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Punia Darshan - - 2002
A survey of 180 rural families from different zones of Haryana State was carried out to know the type and intake of salt used and the domestic storage practices followed by rural households using a questionnaire method. Salt samples from rural households were analyzed for their iodine content. Results indicated ...
Petersson L G - - 2002
This study determined fluoride (F) concentrations in whole saliva and dental plaque after intake of fluoridated milk using a randomised crossover experimental design. Eighteen healthy children (6-8 years) were subjected to each of four different 3-day drinking regimens: (a) 200 ml F-free tap water; (b) 200 ml tap water with ...
Chandra Amar K - - 2002
Universal salt iodization programme was initiated during 1988-89 in the goitre endemic state of Tripura. However, no decline in goitre prevalence was found about a decade after the initiation of programme. The present work evaluates the quality of implementation of the salt iodization programme and the possible involvement of dietary ...
Dorea Jose G - - 2002
A survey of the databanks Medline and Web of science identified studies dealing with maternal and infant iodine nutrition during breast feeding. The iodine concentration of human milk varies widely due to maternal iodine intake. Mean breast milk iodine concentrations are reported as ranging from 5.4 to 2170 microg/L (median ...
Grobler S R - - 2001
During the extremely heavy rainfall period in the first half of 2000 in certain summer rainfall regions of South Africa a similar investigation as in 1983-1984/1985 was done but on a smaller scale, and compared to the previous results. A greater reduction (P < 0.05) of the fluoride levels in ...
McIntyre J - - 2001
The objective of this study was to analyze aspects of the metabolism and bio-availability of fluoride after consumption of a sample of polished white rice containing 5.6 ppm fluoride ion. Up to 400 g of fluoridated rice was consumed by three volunteer adult subjects over specific time periods on two ...
Tzamaloukas A H - - 2001
We investigated the hypothesis that the rate of loss of creatinine excretion with age in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients differs from the rate predicted from the Cockroft-Gault formula (Cr(Pred)) by analyzing creatinine excretion data obtained from clearance studies of 925 patients on continuous ambulatory PD therapy with an age range ...
Macpherson L M - - 2001
Salt fluoridation is recognised world-wide as a proven and viable alternative means of consumer choice-related, community-based fluoridation where water fluoridation is either technically or politically impossible. However, as most salt consumed is contained within cooked food products, rather than sprinkled over prepared food at the table, the purpose of this ...
Einhorn-Stoll U - - 2001
Combinations of pectins and caseins are ingredients of many food products. Therefore the thermodynamic compatibility of both components was examined to investigate the influences of environmental factors as well as of the structure of the pectin. High-methoxyl pectin was demethoxylated and amidated, respectively, and tested for the compatibility with sodium ...
Fein N J - - 2001
The goal of the present study was to determine the extent to which foods made with mechanically separated chicken can contribute to total fluoride intake. Fluoride content of each blended sample was determined with a fluoride combination electrode following perchloric-acid-facilitated diffusion of hydrogen fluoride. Infant foods had the highest fluoride ...
Coviello T - - 2001
Matrices obtained by a crosslinking reaction between the polycarboxylated derivative of scleroglucan (sclerox) and 1,6-hexanedibromide have been prepared and characterized. Different ratios between the alkane dihalide and sclerox yielded products with different properties. Water uptake by the hydrogel with a low degree of crosslinking was remarkably affected by ionic strength. ...
Locatelli F - - 2001
In order to reduce intradialytic and interdialytic morbidity, it is important to obtain a zero sodium balance at the end of each dialysis session. This can be achieved by matching exactly the interdialytic sodium and water intake with the intradialytic sodium and water removal. A positive sodium balance can be ...
Goldman D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Excessive topical corticosteroid application to facial areas commonly leads to steroid-induced rosacea. This may be a recalcitrant problem that requires months of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy before it resolves. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the use of tacrolimus ointment, a macrolide anti-inflammatory ointment for the ...
Boros I - - 2001
Following a fluoride depletion period 6 subjects repeatedly rinsed with 30-ml volumes of milk with or without added fluoride (5 ppm). Rinsing time was timed according to the measurements on how long it took to drink 200 or 500 ml milk. Rinsing with fluoridated milk for a total interval of ...
Xaubet A - - 2001
We investigated the effect of budesonide and nedocromil sodium on the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by cultured epithelial cells from healthy nasal mucosa and nasal polyps. Human epithelial cell conditioned media was generated with fetal calf serum (FCS) in the presence or absence of budesonide and/or nedocromil sodium. Budesonide ...
Ando M - - 2001
Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms ...
Ataç A - - 2001
The aim of the present study was to test the fluoride contents of infant formulas and market milk in Turkey. Fifteen formulas and nine market milks were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions with deionized water. Fluoride contents were analyzed with a spectrophotometer (CADAS 50S) and results were obtained as ppm ...
Yamamoto S - - 2001
In endemic fluorosis areas in China associated with coal burning, indoor airborne fluoride pollution is severe. To determine the effects of fluoride aerosols on pulmonary antibacterial defense mechanisms and lung damage, mice were exposed to various concentrations of fluoride aerosol (2, 5, or 10 mg/m3) or filtered air (control) for ...
Strohmenger L - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature regarding the anti-caries efficacy of fluoride varnishes. To analyse a series of studies designed to detect the caries preventive efficacy of fluoride varnishes by means of meta-analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Current literature on fluoride varnishes has been reviewed. An evaluation of the results of ...
Rencüzogullari E - - 2001
The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) which is used as an antimicrobial substance in food, to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes. SMB-induced CAs and SCEs at all concentrations (75, 150 and 300 microg/ml) and treatment ...
Loria C M - - 2001
The Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans have included dietary guidance on salt and sodium since they were first released in 1980. This paper briefly reviews the impetus for including sodium guidelines, changes in them over time and factors influencing these changes. Although guidance appears to have changed ...
Bohrer D - - 2001
The presence of aluminium (Al) in pharmaceutical products used parenterally as sodium and potassium chlorides, glucose, heparin and albumin were investigated with respect to their storage in glass containers. As glasses can have aluminium in their composition, the aluminium may be released from the glass into the solution. The action ...
Dunn J T - - 2001
Iodine deficiency is the most prevalent correctable cause of brain damage in the world. Over the past 15 years, great progress has been made towards the elimination of iodine deficiency, principally through universal salt iodization. Much more needs to be done for countries that are lagging in the effort or ...
Jahreis G - - 2001
During the last decade the iodine supply in Germany has increased significantly, but there is still a high frequency of goitre. Therefore the question of iodine bioavailability has arisen. In a two-period study 12 women were given a mixed diet of ordinary foods with milk and milk products of different ...
Brambilla E - - 2001
Since researchers first became aware of the anticaries action of fluoride, they have been investigating the effect of this preventive agent in inhibiting or arresting caries development. Many forms of systemic or topical fluoride have been studied and tested for clinical application. Water, salt, milk fluoridation and the use of ...
Hellwig E - - 2001
In vitro experiments could demonstrate that only negligible amounts of fluoride are necessary to promote remineralization of incipient caries lesions. From the clinical point of view, there is evidence that only under certain circumstances is a stabilization of the surface zone of an incipient caries lesion the true mechanism of ...
Azizi F - - 2001
We evaluated sources of difference in urinary iodine between two neighbouring Iranian provinces, Gilan and Mazandaran. In the cities of Rasht (Gilan) and Sari (Mazandaran), 340 and 343 participants respectively were selected by cluster sampling. Urinary iodine in Rasht was significantly higher than in Sari (31 microg/dL versus 21 microg/dL). ...
Awadia A K - - 2000
The aim of this study was to identify factors that might explain the similar level of prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in two neighboring areas in Tanzania: Kibosho; 0.2 mg fluoride/l, n = 96 and Arusha; 3.6 mg fluoride/l in drinking water, n = 80. Subjects aged 8-16 years ...
Glauser A - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to measure urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), an important inhibitor of crystallization, and to identify possible determinants of urinary THP excretion in non-selected kidney stone formers (SF) and healthy subjects (C). METHODS: By means of a commercially available ELISA (Pharmacia and Upjohn/Elias, ...
Villa A - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to determine the fraction of the total daily fluoride intake that is excreted through the urine (FUEF) of children aged 3-5 years under usual intake conditions. Participating children were residents of an area with a fluoride (F) concentration of 0.5-0.6 mg/L in their drinking ...
Barros M T - - 2000
Selective O-desilylation of 6,1',6'-tri-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl-2,3,4,3',4'-penta-O-benzo ylsucrose with hydrofluoric acid in acetonitrile led to the 1'-O-tert-butyldiphenylsilyl derivative (96% yield), which was further perbenzoylated and deprotected at OH-1' with tetrabutylammonium fluoride (86%). An analogous sequence with the corresponding O-acetylated sucrose derivative and tetrabutylammonium fluoride as desilylating agent resulted in a lower yield of ...
Selmer R M - - 2000
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim was to estimate health and economic consequences of interventions aimed at reducing the daily intake of salt (sodium chloride) by 6 g per person in the Norwegian population. Health promotion (information campaigns), development of new industry food recipes, declaration of salt content in food and taxes ...
Chuckpaiwong S - - 2000
The objectives of this study were to measure dietary fluoride intake in children aged 3-7 years, to correlate dietary fluoride and fluoride content in water for use in schools and to estimate fluoride gained from the daily diet. Fifty food samples were collected in 45 schools under the jurisdiction of ...
Vogel G L - - 2000
Sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP) and sodium fluoride (NaF) are the two most common sources of fluoride used in currently marketed fluoride dentifrices. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of mouth rinses containing NaF or NaMFP on the concentrations of fluoride, or the MFP ion, in saliva, whole ...
Zohouri F V - - 2000
Accurate estimation of fluoride dietary intake is desirable for optimising caries prevention. Little is known about the dietary fluoride intake of children aged 4 years, an age when many permanent teeth are forming. This study was undertaken in Fars Province, Iran, in 1995-1996, where there are big differences in temperature ...
Liu Z - - 2000
Behaviors of fluoroquinolones in varying media were observed by employing their intrinsic fluorescence. Spectral characteristics in reversed micelles (Aerosol OT/n-octane) were compared with those in aqueous solution and micelles (sodium dodecyl sulfonate). Those differences in interactions between fluoroquinolones and the various media were clearly illustrated by three-dimensional fluorescent spectra. The ...
Graudal N - - 2000
The general intake of salt (sodium chloride) is much higher than the recommended allowances, in part because of added salt in food industry processed food. However, population studies have not been able to show an association between salt intake and unfavorable health outcome. Based on population studies and randomized studies, ...
Kierdorf H - - 2000
Fluoride and lead concentrations were analyzed in antlers of adult roe bucks (Capreolus capreolus) collected between 1932 and 1998 in a forest area of 800 ha, that directly borders on the eastern suburbs of Cologne (Germany). Values ranged between 158 and 3,713 mg/kg dry weight for fluoride and from 0.4 ...
Ji H - - 2000
Calculus deposited on a total of 68 permanent teeth from patients 30-60 years old from Nagoya in Japan and Beijing in China was investigated. An abrasive microsampling method was used to examine the fluoride (F) and magnesium (Mg) distribution, using a fluoride ion-specific electrode and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. F ...
Chawla V - - 2000
Microspheres of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) containing diclofenac sodium were prepared by an emulsion-chemical cross-linking method. A statistical design was used to study the variables that affect the preparation of microspheres and to study the release profile of diclofenac from the microspheres. To account for the drug content, a mass balance study ...
Morphis T L - - 2000
There are two methods of fluoride incorporation into fissure sealants. In the first method, fluoride is added to the unpolymerized resin in the form of a soluble fluoride salt that releases fluoride ions by dissolution, following sealant application. In the second method, an organic fluoride compound is chemically bound to ...
Woskie S R - - 2000
Personal air sampling for fluorides and solvents was done at 35 semiconductor fabrication facilities in the United States. Fluoride compounds were used in etching and cleaning operations, and solvents were used in photoresist and developing operations. All personal solvent and fluoride levels were less than 2 percent of current Occupational ...
Cumming R G - - 2000
A population-based cross-sectional study (n = 2,873) was conducted near Sydney, Australia, from January 1992 to January 1994 to assess the relation between dietary sodium intake and risk of cataract. Photographs of subjects' lenses were graded for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts. Dietary sodium intake was assessed with a ...
Cherinet A - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To determine the magnitude of goitre in school children and measure indicators of iodine deficiency including the most commonly consumed staple foods. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Ten villages from four administrative regions of Ethiopia. SUBJECTS: A total of 2485 randomly selected elementary school children were examined for clinical ...
Awadia A K - - 2000
A cross-sectional study of 143 children aged 10-14 years was carried out to identify factors associated with the severity of dental fluorosis in 2 areas (Moshi/Kibosho: n = 63/80) with fluoride (F) concentrations < 0.4 mg F/L in the drinking water. Dental fluorosis was recorded under field conditions using the ...
Kakko I - - 2000
Pyrethrins are widely used insecticides in both agriculture and households. In many commercial formulations piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is used with pyrethrins. PBO is a well-known synergist of pyrethrins, used to intensify their effects. One of the cellular targets of pyrethrins is the sodium channel in the membrane. In the present ...
Huang Y J - - 2000
A rapid and complete destruction of organics in the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the Co-exchanged resin was found experimentally. Due to an extremely low solubility of CoSO4 salt formed and separated effectively in the SCWO process, a minimal release of the nuclide Co would be warranted. In addition, recycling ...
Rasmussen L B - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. DESIGN AND SETTING: Tap water samples were collected from 41 evenly distributed localities in Denmark. ...
Zimmer S - - 2000
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the fluoride concentration in unstimulated saliva after using a toothbrush with 9,048 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride incorporated in the bristles. A toothpaste with 1,500 ppm fluoride served as the positive control. Twelve volunteers took part in the single-blind crossover study. ...
Koparal E - - 2000
The aim of the present study is to determine the fluoride concentrations of breast milk, several milk formulations, cow's milk and yogurt shake in a nonfluoridated area, in order to estimate the fluoride intake of infants and evaluate fluoride supplementation suggestions. Breast milk samples were collected from 57 lactating mothers. ...
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