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Buzalaf Mar??lia Afonso Rabelo - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the fluoride (F) concentrations in whole, defatted and chocolate milks commercially available in Brazil and to estimate the daily F intake from these sources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: F concentrations were determined for 23 brands of milks, after HMDS-facilitated diffusion, using ...
Hong Liang - - 2006
Gaps remain in our knowledge about the levels of fluoride intake that cause dental fluorosis. The purpose of this study was to report the fluorosis prevalence by levels of estimated fluoride intake in an effort to understand the importance of different levels of daily fluoride intake. As part of the ...
Mustafa Annasari - - 2006
As salt is a potential vehicle for delivering iodine to a population, study on salt intake is important. Many methods have been used to measure iodised-salt intake, but the methods were suspected to be inaccurate. A new method, called a lithium-marker technique, has been considered as suitable and safe; hence ...
El-Ghawi U M - - 2006
Epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) has been used to determine the iodine content of many individual food materials that constitute the typical Libyan diet. The selected samples include different varieties of local and imported foods such as wheat and barley products, rice, bread, legumes such as chick peas and ...
Shiraishi Kunio - - 2006
Daily iodine intake in Ukrainian subjects of northwestern regions was estimated in relation to the health effects on inhabitants after the Chernobyl accident. Total diets were collected from 106 locations for children and adult males by a duplicate portion study. Iodine was rapidly determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ...
Nye Jonathon A - - 2006
A small-volume grid-supported niobium target was constructed for the production of [18F]-fluoride on a CTI RDS 112 cyclotron. The inert properties of niobium metal have proven compatible with the superheated environment generated during proton irradiation. A grid support, constructed from aluminum, provides the necessary heat removal for high-power irradiations. The ...
Cury J A - - 2005
A low-fluoride (F) dentifrice has been recommended to reduce the risk of dental fluorosis, but its anti-caries efficacy is questionable compared with that of conventional dentrifices (1000-1100 microg F/g). The tested hypothesis was that conventional dentifrices might be safe if used soon after meals, since food interferes with F absorption. ...
Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska A - - 2005
The purpose of the study was to determine effect of high sodium intake on fluid and electrolyte turnover and heart remodeling in the cardiac failure elicited by myocardial infarction (MI). The experiments were performed on four groups of Sprague Dawley rats maintained on food containing 0.45% NaCl and drinking either ...
Kaseva M E - - 2006
Excessive fluoride ingestion predominantly comes from drinking water sources. However, prevalence and severity of dental and skeletal fluorosis in northern Tanzania have been reported to be higher than would be expected from ingestion of fluoride through drinking water alone. This study aimed at investigating the contribution of "trona" (also locally ...
Hwang Sunny H - - 2005
The tooth enamel microstructure of all the dinosaur taxa that are adequately represented in the American Museum of Natural History collections were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. This study aims to determine whether or not better sampling within a major nonmammalian amniote (hereafter referred to descriptively as "reptile") clade will ...
Moynihan Paula - - 2005
Diet and nutrition impact on many oral diseases, in particular dental caries. Consumption of fluoridated water coupled with a reduction in non-milk extrinsic sugar intake is an effective means of caries prevention. However, studies on the fluoride concentration of bottled waters suggest increased consumption of these waters, in preference to ...
Suárez V B - - 2005
Six commercial phosphates were evaluated for inhibition of the growth of 17 molds isolated from food sources. The assays were performed at neutral and natural (without pH adjustment) pH values, and the molds were streaked on plate count agar with added phosphates. Phosphate concentrations of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and ...
Chandra Amar K - - 2005
In post salt iodization phase endemic goitre and associated iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) were found prevalent in a randomly selected rural area of Sundarban delta and its adjoining areas of West Bengal. The present investigation was thus undertaken to study the total goitre rate, urinary iodine and thiocyanate excretion pattern ...
Navarro Anderson Marilere - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the influence of intestinal malabsorption on iodine status in patients who had short gut syndrome and received total parenteral nutrition (group I) compared with control subjects who had eutrophia (group II) and patients who had other illnesses but normal digestive tracts (group III). METHODS: Twenty-seven subjects were ...
Tamaki Shinji - - 2005
We examined the interactions between lifestyle and polymorphisms of salt-sensitive genes and their effects on hypertension in a general Japanese sample (The Shigaraki Study). The study group consisted of 2,902 subjects who underwent a medical examination in 1999 in Shigaraki, a suburban area in Shiga. Among 1,647 subjects not receiving ...
Smith Shannon L - - 2006
This paper draws upon qualitative research conducted among older adults in the rural, southern United States in which they articulated their beliefs and experiences with nutrition and foods, and lay models of the connection of diet with chronic disease. Salt emerged as a focus of contention. The goals of the ...
Bentley Brooke - - 2005
BACKGROUND: A low sodium diet is a cornerstone of nonpharmacologic therapy for heart failure patients. Although nonadherence is common, little is known about why heart failure patients fail to adhere to this diet. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of heart failure patients in following ...
Brailsford S R - - 2005
To compare the effects of fluoride-containing and fluoride-free toothpaste on plaque microflora, 15 subjects were enrolled in a double-blind crossover trial. All subjects used a fluoride toothpaste for 7 days before the trial started. Then, 4 interproximal sites per subject were professionally cleaned and subjects used one of the toothpastes ...
van Loveren C - - 2005
In 101 fluoride toothpastes, bought in local shops in Burkina Faso (n = 3), China (n = 5), Myanmar (n = 22), Nepal (n = 19), Philippines (n = 13), Syria (n = 22), Togo (n = 7) and Vietnam (n = 10), the total and free ionisable fluoride concentrations ...
Watson P S - - 2005
Caries occurs at inaccessible stagnation sites where plaque removal is difficult. Here, the penetration through plaque of protective components, such as fluoride, is likely to be crucial in caries inhibition. We hypothesized that topically applied fluoride would readily penetrate such plaque deposits. In this study, plaque biofilms generated in vivo ...
Brauer V F H - - 2005
We determined the influence of different nutritional factors on the urinary iodine excretion in an East German university population. First, we assessed iodine excretion in spot urine samples. Second, we measured iodine content in the university canteen meals, where approximately 20% of the probands had regular meals. Third, we used ...
Hagiwara Rika - - 2005
A series of molten salts EMIm(HF)nF's with different n values has been synthesized by the reaction of EMImHF(2) and anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The salts contain EMIm cation and some oligomeric fluorohydrogenate anions, (HF)nF-, of which the fraction changes with the change of n. A phase diagram of EMIm(HF)nF's (n = ...
Buemi Michele - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is higher in patients on haemodialysis than in the general population. These patients may develop arrhythmias that depend on the extra- and intracellular concentrations of potassium. ECG findings, particularly the QT interval and its dispersion (QT(d)) and the QT(c) (QT interval corrected for ...
Gu Y W - - 2005
Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a class of bioactive cements that bond directly to bone. In this paper, a new bioactive hydroxyapatite (HA)/zirconia (ZrO(2))-filled GIC composite was developed to improve the biocompatibility and bioactivity of the GICs with the surrounding bone and connective tissues. Nano-sized HA/30 wt% ZrO(2) powders were ...
Andersen Stig - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Iodine intake in Greenland has been hypothesized to exceed 10 times the recommended amount. The transition from a traditional Arctic society may change the iodine intake, but no field studies have been performed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to ascertain iodine intakes, factors affecting iodine intake in circumpolar populations, and the ...
Saiyed Salim M - - 2005
The primary objective was to determine the aluminium (Al) content of selected foods and food products in the USA which contain Al as an approved food additive. Intake of Al from the labeled serving size of each food product was calculated. The samples were acid or base digested and analysed ...
Al-Qunaian Talal A - - 2005
This in vitro study evaluated whether the treatment of human enamel with whitening agents containing different concentrations of carbamide or hydrogen peroxide changes the susceptibility of enamel to caries. Twenty-four sound human incisors were selected for this study. For each tooth, the crown was sectioned into two halves in the ...
Ponduri S - - 2005
The aim of this study was to measure loss of dentine produced by soft drinks alone and combined with tooth brushing with and without toothpastes. Groups of flat human dentine specimens were exposed for 10 min and then 30 min to orange juice (OJ), carbonated cola (CC) or modified blackcurrant ...
Xiao Yanping - - 2005
Environmental friendly recycling is the trend toward total recycling of aluminium metal. In the secondary aluminium industry, due to the complexity of compositions and contaminants in the various types of aluminium scraps, an understanding of the behavior of different scraps during melting is crucial in the recycling process. Salt slags ...
Sun Xiang-wu - - 2005
The release process and influencing factors of bioactive iodine of kelp are systemically studied by leaching experiment. The results showed that the bioactive iodine of kelp can be released rapidly and the principal form of iodine in lixivium is I-. There is a dynamic process between the release and absorption ...
Yun Anthony J - - 2005
To optimize fitness under conditions of varying Darwinian opportunity, organisms demonstrate tremendous plasticity in their life-history strategies based on their perception of available resources. Higher-energy environments generally promote more aggressive life-history strategies, such as faster growth, larger adult size, greater genetic variation, shorter lifespan, larger brood sizes, and offspring ratio ...
Rać Monika Ewa - - 2005
The aim of this work was to determine the extent of bioaccumulation of sodium fluorides in tissues of snails under strictly controlled conditions, and also to determine resistance and tolerance to sodium fluoride load in these organisms. The study was performed on snails removed from aestivation. Quantitation of fluoride levels ...
Whitford Gary M GM Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912-1129, USA. - - 2005
The purpose of this review is to discuss new information regarding the relationship between the level of fluoride exposure and the corresponding fluoride concentrations in fingernail clippings. While there are several techniques available to extract fluoride from fingernails prior to analysis with the electrode, the HMDS-facilitated diffusion method is the ...
Trachsel Stefan S Laboratory and Development Department, Vereinigte Schweizerische Rheinsalinen (United Swiss Saltworks on the Rhine), Pratteln. - - 2005
Fluoridated food grade salt has been manufactured in Switzerland for 50 years. Since correct dosing is important not only for effective caries prophylaxis but also in order to guarantee food safety, the production of fluoridated salt must be accurately monitored. The authorities do not impose any specific requirements as regards ...
Ito Shigeki - - 2004
The presence of tritium in enriched [18O]water irradiated with 9.6 MeV protons used to produce [18F]fluoride by the 18O(p, n)18F reaction was inferred from the cross sections and threshold energies of the 18O(p, t)16O reaction, and the existence of tritium was confirmed experimentally. Tritium was also detected in both [18O]water ...
Goldman Mitchel P - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the composition of three available solutions of sodium tetradecyl sulfate from compounding pharmacies in comparison to pharmaceutical-grade sodium tetradecyl sulfate, Fibrovein (STD Pharmaceuticals, Ltd.). METHODS: Solutions of 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate were obtained from three compounding pharmacies. An analysis of their composition was performed. ...
Teas Jane - - 2004
Dietary seaweeds, common in Asia and in Asian restaurants, have become established as part of popular international cuisine. To understand the possibility for iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction better, we collected samples of the most common dietary seaweeds available from commercial sources in the United States, as well as harvester-provided samples from ...
Campus Guglielmo - - 2004
PURPOSE: To evaluate fluoride uptake in enamel after use of products containing different fluoride components of distinct oral hygiene regimen in vivo. METHODS: 84 healthy subjects (24 females and 60 males aged 19-26 years, mean 22.2) recruited from the students attending the courses of the Medical Faculty of the University ...
Bhargavi V - - 2004
The fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and phosphorus (P) content in potable water and food samples from endemic and nonendemic villages for fluorosis were analyzed. It was found that the F content in water was significantly higher (p<0.01) in endemic villages (4.20+/-1.6 ppm) than control ...
Caloiero Vincent G - - 2004
A number of procedures exist for the experimental induction of sodium appetite. With the exception of a low sodium diet, nearly all of these methods are invasive, requiring injections, surgery, or both. In addition to stimulating intake of concentrated salt, some of them produce substantial side-effects like reduced food intake ...
Walse Spencer S - - 2004
A multivariate kinetic model of aqueous fipronil photodegradation was developed as a function of dissolved organic matter (DOM), bicarbonate, and nitrate at concentrations that bracketthose commonly observed in natural waters (ca. 0-10 mg/L). Several pathways were available for fipronil photodegradation in this system, including direct photolysis and indirect photooxidation by ...
Dahl Lisbeth - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary iodine sources and to estimate the dietary iodine intake of the Norwegian population. DESIGN: Food iodine analyses carried out in Norway during the last 10 years were compiled, and iodine intake calculated on the basis of food intake data from nation-wide dietary surveys among children and ...
Engström Kristina - - 2004
The aim was to evaluate the effect of habitual consumption of fluoridated milk on the composition of the salivary microflora. The study group comprised 20 healthy schoolchildren and young adults with a mean age of 13.6 years and the investigation had a randomized double-blind crossover design with a washout period ...
Malde M K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the daily dietary fluoride intake in children living in two neighbouring villages in the Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, a rural part of the Ethiopian Rift Valley. METHODS: The villages depended on water from different sources: Village A used either river water ...
Ketley Clare E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To measure and compare 24-h urinary fluoride excretion in children aged 1.5-3.5 years from European study sites and to use these data to estimate the 24-h fluoride intake. METHOD: Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected from 3-year-old children (n = 86) who were already participating in a European multicentre study. ...
Marshall Teresa A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We describe associations between primary tooth fluorosis status and intakes of beverages and fluoride from these beverages during infancy. METHODS: Subjects (n = 677) are members of the Iowa Fluoride Study, a cohort of young children followed from birth. Food and nutrient intakes were obtained from 3-day diet records. ...
Arnadóttir Inga B - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to collate data on national policies for the use of fluoride in the seven European countries participating in the FLINT project. METHODS: Policies on the use of fluoride were obtained for each of the study areas. Data collected included the presence of water ...
Wiegand A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of abrasion resistance of eroded and non-eroded dentine brushed with experimental dentifrices and gels of varying buffering capacities. DESIGN: One hundred and twenty human dentine specimens were distributed among six groups (A-F) according to the different buffering capacities of experimental toothpastes and gels. The dentifrices (pH: 4.5) and ...
Buzalaf M A - - 2004
Total fluoride (TF) and HCl 0.01 M ('gastric juice')-soluble fluoride (SF) were analysed in infant foods, beverages and calcium-rich biscuits. Samples were divided into seven categories: children cereals (A), chocolate-flavoured milk (B), soy beverages (C), filled biscuits (D), non-filled biscuits (E), wafer biscuits (F) and corn starch biscuits (G). Mean ...
Rivard Andrew L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate) commonly is used in treating hyperkalemia. As a cation exchange resin, it also can be used to reduce the potassium content of enteral nutrition formulas. This study evaluates the use of Kayexalate to reduce potassium in one high-protein enteral formula and describes the quantitative analysis ...
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