent lower urinary tract signs (LUTS) and other comorbid disorders that are exacerbated by stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate behavioral and physiological responses of healthy cats and cats diagnosed ...
Anwuzia-Iwegbu Charles - - 2013
A 41-year-old Bangladeshi man presented with a 2-month history of bilateral feet/hand swelling which intermittently resolved without medication. All blood tests performed by the general practitioner (GP) were unremarkable. Following admission to the accident and emergency department, a chest X-ray revealed a 'vail-like' opacification in the right side. High-resolution CT ...
Sedki Firas - - 2013
In human drug addicts, exposure to drug-associated cues or environments that were previously associated with drug taking can trigger relapse during abstinence. Moreover, various environmental challenges can exacerbate this effect, as well as increase ongoing drug intake. The procedure we describe here highlights the impact of a common environmental challenge, ...
Christian W Jay - - 2012
Several studies have demonstrated relationships between neighborhood-level retail food environments and obesity, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Most, however, have been limited by the use of residential neighborhoods to define food environments. This study recruited 121 participants to supply three days of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking data to explore daily ...
- - 2012
The second biologic VEGF inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration offers modest survival improvement.
Omeiza Gabriel K - - 2012
Drugs administered to food-producing animals close to the time of slaughter often result in prohibited antimicrobial residues in the animal tissues at slaughter. Evidence based on the Premi® test confirmed the occurrence of antimicrobial drug residues in 89.3% of kidney and urine samples from cattle slaughtered within Abuja town where ...
Chitapornpan S - - 2012
Application of photosynthetic process could be highly efficient and surpass anaerobic treatment in releasing less greenhouse gas and odor while the biomass produced can be utilized. The combination of photosynthetic process with membrane separation is possibly effective for water reclamation and biomass production. In this study, cultivation of mixed culture ...
Pitts Teresa T Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. - - 2012
Coughing and swallowing are airway-protective behaviours. The pharyngeal phase of swallowing prevents aspiration of oral material (saliva, food and liquid) by epiglottal movement, laryngeal adduction and clearing of the mouth and pharynx. Coughing is an aspiration-response behaviour that removes material from the airway. Co-ordination of these behaviours is vital to ...
Hoelzer Karin - - 2011
Listeria monocytogenes is among the foodborne pathogens with the highest death toll in the United States. Ready-to-eat foods contaminated at retail are an important source of infection. Environmental sites in retail deli operations can be contaminated. However, commonly contaminated sites are unlikely to come into direct contact with food and the ...
Banks Charles J - - 2011
The work investigated why anaerobic digesters treating food waste and operating at high ammonia concentrations suffer from propionic acid accumulation which may result in process failure. The results showed deficiency of selenium, essential for both propionate oxidation and syntrophic hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, leads to this while supplementation allows operation at substantially ...
Kuo Alice A - - 2011
Timing of the first introduction of solid food during infancy may have potential effects on life-long health. To understand the characteristics that are associated with the timing of infants' initial exposure to solid foods. The 2000 National Survey of Early Childhood Health (NSECH) was a nationally representative telephone survey of ...
Vahabi Mandana - - 2011
Food security is an important social determinant of health. The 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 reported high prevalence of food insecurity among low income households and those formed by recent immigrants. Exploration of the extent and correlates of food insecurity among recent Latin Americans (LA) immigrants is essential ...
Franke Molly F - - 2011
We examined the relationship between food insufficiency and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. A cohort of HIV-infected adults in urban Peru was followed for a two-year period after ART initiation. ART adherence was measured using a 30-day self-report tool and classified as suboptimal if <95% adherence was reported. We conducted a ...
Miller Cari L CL Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, - - 2011
Food insecurity has been linked to high-risk sexual behavior in sub-Saharan Africa, but there are limited data on these links among people living with HIV/AIDS, and on the mechanisms for how food insecurity predisposes individuals to risky sexual practices. We undertook a series of in-depth open-ended interviews with 41 individuals ...
Egecioglu Emil E Department of Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Medicinaregatan, - - 2011
Here we review the emerging neurobiological understanding of the role of the brain's reward system in the regulation of body weight in health and in disease. Common obesity is characterized by the over-consumption of palatable/rewarding foods, reflecting an imbalance in the relative importance of hedonic versus homeostatic signals. The popular ...
Zucali Maddalena - - 2011
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of season, cow cleanliness and milking routine on bacterial and somatic cell counts of bulk tank milk. A total of 22 dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) were visited three times in a year in different seasons. During each visit, samples ...
Liu Guangqing - - 2011
The performance of a laboratory-scale anaerobic-phased solid (APS) digester system treating food and green wastes was evaluated at thermophilic condition. The APS system comprised of four hydrolysis digesters and one biogasification reactor. The hydrolysis reactors were operated batchwised at a 12-day retention time, while the biogasification reactor was continuously operated ...
Mayet A - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to describe the main characteristics of food-borne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) in the French armed forces from 1999 to 2009. METHODS: FBDOs are reported to the military epidemiological surveillance system, which concerns all active military personnel. Investigation reports published from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. ...
Stahlman W David - - 2011
Recent studies have demonstrated that the expectation of reward delivery has an inverse relationship with operant behavioral variation (e.g., Stahlman, Roberts, & Blaisdell, 2010). Research thus far has largely focused on one aspect of reinforcement - the likelihood of food delivery. In two experiments with pigeons, we examined the effect ...
Metallinos-Katsaras Elizabeth - - 2011
We examined the association between women's/children's duration of WIC participation and household food security status. For mothers (n = 21,863) and their children (n = 57,377) participating in WIC (2001-2006), longitudinal measures of household food security status were collected using a subscale of the USDA Food Security Module. Using logistic regression, household food security ...
Formato Giovanni - - 2011
In managing risks associated with the human consumption of honey, all sectors of the production chain must be considered, including the primary production phase. Although the introduction of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system has not been made compulsory for purposes of quality and safety control in farming ...
Stengel Andreas - - 2011
Several peptides are produced and released from endocrine cells scattered within the gastric oxyntic and the small intestinal mucosa. These peptide hormones are crucially involved in the regulation of gastrointestinal functions and food intake by conveying their information to central regulatory sites located in the brainstem as well as in ...
Kimani-Murage Elizabeth W - - 2011
The study examines the relationship between orphanhood status and nutritional status and food security among children living in the rapidly growing and uniquely vulnerable slum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. The study was conducted between January and June 2007 among children aged 6-14 years, living in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya. ...
Woolhouse Maxine - - 2011
While psycho-medical understandings of 'eating disorders' draw distinctions between those who 'have'/'do not have' eating disorders, feminist poststructuralist researchers argue that these detract from political/socio-cultural conditions that invoke problematic eating and embodied subjectivities. Using poststructuralist discourse analysis, we examine young women's talk around food and eating, in particular, the negotiation ...
Pfluger Paul T - - 2011
Recent studies suggest that spontaneous physical activity (SPA) may be under the non-conscious control of neuroendocrine circuits that are known to control food intake. To further elucidate endocrine gut-brain communication as a component of such circuitry, we here analyzed long-term and acute effects of the gastrointestinal hormones ghrelin and PYY ...
Mohan S Venkata - - 2011
Solid phase microbial fuel cells (SMFC; graphite electrodes; open-air cathode) were designed to evaluate the potential of bioelectricity production by stabilizing composite canteen based food waste. The performance was evaluated with three variable electrode-membrane assemblies. Experimental data depicted feasibility of bioelectricity generation from solid state fermentation of food waste. Distance ...
Cleveland David A - - 2011
The US agrifood system is very productive, but highly centralized and resource intensive with very weak links between production and consumption. This contributes to high levels of malnutrition and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). A popular approach to improvement is localization-reducing direct transport (farm to retail distance, or "food miles"). We ...
Scott Thomas R TR Office of Graduate and Research Affairs, Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-8220, USA. - - 2011
The sense of taste uses a variety of discrete receptor mechanisms to identify nutrients and toxins. Information from receptors is arrayed along a dimension of physiological welfare, which serves as the organizing principle of the taste system. This, in turn, drives central physiological and neurochemical processes that underlie hedonics: nutrients ...
Kirsz Katarzyna - - 2011
The gut hormone and neuropeptide ghrelin was initially identified in the periphery as a compound released in the bloodstream in response to a negative energetic status. In the central nervous system (CNS), ghrelin mainly acts on the hypothalamus and the limbic system, with its best-known biological role being the regulation ...
Lucia Aquilanti - - 2011
Aims:  Investigation of the bacterial dynamics of a Caciotta cheese traditionally manufactured in the Montefeltro area (Central Italy) with raw cow's milk and an aqueous extract of dried flowers from Cynara cardunculus as a coagulant agent. Methods and Results:  Conventional methods and a combined PCR-DGGE approach, relying on culture-dependent and ...
Stengel Andreas A CURE/Digestive Diseases Research Center, Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Department of Medicine, Digestive Diseases Division at the University of California Los Angeles, VA Greater Los Angeles Health Care System, California, - - 2011
Kisspeptin is distributed not only in brain areas for regulating reproduction but also in nuclei involved in feeding control. Whether kisspeptin alters food intake is unknown in mice. We examined how kisspeptin-10 influences feeding after intracerebroventricular injection in mice using automated monitoring. Kisspeptin-10 (0.3, 1, and 3 μg/mouse) dose-dependently inhibited ...
Kapucu Naim - - 2011
This paper discusses capacity building activities designed for small nonprofits who are members of the Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida's ADEPT program. The Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida (SHFBCF) is a nonprofit organization that collects, stores and distributes donated food to more than 450 nonprofit partners ...
Saneyasu Takaoki - - 2011
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC, a precursor of melanocortin peptides) neurons in the hypothalamus play an important role in the central regulation of food intake in mammals. There is evidence that human melanocortin peptides alpha-, beta- and gamma2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-, β- and γ2-MSH) significantly decreased food intake in chickens. However, the amino acid ...
Velásquez Douglas A - - 2011
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that increases food intake through the activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the molecular mechanisms initiated by the activation of the ghrelin receptor, which in turn lead to AMPK activation, remain unclear. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase activated in response to calorie ...
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