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Saneyasu Takaoki - - 2011
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC, a precursor of melanocortin peptides) neurons in the hypothalamus play an important role in the central regulation of food intake in mammals. There is evidence that human melanocortin peptides alpha-, beta- and gamma2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-, β- and γ2-MSH) significantly decreased food intake in chickens. However, the amino acid ...
Velásquez Douglas A - - 2011
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that increases food intake through the activation of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). However, the molecular mechanisms initiated by the activation of the ghrelin receptor, which in turn lead to AMPK activation, remain unclear. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase activated in response to calorie ...
Xu Pingwen - - 2011
The effects of ghrelin and obestatin regulation of food intake are different in mammals and chickens. We investigated central effects of ghrelin and obestatin in lines of chickens selected 50 generations for high (HWS) or low (LWS) body weight. We hypothesized that the effect of ghrelin and obestatin on food ...
Dickson Suzanne L SL Department of Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden. - - 2011
Here we review recent advances that identify a role for the central ghrelin signalling system in reward from both natural rewards (such as food) and artificial rewards (that include alcohol and drugs of abuse). Whereas ghrelin emerged as a stomach-derived hormone involved in energy balance, hunger and meal initiation via ...
Burns Cate - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To describe associations between demographic and individual and area-level socio-economic variables and restricted household food access due to lack of money, inability to lift groceries and lack of access to a car to do food shopping. DESIGN: Multilevel study of three measures of restricted food access, i.e. running out ...
Shan Xiaoye - - 2011
In the past two decades, two major discoveries have greatly contributed to our current knowledge on the central control of food intake and body-weight; the discovery of the anorexigenic adipocyte derived hormone leptin in 1994 and the orexigenic gut derived hormone ghrelin in 1999. Both hormones act as crucial signals ...
Schnettler Berta - - 2011
The objective of this study was to distinguish different types of consumers according to their level of ethnocentrism in relation to the consumption of foodstuffs in central-southern Chile. To do this a modification of the CETSCALE (Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Scale) was applied through direct survey of 800 habitual supermarket shoppers ...
Buscemi Joanna - - 2011
As Latino children acculturate to the United States, they are at risk for excess weight gain. Existing literature suggests that higher levels of food insecurity may predict obesity, but the role of acculturation is not well understood. Latino children ages 2-17 of both immigrant and non-immigrant parents (n = 63) were recruited ...
Naeem Maliha - - 2011
In the separated arms conditioned cue preference (CCP) task rats are trained by confining them in one arm of an eight-arm radial maze with food and in another arm on the opposite side of the maze with no food on alternate days. After two such trials, rats prefer the food-paired ...
Vickery Brian P BP Division of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA. - - 2011
The intestine has an unenviable task: to identify and respond to a constant barrage of environmental stimuli that can be both dangerous and beneficial. The proper execution of this task is central to the homeostasis of the host, and as a result, the gastrointestinal tract contains more lymphocytes than any ...
O'Reilly Sharleen - - 2011
To examine the extent of nutritional vulnerability seen in a cohort of asylum seekers in Australia. Twenty-one asylum seekers (15 males, 6 females) that used a food bank were interviewed over a 6 week period at the Melbourne based Asylum Seeker Resource Centre about foods consumed in the previous 24-h and ...
Kulick Doina - - 2011
Specialized nutrition support should be offered to patients who are malnourished or at risk of becoming malnour- ished when it would benefit patient outcomes or quality of life. Improving the nutritional value of ingested food and tailoring intake to the patient's preferences, abilities, and schedule should be the first measures ...
Rose Donald - - 2011
Disparities in neighborhood food access are well documented, but little research exists on how shocks influence such disparities. We examined neighborhood food access in New Orleans at 3 time points: before Hurricane Katrina (2004-2005), in 2007, and in 2009. We combined existing directories with on-the-ground verification and geographic information system ...
Gordon Cynthia - - 2011
There has been growing interest in the environmental factors that contribute to poor health outcomes, particularly in areas where health disparities are pronounced. The locations of food deserts, or unhealthy food environments, correspond to areas with the highest proportions of African-American/Black residents, a population suffering from higher rates of many ...
Freedman Darcy A - - 2011
Making changes to the way food is produced, distributed, and processed is one strategy for addressing global climate change. In this case study, we examine the "forming" stage of an emergent and locally-based coalition that is both participatory and focused on promoting food security by creating food systems change. Social ...
Givel Michael - - 2011
Since the 1950s, despite considerable and long-term tobacco industry and government efforts, attempts to develop a less risky cigarette that reduces harmful ingredients, generally or specifically, have failed. Moreover, even under ideal conditions with adequate scientific testing, the efficacy of purportedly reducing the severe health effects cannot be scientifically verified ...
Ford James D - - 2011
This paper uses a mixed methods approach to characterise the experience of food insecurity among Inuit community members in Igloolik, Nunavut, and examine the conditions and processes that constrain access, availability, and quality of food. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n= 66) and focus groups (n= 10) with community members, and ...
Vanhaute Eric - - 2011
The number of famine prone regions in the world has been shrinking for centuries. It is currently mainly limited to sub-Saharan Africa. Yet the impact of endemic hunger has not declined and the early twenty-first century seems to be faced with a new threat: global subsistence crises. In this essay ...
Patterson-Kane Emily G - - 2011
Understanding how nonhuman animals such as swine respond to their environment and understanding how to provide them with a good quality of life involves using a range of experimental approaches. More and more, ethological researchers are turning to operant methods to answer some of these questions. Employing an operant such ...
Birdsall Margaux M Chicago-Kent College of Law, - - 2011
This paper examines the definition of the terms "food" and "drug" as used in the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act through the lens of biopharmed products. The paper uses the so-called "banana vaccine" as a case study to highlight the problems that occur when attempting to regulate a product that ...
Corander Marcus P MP University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, - - 2011
In the intervening three decades since Panksepp observed for the first time that centrally administered α-melanocyte stimulating hormone decreased food intake (Panksepp and Meeker, 1976), a wealth of data have accrued to firmly establish melanocortin signaling as a central regulator of food intake and fat mass. Advances in molecular biology ...
Oliveira-Maia A J AJ Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA, - - 2011
Gustation is a multisensory process allowing for the selection of nutrients and the rejection of irritating and/or toxic compounds. Since obesity is a highly prevalent condition that is critically dependent on food intake and energy expenditure, a deeper understanding of gustatory processing is an important objective in biomedical research. Recent ...
Pansini Riccardo R Université de Strasbourg, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg, France. - - 2011
Until now cooperation experiments in primates have paid little attention to how cooperation can emerge and what effects are produced on the structure of a social group in nature. I performed field experiments with three groups of wild vervet monkeys in South Africa. I induced individuals to repeatedly approach and ...
Wolfgang Michael J - - 2011
Metabolic integration of nutrient sensing in the central nervous system has been shown to be an important regulator of adiposity by affecting food intake and peripheral energy expenditure. Modulation of de novo fatty acid synthetic flux by cytokines and nutrient availability plays an important role in this process. Inhibition of hypothalamic ...
Davis Jon F - - 2011
The hypothalamic melanocortin system is known for its role in regulating energy homeostasis through it actions within hypothalamic brain centers. However, emerging evidence suggests that this system regulates addictive behaviors through signaling within mesolimbic neurons. Here, we hypothesized the melanocortin system modulates feeding behavior through its actions on mesolimbic neurons. ...
de Kloet Annette D AD Program in Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45237, United States. - - 2011
Circulating and tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) are elevated in obesity. TNFα interferes with insulin signaling in many tissues and also plays a causal role in the anorexia that accompanies severe challenges to the immune system. The interactions between TNFα and insulin in the ...
Piaseu Noppawan - - 2010
In this qualitative study we aimed to describe how older women in a crowded urban community perceive the food insecurity experience and deal with it. In-depth interviews were conducted among 30 Thai older women. Results revealed that older women perceived their food insecurity experience as a negative effect of the ...
Coad L - - 2010
Bushmeat hunting is an activity integral to rural forest communities that provides a high proportion of household incomes and protein requirements. An improved understanding of the relationship between bushmeat hunting and household wealth is vital to assess the potential effects of future policy interventions to regulate an increasingly unsustainable bushmeat ...
Morland Kimberly B - - 2010
The impact of local availability of healthy foods on dietary intake and health has been established. Interventions to local environments are being evaluated for their efficacy and sustainability. The aim of this paper is to provide an evaluation of a community-driven approach to transform neighborhood healthy food availability. The information ...
Zac-Varghese Sagen - - 2010
No truly effective drugs exist to treat obesity, which is reaching pandemic proportions. The search for new treatments has led to an interest into the homeostatic system of central appetite regulation. Key components of this system include the hypothalamus and brainstem, the gut, and adipose tissue. It is now recognized ...
Lytton Timothy D - - 2011
In recent months, the FDA has begun a crackdown on misleading nutrition and health claims on the front of food packages by issuing warning letters to manufacturers and promising to develop stricter regulatory standards. Leading nutrition policy experts Marion Nestle and David Ludwig have called for an even tougher approach: ...
Kent Monique Potvin - - 2011
Abstract Objective. To examine the differences in exposure to food marketing on television between English children in Ontario, and French and English children in Quebec as each group is influenced by different advertising policies. Methods. In total, 428 children aged 10-12 completed television viewing diaries for 7 days. During the ...
Hamad Rita - - 2012
Background Microcredit services-the awarding of small loans to individuals who are too poor to take advantage of traditional financial services-are an increasingly popular scheme for poverty alleviation. Several studies have examined the ability of microcredit programmes to influence the financial standing of borrowers, but only a few studies have examined ...
Rose Daniel J - - 2011
Research has shown elevated rates of diet-related health problems in Detroit, Michigan compared to state and national averages. Using 47 in-depth interviews of African American residents in two Detroit neighborhoods, I examine the interplay between agency and social structure in food acquisition. Participants discussed numerous difficulties obtaining food, including availability, ...
Homenko Daria R - - 2010
To evaluate differences between rural older adults with diabetes reporting the presence or absence of food insecurity with respect to meal planning, preparation, shopping, obesity, and glycemic control after receiving nutrition counseling through telemedicine. Food insecurity data were obtained by telephone survey (n=74). Group differences for continuous variables were measured ...
Sardi M - - 2010
The feasibility of using a retailer fidelity card scheme to estimate food additive intake was investigated using the Swiss retailer MIGROS's Cumulus Card and the example of the food colour Sunset Yellow (E 110). Information held within the card scheme was used to identify a sample of households purchasing foods ...
Hendrickson Marissa A - - 2010
Food insecurity is associated with a wide variety of adverse health conditions in adults and children, but its relationship to asthma outcomes in children has not been described. The objectives of this study were to assess and characterize the food security status of an inner-city asthmatic population and to determine ...
Kilanowski Jill F - - 2010
To describe the meaning of food in the family life of migrant farmworker mothers; specifically to describe their understanding of the relationship of dietary intake to health, the environmental contributors to their families' dietary intake, and the use of foods in the commemoration of family occasions. The PRECEDE-PROCEED self-management model ...
Seligman Hilary K HK University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94142, USA. - - 2010
More than 14% of the American population is food insecure, or at risk of going hungry because of an inability to afford food. Food-insecure (FI) adults often reduce food intake or substitute inexpensive, energy-dense carbohydrates for healthier foods. We hypothesized these behaviors would predispose FI adults with diabetes to hypoglycemia ...
Bach-Faig Anna - - 2011
The purpose of the present study was to analyse the evolution of the Spanish population's global and regional adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) since 1987. A cross-sectional study was conducted analysing food consumption from the Spanish Household Consumption Surveys administered by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. ...
Vue Wa - - 2011
To examine perspectives on food habits, acculturation, and health among Hmong women with young children in northern California. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 Hmong mothers with young children in a low-income community of northern California. The interviews were transcribed and coded based on the principles of grounded theory. The ...
Becquey Elodie - - 2010
The number of urban poor is increasing quickly in West Africa, yet food security early warning systems still do not include urban areas. One reason is the lack of appropriate and internationally agreed-upon indicators to measure urban household food insecurity. Our objective was to assess the performance of the household ...
Dhokarh Rajanigandha R Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, - - 2011
To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger Scale. Multivariate ...
Kelly Bridget - - 2011
The creation of health promoting sports clubs may support the promotion and adoption of healthy behaviours by children. Sponsorship is one aspect of clubs, with potential influence on clubs and their participants. In particular, sponsorship influences brand awareness and attitudes, so that the sponsorship of children's sport by unhealthy food ...
Kilanowski Jill F - - 2012
Past research has demonstrated a higher incidence of overweight children in migrant farm-worker (MFW) families than in the general U.S. population. This study provided descriptive data on MFWs' acculturation, household food security, and general self-efficacy, and children's food patterns and body mass index. Convenience samples of 60 parent-child dyads were ...
Surkan Pamela J - - 2011
To examine how factors related to the home food environment and individual characteristics are associated with healthy food purchasing among low-income African American (AA) youth. A total of 206 AA youth (ninety-one boys and 115 girls), aged 10-14 years, and their primary adult caregivers. Fourteen Baltimore recreation centres in low-income ...
Park Youngil - - 2010
With the increase in multi-cultural families, Korea is seeing a rapid increase in immigrated housewives, who are closely related to food culture. However, studies for the diet of multi-cultural families, which is most closely related to our lives have not been sufficiently researched. With this background, this study conducted research ...
Mascie-Taylor C G N CG Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3RA, England. - - 2010
To determine whether a cash-for-work programme during the annual food insecurity period in Bangladesh improved nutritional status in poor rural women and children. The panel study involved a random sample of 895 households from over 50,000 enrolled in a cash-for-work programme between September and December 2007 and 921 similar control ...
Ndiku M M Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, - - 2011
Although gender inequality in nutritional status has been consistently reported in several parts of South Asia, in sub-Sahara Africa there is a paucity of data and conflicting conclusions. We conducted a study to assess if gender inequality in food intake and nutritional status is present in rural Eastern Kenya. This ...
Webb-Girard Aimee - - 2012
This study aimed to document whether food insecurity was associated with beliefs and attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among urban Kenyan women. We conducted structured interviews with 75 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected and 75 HIV-status unknown, low-income women who were either pregnant or with a child ≤24 months and residing in ...
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