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Results 351 - 400 of 684
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Brussaard J H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low and marginal iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion among adults in the Netherlands and to investigate determinants of urinary iodine excretion. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: The study population consisted of 444 people aged 20-79 y, balanced for sex and 10 y age classes with ...
Aprea C - - 1997
Urinary excretion of ethylenethiourea (ETU) was monitored for 8 days in a group of five male non-smoker volunteers on a diet, the items of which were assayed for ETU and carbon sulphide. Urinary excretion of ETU reflected the consumption of wine, fruit and vegetables. Urinary ETU concentrations ranged from 0.6 ...
Cao J - - 1997
Dietary fluoride intake and the prevalence of dental fluorosis were investigated in children from three population groups (mongol, Kazak and Yugu) in Gansu Province, China. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water ranged from 0.11 to 0.32 mg/litre; there was no other fluoride pollution. There was a high prevalence of ...
Kahama R W - - 1997
The concentrations of diffusible and total fluoride in cows' milk samples from areas with widely different fluoride levels in drinking water were determined using a fluoride electrode. The diffusible fluoride was determined by direct hexamethyldisiloxane microdiffusion while for total fluoride, samples were subjected to either open ashing or digestion with ...
Phillips D I - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine how iodine deficiency and endemic goitre disappeared in Britain. DESIGN: Review of surveys of endemic goitre and iodine nutrition. MAIN RESULTS: Endemic goitre was widespread in Britain but has declined, most notably since the 1960's. Its disappearance was probably due to changes in farming practice, especially iodine ...
Heilman J R - - 1997
Infants who ingest high amounts of fluoride can be at risk of dental fluorosis. The authors analyzed the fluoride concentration of 238 commercially available infant foods. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 8.38 micrograms of fluoride per gram, with the highest fluoride concentrations found in infant foods containing chicken. Infant ...
Kandelman D - - 1997
In the last 20 years, mainly due to optimum fluoride exposure, and practice of good oral hygiene procedures, an important reduction in caries has been observed, despite the fact that sugar consumption was maintained and/or was increasing during the same lapse of time. A sugar-caries relationship cannot be established in ...
Engstrom A - - 1997
Since 1980 General Mills Inc has regularly conducted studies of the mean daily intake of 25 nutrients from nationally representative samples of 4000 American households (approximately 10,000 individuals). This paper examines trends in sodium consumption derived from these studies. Calculated estimates of both discretionary and nondiscretionary intake indicate that overall ...
Arneberg P - - 1997
The aim of the present investigation was to study intra-oral variations in total plaque fluoride, and to examine whether such variations were related to plaque pH. Five orthodontic patients abstained from oral hygiene and daily fluoride rinsing for 2 days. Resting and fermenting plaque pH was measured with a touch ...
Hattab F N - - 1997
The use of a wood stick (meswak or chewing stick) for brushing the teeth continues to be an important tool for oral hygiene care in many Afro-Asian communities. It is inexpensive, customary and used for religious reasons as well. Despite the wide use of meswak, information on its chemical and ...
Garcia-Godoy F - - 1997
This 30-day study, compared the amounts and patterns of fluoride release from 5 commercially available fluoride-containing pit and fissure sealants: FluroShield, Helioseal-F, Ultraseal XT, Baritone L3, and Teethmate-F; Delton without fluoride, was used as control. Disc-shaped samples of each sealant were immersed in distilled water and the fluoride release was ...
Samaha I A - - 1997
A total of 80 random samples of fresh sardines, salted sardines, locally canned sardines and imported canned sardines (20 from each) were collected from fish markets and shops in Alexandria governorate. The collected samples were analyzed for determination of histamine level by Thin Layer Chromatography. The results revealed that the ...
Borissova R - - 1996
It has been proposed that the parameter of relative effectiveness coefficient (REC) be used for the qualitative assessment of toothpastes containing active ingredients. REC is the ratio between the concentration of the active component in water eluates obtained after three minutes and adequately prolonged (up to the reaching of equilibrium ...
Shimbo S - - 1996
Twenty four-hr total food duplicate samples were collected from nonsmoking house-wives (aged mostly 30 to 60 years) twice at a 10-year interval in winter seasons, once in around 1980 and then in around 1990 in 11 prefectures in Japan. In practice, 342 and 472 samples were obtained in the 1980 ...
Rasmussen L B - - 1996
A working group was established to evaluate the need for iodine enrichment in Denmark. Judged from studies of urinary iodine excretion and one dietary survey the intake of iodine in Denmark is low compared with recommended intakes. The occurrence of non-toxic goitre is relatively high; between 9 and 13% in ...
Vobecký M - - 1996
In experiments with rats, we have found that at enhanced intake of bromide, bromine does not replace chlorine in the thyroid; it replaces iodine. Under our experimental conditions, more than one-third of the iodine content in the thyroid was replaced by bromine. In the thyroid, bromine probably remained in the ...
Kung A W - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: Iodine deficiency is a serious public health problem worldwide which is associated with mental retardation and cretinism. In view of a high incidence of transient neonatal hypothyroidism and a relatively high mean cord blood thyrotropin (TSH) concentration, a pilot study was carried out to analyse the urine iodine excretion ...
Cao J - - 1996
Measurements of food consumption of randomly selected families and fluorine levels in food and beverages were used to calculate the fluorine intake of Tibetan people living in nomadic or semi-nomadic areas of the region and regularly consuming brick tea both as a beverage and in food. The fluorine intake of ...
Kiritsy M C - - 1996
Few studies have investigated fluoride exposures from juices and juice-flavored drinks manufactured with water. In this study, the authors analyzed 532 juices and juice drinks for fluoride. Fluoride ion concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 2.80 parts per million, in part because of variations in fluoride concentrations of water used in ...
Coventry M J - - 1996
Bacteriocins, including nisin, pediocin PO2, brevicin 286, and piscicolin 126, were extracted from fermentation media by adsorption onto Micro-Cel (a food-grade diatomite calcium silicate anticaking agent) and subsequent desorption. The optimal conditions for desorption of piscicolin 126 were determined and applied to other bacteriocins, and the relative purities of the ...
Zero D T - - 1996
The extrinsic causes of dental erosion can be grouped under the headings of environmental, diet, medications and lifestyle. Environmental factors mainly involve exposure to acid fumes by workers in factories without proper safeguards. Swimming pools with low pH due to inadequate maintenance have also been implicated. Dietary factors have received ...
Nagata Y - - 1996
Japanese salt intake is calculated through the Food Composition Table in the National Nutrition Survey, whereas English salt intake is through urinary sodium excretion in 24 h. This study is a comparison of salt intake between Japan and England. As different measuring methods were used in both National Nutrition Surveys, ...
Raja R M - - 1996
Intradialytic vascular instability continues to be one of the most frequent complications in elderly haemodialysis patients. Signs of impending hypotension such as sweating, apprehension, tachycardia, nausea, or vomiting may be infrequent in the geriatric population. The onset of hypotension in the elderly may be sudden and profound and may lead ...
Bi S - - 1996
A simple model describing the complexing effect in the leaching of aluminum from cooking utensils is presented in this paper. Some experimental results obtained by previous workers may be explained by this model, which demonstrates that the complexing effect takes a very important role in the process of aluminum liberated ...
Sorvari R - - 1996
Young Osborne-Mendel rats were given different diets for 6 weeks. Effects of soft and rough food as well as acidic sport drink on the lingual surfaces of first mandibular molars were studied. In addition, the effect of fluoride on erosion was examined. A Jeol JSM-35 scanning electron microscope was used ...
Kashket S - - 1996
Dentifrices available on the market today contain sodium bicarbonate in a wide range of concentrations. Anticaries efficacy has been demonstrated for these dentifrices in a variety of tests. New insights were gained in the present study in which the effect of a high-bicarbonate dentifrice on the sucrose-induced demineralization of tooth ...
Attin T - - 1996
The aim of the present study was to determine the salivary fluoride content after toothbrushing with a sodium fluoride and amine fluoride dentifrice followed by two different mouthrinsing procedures. Twenty-four dental students took part in this six-treatment, six-period study with a cross-over design. They brushed their teeth with an amine ...
Borzelleca J F - - 1996
New potential uses of pectates in food products have recently stimulated interest in re-evaluating the information available concerning the safety of pectins and pectates as food ingredients. Data relevant to this re-evaluation have been obtained in rats in recent 14-day and 13 wk subchronic feeding studies with sodium pectate. Ames ...
Holmes E - - 1995
1. The quantitative urinary excretion of the sulphate and glucuronide metabolites of 15 substituted phenols dosed to rat has been determined using high resolution 19F-nmr spectroscopy. 2. The urinary metabolic fate of each of the compounds was related to a series of calculated physicochemical properties for each compound to produce ...
Mariño R - - 1995
This article presents the argument that because of several demonstrated advantages, milk fluoridation provides a valid alternative to water fluoridation when the latter is not possible. Extensive literature describing study of fluoride compounds administered with calcium-rich food, as well as clinical trials and laboratory experiments with fluoridated milk, have demonstrated ...
Levy S M - - 1995
Concerns about dental fluorosis and the paucity of detailed fluoride intake data prompted this longitudinal study of fluoride intake in infants from birth to 9 months of age. On average, water fluoride intake greatly exceeded that from dietary fluoride supplements or fluoride dentifrice. However, fluoride supplements and dentifrice contributed substantial ...
Crystal S R - - 1995
These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ...
Närhinen M - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about excess dietary salt as a risk factor for diseases and to compare and discuss the national policies for dietary salt in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Literature review, questionnaire and interviews. Nordic comparative study. SETTING: The Medline bibliographic system and authorities responsible for the national ...
Sánchez-Castillo C P - - 1995
The role of salt (NaCl) in the development of high blood pressure has been a matter of debate, however, the Intersalt Study showed that sodium (Na) intake in various areas of the World is related to the slope of blood pressure with age. Accurate amounts of the total salt intake ...
Bär A - - 1995
Enzymatically depolymerized sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-ENZ) is a new functional food ingredient which has a lower molecular weight and viscosity than regular sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). Both compounds are known not to be absorbed to a significant extent, and the human safety of CMC as a thickening agent and stabilizer in food ...
Nabrzyski M - - 1995
The levels of aluminium and fluoride have been determined in hospital daily diets including breakfast, dinner and supper, as well as in black teas and herbal teas purchased from the local market. In tea, aluminium was determined directly in a sample solution by atomic absorption spectroscopy using nitrous oxide and ...
Hutchison J M - - 1995
Immunoglobin G (IgG) quantitation was performed by a commercially available single radial immunodiffusion kit on 528 plasma samples obtained from llamas. Fifty samples encompassing the range of values obtained were selected for further evaluation. The IgG concentration of these samples was measured by a second commercially available single radial immunodiffusion ...
Ali O - - 1995
Iodine as a trace element is an essential nutrient for human growth and development. Its potential impact on manpower development in third world countries are of special concern, primarily due to iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) such as goiter, hypothyroidism, and cretinism. IDD of mild to moderate severity are still found ...
Li Y - - 1995
The genetic toxicity of fluoride has been investigated extensively by various test systems. However, results obtained have been inconsistent. Fluoride has been reported to be non-genotoxic, genotoxic, and synergistic or antagonistic with certain mutagens. To date, there are no published human studies on the genotoxicity of fluoride. The purpose of ...
Bergmann K E - - 1995
Salt fluoridation is a systemic form of fluoride supplementation, leaving it to the consumer whether he wants fluoride supplements or not, but thereafter not requiring special dependability for daily compliance. Most German drinking water has low fluoride concentrations. The estimated fluoride intake in German children is between 100 and 300 ...
Hescot P - - 1995
Since November 28, 1985, fluoridated salt at a concentration of 250 mg KF per Kg has been authorized in food in France. It was introduced in the market at the end of 1986 and represented, in 1993, more than 60% of the market of salt. The effect of this Public ...
Stösser L - - 1995
The aim of the present investigation was to determine the caries-protective potential of non-fluoridated and fluoridated milk and to compare the efficacy of different compounds of fluoride as additives to milk. OM rats were maintained in three experiments in a frequency-controlled feeding machine of König et al. (1968) or, during ...
Price K M - - 1995
Fetal antigen 2 (FA-2) has been identified in amniotic fluid and shown to be of fetal origin. In this study we have extended previous observations on FA-2 heterogeneity with respect to both size and charge using gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography, non-dissociating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel ...
Adams S O - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To assess the magnitude of sodium reduction that can be made without significantly changing the perception of saltiness and acceptability of a broad range of common food items. DESIGN: The investigation was carried out in two phases. Military and civilian volunteers (N = 190 in study 1; N = ...
Lahti S M - - 1995
The potential use of different vehicles for delivering fluoride to prevent dental caries has been discussed recently in Mauritius. Water fluoridation was found not to be feasible, and extending the fluoride tablet program would not be easy. Thus, sugar fluoridation as one possibility was considered. For these purposes, the average ...
Brussaard J H - - 1995
To estimate the effect of possible goitre prophylactic measures on the intake of iodine among population groups, simulation studies, based on the first Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, were carried out. Iodine intake figures and prevalence of low intakes were calculated after fictively iodizing either bread, a combination of industrial ...
Sun E - - 1995
Prediction of accurate dielectric property data from fundamental principles for systems as complex as foods has not been possible. Simple prediction models based on easily measurable composition data can serve many useful purposes. Literature dielectric data on foods and their composition were statistically correlated. Dielectric data on salt solutions were ...
Marthaler T M - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to compare urinary fluoride excretion with fluoride ingestion in children who had either a low fluoride intake or received supplemental fluoride through salt or water. The urinary samples were collected in two ways. In procedure A, urine was collected in the morning, at noon ...
Warpeha R A - - 1995
The purpose of this study was to compare the urinary fluoride levels in subtropical Jamaica just before the beginning of salt fluoridation (250 mg/kg salt) in 1987 and again 20 months later. Four age groups were studied in three locations with low to intermediate fluoride concentrations in the drinking water. ...
Sousa E H - - 1995
The influence of fluoride solutions on the surface roughness of polished and nonpolished composites with Sof-Lex discs was verified. Concise and Herculite XR samples were exposed to the action of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride rinse, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel, and 0.2% neutral phosphate fluoride rinse for 4 min each. ...
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