Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 682
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Shin Hye-Young - - 2004
Purple bamboo salt is a specially processed salt according to the traditional recipe using normal salt and bamboo etc. It has been used as a folk medicine for the purpose of prevention and treatment of various diseases in Korea. This report describes an inhibitory effect of purple bamboo salt on ...
Tomori Takatoshi - - 2004
The mean daily fluoride intake in infants was estimated on the basis of their intake of commercial foods for infants in Japan and evaluated in order to establish the effectiveness and safety criteria for water fluoridation, which is practiced as a preventive measure for dental caries suitable in life stages ...
Hirose Katsutoshi - - 2004
The total synthesis of the unsaturated disaccharide, lepidimoide 4-deoxy-beta-L-threo-hex-4-enopyranuronosyl-(1-->2)-L-rhamnopyranose sodium salt, has been carried out from D-glucose and L-rhamnose (Tetrahedron Lett. 1993, 34, 2653), but the process is very long and complicated. A method for more easily producing this compound and in large quantities is necessary for further research. We ...
Pontefract H - - 2004
BACKGROUND: The interaction of chlorhexidine with dietary chromogens to cause extrinsic dental staining has been exploited in vitro and in vivo to study tooth discoloration and its control. These studies in vitro investigated factors that might enhance stain formation, and evaluated formulations to inhibit the stain with the primary aim ...
Paes Leme A F - - 2004
Since the effect of the combination of methods of fluoride use on enamel demineralization and on plaque composition is not clearly established, this study examined the effect of the combination of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) application and F dentifrice on enamel demineralization and on plaque composition. In this crossover study, ...
Engström Kristina - - 2004
PURPOSE: Milk can be used as vehicle for fluoride administration. The aim of this study was to investigate the lactic acid formation in dental plaque after daily intake of fluoridated milk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 15 healthy schoolchildren, 6 - 15 years of age, in a ...
Hong Liang - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: It has been speculated that amoxicillin use could be associated with enamel defects, but there have been few studies of this possible relationship. This study assessed the association between amoxicillin use during the first year of life and primary tooth fluorosis. METHODS: Subjects (n = 490) were recruited at ...
Broffitt Barbara - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Although patterns of fluid intake change seasonally, little is known about how fluoride intake varies by season. Since even short-term increases in fluoride intake could potentially lead to more dental fluorosis, it is valuable to assess the degree of seasonal variation to determine if it increases fluoride intake to ...
Tinsley D - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To compare (i) the in vivo release of fluoride from fluoridated elastomers to the in vitro release, and (ii) the residual fluoride content of the elastomers after 1 week in the mouth with and without fluoride toothpaste and mouthrinse. DESIGN: A prospective, longitudinal, cross-over study. Subjects and method: Six ...
Boorse Graham C - - 2003
Amphibian larvae respond to heterogeneous environments by varying their rates of growth and development. Several amphibian species are known to accelerate metamorphosis in response to pond drying or resource restriction. Some of the most extensive studies to date on developmental responses to pond drying have been conducted on species of ...
Touger-Decker Riva - - 2003
A dynamic relation exists between sugars and oral health. Diet affects the integrity of the teeth; quantity, pH, and composition of the saliva; and plaque pH. Sugars and other fermentable carbohydrates, after being hydrolyzed by salivary amylase, provide substrate for the actions of oral bacteria, which in turn lower plaque ...
Takele L - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine the level of iodine in the salt at the retail shop and consumption levels and assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of food caterers and shopkeepers about iodized salt and iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). DESIGN: Cross-sectional community based. SETTING: Retail shops and households in Shebe town-Jimma ...
Takamura Noboru - - 2003
We studied the kinetics of iodine in various forms, in order to establish appropriate guidelines of iodine prophylaxis for thyroid blockade at nuclear emergency in "iodine rich areas", such as Japan. First, the effect of equivalent dose of potassium iodide (KI) (solution vs. tablet) was evaluated with excretions of urinary ...
Fessler D M T - - 2003
Salt preferences, which vary widely across individuals, are a function of past exposure to both levels of dietary salt and dehydration. From an evolutionary perspective, such plasticity is puzzling, as the health costs of high salt intake, combined with the increased time and energy needed to obtain large quantities of ...
Als C - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare different possibilities of reporting the iodine supply in the same urine samples. Indeed, in field studies, urinary iodine concentration (I/L: micro g I/L, micro mol I/L, I/creatinine: micro g I/g creatanine, micro mol I/mol creatinine) is more readily available than excretion (I/24h micro g I/24 h, micro ...
Dunn John T - - 2003
Iodine deficiency has major health consequences for the fetus and infant. Most individuals can tolerate fairly high intakes of iodine without problems. The Western Hemisphere has made great progress towards correcting its iodine deficiency, but pockets of deficiency remain and fragile monitoring systems endanger sustainability. Because the consequences of iodine ...
Kierdorf Uwe - - 2003
Temporal changes of environmental fluoride concentration in the industrialized area of Siegen, western Germany were assessed by studying the fluoride content of antlers (n=116) collected between 1948 and 2000 from the resident roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population. During the analyzed period, major fluoride emission sources in the study area have ...
Lima Y B O - - 2003
Since the optimum fluoride concentration in drinking water established for temperate countries has been considered not to be appropriate for tropical and subtropical climates, this study was conducted in Piracicaba, a subtropical, optimally fluoridated Brazilian community. The daily fluoride intake by 23 children (aged 20-30 months) from diet (liquids and ...
Alvarado C Z - - 2003
Pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) breast meat is caused by a rapid postmortem pH decline while carcass temperatures are still warm. The resulting protein denaturation leads to a pale color and a decrease in water-holding capacity, causing excessive yield losses to producers. If some of this protein damage could be ...
Bjørkevoll Ingebrigt - - 2003
Salt-cured and dried salt-cured cod rehydrated using sterile water and equipment have a short shelf life at 4 degrees C due to high bacterial counts. The microbiota develops off-odours which partly can be described as musty, causing sensory rejection within 7-10 days of chilled storage. The microbiota composition was studied ...
Dote Tomotaro - - 2003
Calcium sulfate adheres to the inside of liquefying pipes during the production of liquefied hydrogen fluoride. It is regularly washed away with water jets every six months. Two days before the operation, the pipes were experimentally washed down with water and the safety of the operation was confirmed with acidic ...
Peredo-Alvarez Víctor M - - 2003
Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non-euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride ...
Murer Heini - - 2004
This review summarizes the characteristics of the solute carrier family SLC34 that is represented by the type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters NaPi-lla (SLC34A1), NaPi-llb (SLC34A2) and NaPi-llc (SLC34A3). Other Na/P(i)-cotransporters are described within the SLC17 and SLC20 families. Type ll Na/P(i)-cotransporters are expressed in several tissues and play a major role in ...
Levy S M - - 2003
Knowledge concerning risk factors for primary dentition caries in young children is incomplete. Models are presented for caries development using longitudinally gathered fluoride exposure and dietary intake data in the Iowa Fluoride Study. Primary tooth caries examinations were conducted at age 5. Dietary (beverage) and fluoride exposure data were gathered ...
Cao Jin - - 2003
An epidemiological survey was conducted in Naqu County, Tibet in September 2001 to investigate the manifestations of fluorosis in adults caused by the habitual consumption of brick tea. Profiles were obtained for the total daily fluoride intake, environmental fluoride levels and average urinary fluoride concentration, and a physical examination and ...
Herrick J R - - 2003
Salt-stored domestic cat oocytes are routinely used to study sperm function in domestic and nondomestic felids. Our objectives were to assess the effects of in vitro maturation (IVM), salt storage and storage duration on penetration of domestic cat oocytes by homologous spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, domestic cat spermatozoa were coincubated ...
Doh Min Ju - - 2003
Colon-specific delivery of glucocorticoids is highly desirable for the efficient treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. We synthesized prednisolone 21-sulfate sodium (PDS) as a colon-specific prodrug of prednisolone (PD) and investigated its properties using rats as test animals. We expected that introduction of sulfate ester as a sodium salt might increase ...
Arweiler Nicole B - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the clinical study was to examine the antibacterial and plaque-reducing properties of mouthrinses containing triclosan (TRI), amine fluoride (AmF), and the combination of both (AFT) on 4-day plaque regrowth. A placebo solution (PLA) and a 0.2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX) served as negative and positive controls, respectively. ...
Williams Peter - - 2003
In 1997, one of Australia's largest food companies undertook a program of salt reduction in 12 breakfast cereals. The National Heart Foundation's Pick the Tick program criterion (<400 mg sodium per 100 g) was used as a target value where possible. Twelve products were reformulated, with reductions ranging from 85 ...
Williams J A - - 2003
Studies have shown that ions in a glass ionomer matrix are 1-10% of the amounts present in the original glass. To measure more precisely the release from a cement matrix, known amounts of ions were added to LG30 glass which was fluoride and sodium-free. Cement without additions acted as the ...
Levy Steven M - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: This paper reports on estimated daily fluoride intake from water by itself, beverages, selected foods, dentifrice, and dietary supplements, both individually and combined (mg and mg F/kg bw), among 785 children in the Iowa Fluoride Study from 36 to 72 months of age. METHODS: Children were recruited in 1992-95, ...
Harris M J - - 2003
Salt is widely used by the food industry, but information on the use of iodised salt as an ingredient in the manufacturing of processed foods in South Africa is not available. The iodine content of salt used in the manufacturing of bread, margarine and salty snack flavourants was investigated in ...
Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M - - 2003
Iodine content in food of plant origin is lower in comparison with that of animal origin due to a low iodine concentration in soil. Urinary iodine excretion was assessed in 15 vegans, 31 lacto- and lacto-ovovegetarians and 35 adults on a mixed diet. Iodine excretion was significantly lower in alternative ...
Campus Guglielmo - - 2003
The purpose of this in vivo, single-blind, randomized study was to compare fluoride concentrations in saliva of patients treated with oral hygiene products containing different fluoride salts. The study involved 104 students attending the University of Sassari. Participants were subdivided: group A used a sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP) toothpaste; groups B ...
Lung Shih-Chun Candice - - 2003
Tea is a popular drink around the world. It is also one of the major sources of fluoride intake. The objectives of this study were to assess fluoride concentrations in popular non-, semi-, and full-fermented tea drinks sold on the Taiwan market. Concentration differences among three types of commercially available ...
Majumdar Soumyajit - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of nucleoside/nucleobase transporters on the Statens Seruminstitut rabbit corneal (SIRC) epithelial cell line and to evaluate SIRC as an in vitro screening tool for delineating the mechanism of corneal permeation of nucleoside analogs. SIRC cells (passages 410-425) were used to ...
Rasmussen Lone B - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Iodine intake can be measured in various ways, and each method may have advantages and disadvantages. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the potential associations of various measures of iodine intake with thyroid volume, prevalence of thyroid nodules, and serum thyroglobulin. We also sought to identify, if possible, groups at ...
Andersen Stig - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The iodine intake level is important for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in a population. The iodine intake in Greenland has been proposed to be more than ten times the recommended level. However, no measurements have been performed to determine the iodine content of Greenlandic food items, drinking water, ...
Engström Kristina - - 2002
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fluoride concentration in supragingival dental plaque after single and repeated intakes of fluoridated milk. The study group consisted of 22 schoolchildren, young adults and adults of both sexes, 8-41 years of age. After a 2-week fluoride depletion period and 3 days ...
Bowen William H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Scientists have noted an association between mottled enamel and fluoride exposure since the early 1900s. By the mid-1900s, they also recognized that fluoride intake was related to lower caries incidence. To harness the protective effect of fluoride while limiting the occurrence of fluorosis, dental researchers have recommended that the ...
Jackson Richard D - - 2002
In the spring of 1996, foods and beverages most commonly consumed by adolescents were analyzed for fluoride as part of a larger investigation. These foods were selected by interviewing 711 adolescents, 12-14 years of age, who were long-time residents of either an optimally or negligibly fluoridated community. The brand names ...
Thibodeaux Stefan J - - 2002
This study examined the effect of steric factors near the stereogenic center on polymerized surfactants, sodium N-undecyl-L-leucine, sodium N-undecyl-L-norleucine, sodium N-undecyl-L-tert.-butyl leucine, sodium N-undecyl-L-isoleucine. sodium N-undecyl-L-valine, sodium N-undecyl-L-norvaline. and sodium N-undecyl-L-proline. The effect of steric factors near the chiral center of the polymeric surfactants were examined using binaphthyl derivatives, aminoglutethimide, ...
Nielsen J M - - 2002
The fluoride content of Tanzanian and Kenyan magadi has been estimated to be in the range 0.1-17.9 mg F(-) g(-1), which is comparable with that reported elsewhere, but indicating a considerable variation in levels. The median fluoride content of crystalline magadi harvested from the alkaline lakes was 2.1 mg g(-1), ...
Bimenya Gabriel S - - 2002
Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) cover a variety of pathological conditions including goitre, mental retardation and perinatal mortality in millions of individuals globally. IDD was initially identified as a problem in 1970 and was confirmed in 1991. In 1993, the Uganda government introduced a policy of Universal Salt Iodization (USI) requiring ...
Palou Lluís - - 2002
The effectiveness of low-toxicity chemicals as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of post-harvest green and blue moulds of citrus was evaluated. A preliminary selection of chemicals, mostly common food additives, was made through in vivo primary screenings with oranges artificially inoculated with Penicillium digitatum or P italicum. ...
Susheela A K - - 2002
The objective of the present communication is to address the issues concerning reversal of fluoride induced cell injury and disease (i.e. fluorosis) through the elimination of fluoride and consumption of a diet containing essential nutrients and antioxidants. Humans afflicted with fluorosis, as a result of consuming fluoride contaminated water or ...
Srikanth R - - 2002
A study was undertaken to estimate fluoride content in the groundwater in certain parts of rural Eritrea. North-East Africa, along the River Anseba. Standard procedure was adopted for fluoride detection. Results indicate elevated concentration of fluoride in groundwater. The highest concentration was found to be 3.73 mg L(-1), well above ...
Zhou L H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Antiseptic agents, particularly slow-release preparations, are increasingly being used in the management of chronic wounds. One such agent, cadexomer iodine, carries iodine (0.9% weight/weight) immobilized in beads of dextrin and epichlorhydrin and has been demonstrated to be highly effective in promoting healing of exudative wounds. However, there have been ...
Vogel G L - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to examine plaque and saliva composition after a fluoride rinse and subsequent sucrose application. Fifteen subjects accumulated plaque for 48 h, and then rinsed with a fluoride rinse based on 228 microg/g (ppm) Na2SiF6 and some received no rinse. After 60 min, upper and ...
Punia Darshan - - 2002
A survey of 180 rural families from different zones of Haryana State was carried out to know the type and intake of salt used and the domestic storage practices followed by rural households using a questionnaire method. Salt samples from rural households were analyzed for their iodine content. Results indicated ...
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