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Results 401 - 450 of 684
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Ellwood R - - 1994
This study considers information recorded using three different indices of enamel defects/fluorosis. The comparisons were based on photographs of subjects taken in two areas with < 0.1 and with 0.7 ppm fluoride in their drinking water. The three indices used were the Thylstrup Fejerskov index, the Tooth Surface Index of ...
Polidori C - - 1994
The present study investigated the effect of 24-h continuous ICV infusion of four different tachykinins on the enhanced need-free sodium intake induced by previous repeated sodium depletions in female rats. Female rats were employed because, in response to sodium depletions, they develop a higher need-free sodium intake than male rats. ...
Mulimani V H - - 1994
Some simple treatments were employed to reduce the tannin content in locally consumed sorghum grain. The treatments included overnight soaking of sorghum in 2% NaHCO3, soaking in different alkalis, ammoniation and autoclaving. Of the above treatments, ammoniation was best for complete removal of tannins. Soaking the seeds in alkalis was ...
Saowakhontha S - - 1994
Methods of iodine fortification were tested among women of child bearing ages in four villages of Khon Kaen province, an endemic area of goiter in northeast Thailand, Ban Wang Pa Dum, Ban Pa Klauy and Ban Non Chart received iodine fortified in fish sauce, salt and drinking water respectively, whereas, ...
Gaitan E - - 1994
Babassu (Orbignya phalerata), a palm-tree coconut fruit, mixed with mandioca (Manihot utilissima) is the staple food of people living in the endemic goiter area of Maranhao in Brazil, where goiter prevalence among schoolchildren was still 38% in 1986 despite an adequate iodine intake in most of the population. Therefore, the ...
Burt B A - - 1994
Data for caries in the permanent and primary dentitions of children in Mexico, the United States, and Canada are reviewed from the years around 1982 to the present time. Sources are national, state, and provincial surveys, together with a number of smaller, local surveys. Data from minority populations are also ...
Ogard B - - 1994
All currently used topical fluoride agents deposit soluble fluoride as calcium fluoride on enamel or in lesions. Calcium fluoride serves as a source of fluoride for the formation of fluorapatite. The latter phase is formed when pH drops in plaque, not during topical application. The potential for calcium fluoride formation ...
Duckworth R M - - 1994
Increased fluoride levels in plaque and saliva have been associated with improved protection against dental caries for dentifrices which contained sodium monofluorophosphate (Duckworth et al., 1992). The main aim of the present work was to test whether oral fluoride retention depended on F source after use of dentifrices containing either ...
Imfeld T - - 1994
An American Dental Association Scientific Consensus Conference on Methods for the Assessment of the Cariogenic Potential (CP) of Foods was held in San Antonio, Texas, in 1985. The aim was to establish a scientific consensus regarding methods to assess the CP of foods. As a result, a sequential food-testing program ...
Edgar W M - - 1994
The protective role of saliva is demonstrated by the rampant caries seen in human subjects with marked salivary hypofunction, and in desalivated animals. In normal cases, however, the relationship between saliva flow and coronal or root caries experience is doubtful, and to examine the concept that stimulation of saliva might ...
Ingram G S - - 1994
Fundamental to the caries process and its inhibition is an understanding of the composition and structural relationships of dental mineral. These have received greater study in recent years, leading to a better understanding of the processes involved. Fluoride has been the most successful of the anti-caries agents to date, and ...
Levy S M - - 1994
The literature on fluoride intake/ingestion was reviewed critically to determine the current exposure to fluorides for children living in non-fluoridated and fluoridated areas in North America. Fluoride from all sources except mouthrinses and professionally applied topical fluorides was considered, including ingestion from foods and beverages, as well as intake from ...
Lowenberger C - - 1994
We examined the ability of Plagiorchis elegans metacercariae to take up [3H]glucosamine and [3H]leucine in vitro and incorporate these precursors into parasite tissues at various times in their development. Uptake of both precursors was greater by young metacercariae (< or = 8 hr postinfection [PI]) than old metacercariae (> 8 ...
Ismail A I - - 1994
A critical review of the literature was conducted to determine the current effectiveness of fluoride supplements in caries prevention and their role as risk factors for dental fluorosis. Use of fluoride supplements by young children is idiosyncratic and all of the studies which investigated the effectiveness of this regimen suffered ...
Tsujimoto Y - - 1994
Hypomineralized area (HMA) scores were determined for hamster molars during tooth maturation and fluoride treatment. It was found that the molars were maturing until the animals were 45 days old, but from 45 to 74 days of age the HMA scores remained constant. Fluoride treatment decreased the HMA score. The ...
Ophaug R - - 1994
Although the fluorine in human tissues may exist in both inorganic and organic (covalently bound) forms, the inorganic fraction is clearly the most relevant for assessing human exposure to, and utilization of, environmental fluoride. There is now general agreement that the inorganic fraction of total tissue fluorine can be accurately ...
Joossens J V - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: The salt (NaCl) content of bread, obtained from Belgium and 25 other regions or countries worldwide, was analyzed to evaluate the importance of bread as a source of dietary salt in a population. METHODS: A total of 1166 dried bread samples were analyzed using a hot HCl extraction technique ...
Mundorff-Shrestha S A - - 1994
A series of rat caries experiments was carried out to test the relative cariogenic potential and to identify the major carcinogenic elements of 22 popular snack foods. Parameters that were measured included rat caries, number of cariogenic bacteria in plaque, salivary parameters including flow rate, buffering capacity, total protein, lysozyme ...
Villanueva M B - - 1994
Levels of sodium benzoate in processed food from the Philippines and Japan were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that of the 44 samples from the Philippines, 31 (70%) contained the compound. The samples with sodium benzoate included 19 juice, 6 softdrink and 6 soy sauce varieties. As ...
Cirillo M - - 1994
The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine ...
Guest C S - - 1993
As part of a study of risk factors for glucose intolerance and heart disease in Australian Aborigines and persons of European descent, we elicited the prevalence of food habits that may be associated with high fat and high salt intakes. Interview data were gathered from population-based samples in country towns ...
Gulati P - - 1993
In order to assess the levels of fluoride ingestion through intake of tea, studies were conducted with four different brands of tea leaves commonly available in the Indian market. Four most prevalent methods for the preparation of tea with various contact times (2,4,6,8 and 10 min) of tea leaves with ...
Paul S - - 1993
Fluoride dentifrices are well accepted for their caries preventive effects. The fluoride concentration in the oral fluids after tooth brushing with fluoride dentifrices may have an important relationship to the caries reducing capacity. The present study was aimed to clinically evaluate the salivary fluoride retention of dentifrices containing low fluoride ...
Mwaniki D L - - 1993
About one decade ago, a heated debate on the appropriateness of fluoride dentifrices in Kenya culminated in the introduction of no-fluoride brands. Analysis of dentifrices that were available on the market in 1989/1990 confirmed two distinctly different categories, the fluoride and the low or no-fluoride types. Among the former, the ...
Köhler B - - 1993
Initial colonization of mutans streptococci in 36 crown margins of 21 patients was studied. Before cementation, salivary concentrations of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus sp, microorganisms associated with dental caries, were determined. Within 1 week 25% of the selected crown margins in subjects with low salivary levels of mutans streptococci and ...
Nishijima M T - - 1993
The purpose of this study was to analyse the fluoride content of Japanese infant foods and foods in Brazil and to estimate daily fluoride intake calculated for a 6-month-old infant which reflects supplemental fluoride increased from infant foods and decreasing breast-feeding and commercial milk-feeding. Fluoride concentrations of 26 samples were ...
Hołyńska B - - 1993
Simple and specific methods for iodide determination in potable water and total iodine in selected food products by means of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been worked out. The methods were applied for the determination of iodine in 83 samples of water from different water intakes in the region ...
Srinivasan R S - - 1993
Fluid-loading (FL) consisting of water and salt tablets equivalent of 32 oz of isotonic saline is a countermeasure currently in use by NASA to improve the orthostatic tolerance of astronauts during Shuttle reentry. However, the effectiveness of this countermeasure has been observed to decrease with the duration of space flight. ...
Sullivan T W - - 1992
Relative biological values (BV) of 36 feed phosphates were determined with female turkeys in bioassays of 21-day duration using three response criteria: weight gain, tibia ash percentage, and gain:feed ratio. Calcium phosphate, dibasic dihydrate (United States Pharmacopeia) was the reference standard. Nine mono-dicalcium phosphates (M-DCP, 21.0% phosphorus), 13 di-monocalcium phosphates ...
Wiktorsson A M - - 1992
The aim of this study was to compare the dental health status of adults measured as caries prevalence in two socioeconomically similar communities with optimal and low water fluoride concentrations respectively. Other topical fluoride sources are also taken into consideration. The study is based on clinical and radiological examinations of ...
Collier G - - 1992
The extent to which sodium levels may be regulated by consumption was examined in two experiments that offered rats foods varying in sodium chloride (NaCl) content. In the first, rats received single purified diets containing from 0% to 3% NaCl. There were no effects of NaCl level on the amount ...
Cruz R - - 1992
The uptake of alkali-soluble fluoride (calcium fluoride-like material and adsorbed fluoride) and alkali-insoluble fluoride (apatitically bound fluoride) on sound human enamel from treatment with Duraphat or a neutral 2% NaF solution was investigated in vitro. Blocks from impacted third molars were used. More fluoride was deposited on the enamel from ...
Abramovi?? B F - - 1992
Two titrimetric methods were developed for the determination of fluoride contents in some pharmaceutical preparations used for fluoridation. One of the methods is catalytic controlled-current potentiometry involving two identical platinum indicator electrodes and thorium nitrate as titrant. The reaction between hydrogen peroxide and potassium iodide in the presence of acetate ...
DenBesten P K - - 1992
Enamel fluorosis can occur following either an acute or chronic exposure to fluoride during tooth formation. Fluorosed enamel is characterized by a retention of amelogenins in the early-maturation stage, and by the formation of a more porous enamel with a subsurface hypomineralization. The mechanisms by which fluoride affects enamel development ...
Burt B A - - 1992
Fluorosis prevalence has increased in North America since the 1930's-1940's. It may also have increased since 1970, though the evidence for that is less clear. Continued monitoring will help determine whether increased fluorosis prevalence in children in the United States is a cohort effect from the 1970's. This review considers ...
Hargreaves J A - - 1992
Material related to water fluoridation and fluoride availability has been examined for changing patterns of fluoride intake by humans over recent years. The difficulty of separating systemic and topical fluoride action from water and foods from that found in fluoride agents used in preventive treatment programs is discussed. Recommendations are ...
Featherstone J D - - 1992
In situ models to assess the ability of oral care products or food components to enhance remineralization and/or inhibit demineralization of tooth enamel or roots must be very carefully designed to minimize the confounding effects of the many variables involved. Controlling these variables as closely as possible is essential if ...
Konings W N - - 1992
Bacteria can release metabolites into the environment by various mechanisms. Excretion may occur by passive diffusion or by the reversal of the uptake process when the internal concentration of the metabolite exceeds the thermodynamic equilibrium level. In other cases, solutes are excreted against the concentration gradient by special extrusion systems. ...
Gatlin L A - - 1992
The increased use of lyophilization in the preservation of biologicals, foods, and pharmaceuticals has revealed problems of discoloration, meltback, puffing, and collapse, which can result in unacceptable products. Literature reports suggest that some of these problems are related to phase transitions occurring in the frozen solutions. This paper describes the ...
Greger J L - - 1992
Aluminium in the food supply comes from natural sources including water, food additives, and contamination by aluminium utensils and containers. Most unprocessed foods, except for certain herbs and tea leaves, contain low (< 5 micrograms Al/g) levels of aluminium. Thus most adults consume 1-10 mg aluminium daily from natural sources. ...
Lamand M - - 1992
A survey based on 838 samples of milk obtained from 537 dairies covering 70 of 95 districts in France was organized to assess iodine content of milk and its contribution to total intake. Iodine levels were significantly higher in winter than in summer. Very low iodine contents (less than 25 ...
Bowen W H - - 1991
Although the prevalence of caries has declined in young persons in developed countries, there is still a need for water fluoridation. The effectiveness of fluoride is dependent on the ambient levels of fluoride in the oral cavity. Fluoride appears to exert the bulk of its protective effect locally by promoting ...
Silvestri A P - - 1991
The stability and compatibility of ganciclovir sodium in 5% dextrose injection over 35 days were assessed. Nine admixtures of ganciclovir sodium 1, 5, and 10 mg/mL in 5% dextrose injection were aseptically prepared. Immediately thereafter, six samples were aseptically withdrawn from each admixture into sterile collection tubes. Three of the ...
Yang Z F - - 1991
These experiments reevaluate earlier work in which salt intake was evoked by blood-borne angiotensin II. That work is inconsistent with recent demonstrations that cerebral, not blood-borne, angiotensin II is the synergist with aldosterone in arousing salt intake in the rat. We show, first, that the pharmacological doses of angiotensin II ...
Clarkson B H - - 1991
A clear understanding of the mechanism of action of fluoride and its pharmacokinetics would ensure appropriate clinical use of fluoride and fluoride-containing modalities. Convincing evidence exists that fluoride has a major effect on the demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues, and that it interferes with the acid production from ...
Lulich J P - - 1991
Twenty-four-hour excretion of urine metabolites was determined in 33 clinically normal Beagles during periods of consumption of a standard diet and when food was withheld. The goal was to determine normal canine values for urine analytes incriminated in the genesis of calcium oxalate uroliths. During periods when dogs consumed food, ...
van Staden J F - - 1991
Different microdiffusion techniques for the determination of ionic and ionizable fluoride in milk have been evaluated for measurement with a fluoride-selective sensor. This work culminated in a modified version of the hexamethyldisiloxane-acid diffusion technique where an increased amount of perchloric acid and sodium hydroxide seemed to be a prerequisite for ...
Mattes R D - - 1991
Information on the relative contributions of all dietary sodium (Na) sources is needed to assess the potential efficacy of manipulating the component parts in efforts to implement current recommendations to reduce Na intake in the population. The present study quantified the contributions of inherently food-borne, processing-added, table, cooking, and water ...
Lammers P C - - 1991
The influence of fluoride, carbonate, and fluoride in combination with carbonate on the in vitro remineralization of bovine enamel was investigated with the use of a sandwich technique. After demineralization, enamel slices were subjected for 610 h to remineralizing solutions with 0.03 or 1.0 ppm fluoride. At each fluoride level, ...
Salomon J P - - 1991
The forming enamel of rat incisor was either treated before fixation with one of these five treatments: ultrasonication, NaOCl, chloroform/methanol, NaOH or tween 20; or the incisors were first fixed and then submitted to one of these treatments. The structure of the forming enamel, compared with sections fixed with aldehyde ...
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