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Results 301 - 350 of 683
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Hampel R - - 2000
Improved legislation (1989, 1993), as well as education of the public, are likely to improve the iodine supply for the German population. Children and adolescents will be the first to profit. We investigated thyroid size and urinary iodine excretion in a total of 2906 students aged 10 to 18 in ...
Locatelli F - - 2000
The current renewed interest in haemofiltration (HF) is due mainly to its potential advantages in reducing morbidity and mortality. We analysed the data obtained from eight patients treated with pre-dilution HF and compared them with the calculated post-dilution HF and haemodialysis (HD) data in order to quantify the depurative performance ...
Glindemann D - - 1999
If phosphorus played a role in the origin of life, some means of concentrating micromolar levels of phosphate (derived from the calcium phosphate mineral apatite), must first have been available. Here we show that simulated (mini)lightning discharges in model prebiotic atmospheres, including only minimally reducing ones, reduce orthophosphates, including apatite, ...
Itthagarun A - - 1999
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the 'calcium fluoride-like reaction products' formed, both on the surface and in the subsurface caries-like lesions of enamel, from different commercial dentifrices manufactured locally from developed and developing countries. The experiment was conducted by using the in vitro single-section technique ...
Whitford G M - - 1999
This work was based on the hypothesis that fingernail clippings can be used as a biomarker for the subchronic exposure to fluoride. The results provide data on factors that may affect the concentration of fluoride in fingernail clippings as determined with the electrode following HMDS-facilitated diffusion. The following variables had ...
Heilman J R - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excessive total fluoride intake during tooth development. Some children may receive substantial intake from soft drinks, but few studies have reported fluoride levels in soft drinks. The authors examined the fluoride concentrations of 332 soft drinks. METHODS: Soft drinks were purchased from ...
Kaplan Norman M. - - 1999
There are many lifestyle modifications recommended for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The only modification that has been challenged is the moderate reduction of dietary sodium. As is detailed in this paper, the basis for this challenge are specious and the evidence favoring such moderate sodium reduction are so ...
Warren J J - - 1999
Fluoride may be ingested from a variety of sources, including many foods and beverages. Fluoride intake varies greatly among individuals and is dependent on dietary constituents and use of fluoride products. Although ingestion of toxic amounts of fluoride is rare, the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased in North America, ...
Hess S Y - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the habitual salt intake of individuals living in the Côte d'Ivoire, and to monitor the iodine nutrition of adults, schoolchildren and pregnant women one year after implementation of a universal salt iodisation programme. DESIGN: A three day weighed food records with estimation of food intake from a ...
Yam A A - - 1999
Tea drinking after meals is a traditional practice in Senegal where more than 80% of the population from 15 to 60 years old drink tea. According to the tradition, in one session, each tea consumer has to drink 3 cups of decocted tea. The content of a cup is about ...
Mante M O - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of commonly used food simulating solutions and sodium hydroxide on the softening of light cured glass ionomer cements. METHODS: Four types of light cured glass ionomers (classified on the basis of the liquid component) as follows: (1) materials that ...
Hess B - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To test whether dietary advice as the only treatment is able to reduce urinary supersaturation in patients with idiopathic calcium urolithiasis. METHODS: By means of EQUIL 2, we calculated relative supersaturations of calcium oxalate (RS(CaOx)), brushite (RS(Brushite)), apatite (RS(Apatite)) and uric acid (RS(UA)) of 24-hour urine samples of 68 ...
Zohouri F V - - 1999
Knowledge of fluoride intake is important in optimizing the caries-preventive role of fluoride, and the measurement of fluoride intake usually requires information on the fluoride concentration in foods and drinks. Most information comes from developed countries and there are no data on fluoride concentration in foods in Middle Eastern countries ...
Lee K - - 1999
Iodine intake influences the health of Americans today, but in different ways than it has in the past. In the early 1900s, iodine deficiency was responsible for widespread endemic goiter in the United States. The incidence of goiter was markedly reduced by the introduction of iodine supplementation of salt and ...
Parajas I L - - 1999
Sugar is the principal substrate for micro-organisms causing dental caries. Yet it is impossible to eliminate sugar in the diet as almost all available foods particularly snack foods contain sugar. WHO recommended 10 kg. sugar or 27.40 gms. per person per year in non-fluoridated area and 15 kg. sugar/person year ...
Mattes R D - - 1999
Little is known about the customary level of sodium intake by salt-sensitive people and the nature of obstacles they face in the adoption of a reduced-sodium diet. These issues were addressed with 12 salt-sensitive (SS) and 9 salt-insensitive (SI) normotensive adults. Information about sodium consumption, taste, and blood pressure and ...
Van der Veen J E - - 1999
To assess current habits of using salt and other seasonings in food preparation, and to investigate the psychosocial determinants of salt use. In addition we examined differences in salt consumption and psychosocial determinants with respect to stages of change and socio-economic classes. 400 adults were interviewed to determine: 1) use ...
- - 1999
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the color additive regulations to provide for the safe use of [phthalocyaninato(2-)] copper in coloring nonabsorbable sutures for general and ophthalmic surgery made from a blend of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene). This action responds to a petition filed by Ethicon, Inc.
Melse-Boonstra A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare methods for estimating discretionary salt intake, that is, salt added during food preparation and consumption in the home. SETTING: The study was carried out in a rural Guatemalan village. SUBJECTS: Subjects were selected non-randomly, based on their willingness to cooperate. Nine mother-son dyads participated; the sons were ...
Dixon S - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the health and non-health effects of fluoridation on well-being using the willingness-to-pay technique. METHODS: A pilot study of 100 people was undertaken in which the willingness-to-pay technique was used to estimate the welfare effects of community water fluoridation in the city of Sheffield, in the United Kingdom. ...
Wiltshire W A - - 1999
Clinically, demineralization of enamel around orthodontic attachments can occur after only 1 month. Fluoride incorporation into elastomeric ligature ties may provide additional protection against decalcification through fluoride release. This study compared the fluoride release of fluoride-impregnated and nonfluoride elastomeric ligature ties (Ortho Arch Company) both in vitro and in vivo. ...
Sharma S K - - 1999
Iodine content of rice (42) and drinking water (108) from a goitre-endemic belt of Assam, a sub-Himalayan zone of India, was evaluated. Iodine content of staple food (rice) and drinking water was found to be poor. Mean iodine content of rice was found to be 11.8 +/- 7.3 micrograms/100g. Lower ...
DenBesten P K - - 1999
Fluorosis occurs when fluoride interacts with mineralizing tissues, causing alterations in the mineralization process. In dental enamel, fluorosis causes subsurface hypomineralizations or porosity, which extend toward the dentinal-enamel junction as severity increases. This subsurface porosity is most likely caused by a delay in the hydrolysis and removal of enamel proteins, ...
Heller K E - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this project was to describe current water consumption patterns and to compare them to findings from earlier studies. Current water consumption data also were used to reevaluate the association between water consumption and climate. These findings are of importance in estimating fluoride intake from fluoridated water. ...
Levy S M - - 1999
This paper reviews the history and validity of recommended "optimal" levels of systemic fluoride intake and the available information on levels of fluoride intake in young children from foods and beverages (including water), dentifrices, dietary fluoride supplements, mouthrinses, and gels. Most of the studies emphasize the substantial variation in ingestion ...
Schemehorn B R - - 1999
The presence of calcium-releasing ingredients in toothpastes containing sodium fluoride is usually avoided to prevent loss of active fluoride due to the formation of the insoluble calcium salt. The purpose of this study was to determine the bio-availability of fluoride from Enamelon Toothpaste (E), which simultaneously supplies fluoride, calcium and ...
Cao J - - 1998
Pu'er brick tea and Bianxiao brick tea are both compressed types of tea. Fluorine analysis was carried out on samples of Pu'er brick tea produced at different times in Yunnan Province and on samples of Bianxiao brick tea made in Hunan and Sichuan Province for supply especially to minority ethnic ...
Rees J S - - 1998
The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the erosive potential of four flavours of the alcoholic lemonade Hooch. This study measured the pH on opening, the volume of 0.1M sodium hydroxide required to raise the pH of 20 mls of the lemonade to neutrality and the fluoride ...
Tabchoury C M - - 1998
Dental caries is an infectious and transmissible disease that continues to affect the majority of people. The presence of carbohydrate, mainly sucrose in the diet, is an important factor in its occurrence. The amount of fluoride required for optimal protective effect where there is a high caries challenge is unclear. ...
Kurokawa K - - 1998
The mammalian nephron has a unique structure called juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA); the primary function of the JGA includes tubuloglomerular feedback. Why is such a structure necessary? Analyses of available data strongly suggest that JGA has evolved to provide a fine tuning of the autoregulation of glomerular hemodynamics and high glomerular ...
Solomons N W - - 1998
An alternative approach to supplying iodine to isolated populations through the use of slow-release iodine in silicone matrices that float in the water supply was tested in remote desert areas of the Sudan. There was a differential impact, as judged by indicators of iodine nutriture, and these indicators provided varying ...
Kaufmann S - - 1998
Iodine deficiency still exists in many countries worldwide, to a certain degree this is also true for Germany. Food of animal origin can be a good source for iodine depending on the feed. To investigate the possible use of laying hen feed enriched with iodine, we conducted a feeding experiment ...
Koo R H - - 1998
PURPOSE: To evaluate in situ the effect of soluble calcium on fluoride uptake and remineralization by human dental enamel from a sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) dentifrice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight volunteers took part in this cross-over, double-blind design study performed in three phases of 45 days. During each phase of the ...
Kim J Y - - 1998
Korea is a region abundant in foods containing iodine such as seaweed and fish. An adequate amount of iodine consumption is extremely important as both a deficiency and excess of iodine can result in health problems. This study was undertaken to assess the iodine nutritional status of normal Korean adults ...
Okiyama A - - 1998
Freshly cooked chicken broth was prepared with several concentrations (0.06-0.32 M) of added NaCl. In the first study, subjects were presented with pairs of samples, each having the same concentration of NaCl (salt) but one of which contained 0.01 M monosodium glutamate (MSG). The subjects preferred the sample with added ...
Söderholm J D - - 1998
Intestinal tight junction function is thought to be of importance in the pathogenesis of various diseases. The regulation of uptake of macromolecules via the tight junctions is largely unknown. Effects of luminal sodium caprate (10 mM), a dairy product constituent, and cytochalasin B (30 microM), were studied in rat ileum ...
Torra M - - 1998
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the fluoride status in the general healthy population of Barcelona. Serum and urine fluoride ionic concentration was determined in a random sample of 250 subjects (age range 15-90 yr) by the Orion fluoride electrode system to determine the normal range of fluoride in ...
Ando M - - 1998
The combustion of high fluoride-content coal as an energy resource for heating, cooking, and food drying is a major exhaust emission source of suspended particulate matter and fluoride. High concentrations of these pollutants have been observed in indoor air of coal-burning families in some rural areas in China. Because airborne ...
McRorie J W - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Stool softening is a physician's first step in the management of chronic constipation. AIM: To compare stool softening (stool water content) and laxative efficacy of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid vs. docusate sodium. METHODS: The multi-site, randomized, double-blind, parallel-design study of 170 subjects with chronic idiopathic constipation involved a 2-week baseline ...
Hutchinson T H - - 1998
While sodium hypochlorite is widely used as a disinfectant for municipal sewage effluents and power station cooling waters discharged into coastal environments, there is limited information on the potential in vivo genotoxicity of such disinfection procedures to marine organisms. Using a recently developed test system based on the marine polychaete ...
Mandel I D - - 1998
Fluoride toothpastes that fight cavities have become common. The current competition among products is for the additional benefits they can offer--with antitartar and whitening leading the way. Toothpastes serving special populations have been increasing and now include desensitizing dentifrices, natural toothpastes, smokers toothpastes, and one designed for people with xerostomia. ...
Trimpeneers L M - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: The present study compared the amounts and profiles of long term fluoride release from four commercial direct bonding resins (Light-Bond, Reliance Orthodontic Products; Rely.a. Bond, Reliance Orthodontic Products; Orthon, Orthon Dental Inc.; Fluor Ever, Macro-Chem Corporation) and one glass ionomer cement (Ketac-Cem, Espe). METHODS: The specimens were equilibrated in ...
Porth R N - - 1998
There is no doubt that air abrasion is going to be part of the millennial shift in dentistry away from traditional treatment modalities. With the change in incidence and morphology of caries as a result of the hardening effect of fluoride on enamel, this ability to remove only decayed areas ...
Forsten L - - 1998
The anticariogenic effect of silicate cement is well known and considered a result of fluoride release. In several studies a similar fluoride release from conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) has been established. Therefore, an anticariogenic effect may be predicted from the GICs too. In my studies the fluoride release was studied ...
Leshem M - - 1998
We investigated early determinants of salt preference in humans. In animals, physiological events, among them perinatal mineralofluid loss, contribute to long-term salt intake. Recent findings suggest that in humans prenatal mineralofluid loss (high levels of maternal vomiting) may increase the lifelong avidity for salt in offspring. Here we report that ...
Port G R - - 1998
Experiments to assess the impact of dietary fluoride on larvae of Pieris brassicae were designed to substantiate field observations that at polluted sites little fluoride is absorbed by insect larvae and that most of the body load is caused by surface contamination. Treatment with fluoride as HF or AlF3 had ...
Urazaev A Kh - - 1998
In the presence of carnosine, anserine, histidine, imidazole and 7-nitro indazole, the early postdenervation depolarization of muscle of about 8 mV was significantly increased by 2.15-4.8 mV. The presence of the imidazole ring in the molecule is apparently necessary for this effect. These compounds also eliminated an NO-mediated protective effect ...
Brunette D M - - 1998
Chronic oral malodor is a serious concern for about one-fifth of the North American population, and a field of emerging research interest. The present three studies, one involving gas chromatography and two employing odor judge assessment, examined the efficacy of baking soda and other toothpastes in reducing breath odor. The ...
Brussaard J H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the adequacy of the iodine supply in the Netherlands and to study possible ways of increasing the iodine intake. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: Goitre and nutrition surveillance studies (intake and urinary excretion of iodine) among population groups (age: 12-85 y, n=57-1704) in the Netherlands in the period ...
Brussaard J H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low and marginal iodine intake and urinary iodine excretion among adults in the Netherlands and to investigate determinants of urinary iodine excretion. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: The study population consisted of 444 people aged 20-79 y, balanced for sex and 10 y age classes with ...
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