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dela Cruz G G - - 2008
A biomarker for lifetime fluoride exposure would facilitate population-based research and policy making but currently does not exist. This study examined the suitability of primary tooth dentin as a biomarker by comparing dentin fluoride concentration and fluoride exposures. Ninety-nine children's exfoliated primary teeth were collected from 2 fluoridated and 2 ...
Sankararamakrishnan Nalini - - 2008
Nitrate-N and Fluoride concentrations were analyzed in shallow and unconfined ground water aquifers of Kanpur district along the Ganges Alluvial Plain of Northern India. Kanpur district was divided into three zones namely, Bithore, Kanpur City and Beyond Jajmau and sampling was carried out three seasons (summer, monsoon and winter). The ...
Vir Sheila C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In 2002, the percentage of households consuming iodized salt in the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) in India dropped to as low as 6%. This implied that 3.5 million newborns in this non-salt producing state, with 180 million population, were at risk of brain damage unless universal accessibility and ...
Maguire A - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to measure total intake, urinary excretion and estimated retention of fluoride in children under customary fluoride intake conditions, living in either fluoridated or low-fluoride areas of north-east England. Subsidiary aims were to investigate the relationships between the variables measured. METHODS: Using a randomized cluster design ...
Chandra Navin - - 2008
We present here a study of the sintering of fly ash and its mixture with low alkali pyrophyllite in the presence of sodium hexa meta phosphate (SHMP), a complex activator of sintering, for the purpose of wall tile manufacturing. The sintering of fly ash with SHMP in the temperature range ...
Kawano Yuhei - - 2007
Restriction of dietary salt is widely recommended in the management of hypertension, but assessment of individual salt intake has drawn little attention. The understanding of salt intake is important as a guide for optimizing salt-restriction strategies. However, precise evaluation of salt intake is difficult. More reliable methods are more difficult ...
Usuda Kan - - 2007
As fluoride has a very short half-life in the body and the major route for fluoride excretion is via the kidney, human exposure is best measured in urine, where the concentration is expected to be highest. The urinary fluoride concentrations of 167 healthy Japanese adults were determined by means of ...
Doko Jelinić Jagoda - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of modernization of aluminium production on reducing the chemical health hazards in the working environment in aluminium potrooms (smelter). Modernization included the introduction ofa technique of point feeding of alumina and aluminium fluoride into the pots, semi-automatic equipment and computerized control. METHODS: Periodical environmental measurements ...
Oksüztepe Gülsüm - - 2007
In this study, microbiological changes during processing and storage of salted-cured trout fillets treated with potassium sorbate were investigated. For this purpose, 10 and 15% (w/w) NaCl and 1, 5 and 10% (w/v) potassium sorbate were applied to the fillets. The processed fillets were vacuum-packed and storage at 4 degrees ...
Roura Elena - - 2007
Associations between cocoa consumption in humans, excreted metabolites and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) have been scarcely investigated. The aims of the study were to investigate the epicatechin (( - )-Ec) metabolites excreted in urine samples after an intake of 40 g of cocoa powder along with the TAC of these ...
Bernal Valeria - - 2007
This study evaluates the role of plant foods in the subsistence of hunter-gatherers that inhabited the Central East, Northwest, and Northeast Patagonia (Argentina) during the late Holocene (ca. 3,000-500 years BP). The goal of the present study is to assess the temporal variation of dental caries ratio and wear rate ...
Dickinson Barry D - - 2007
Across populations, the level of blood pressure, the incremental rise in blood pressure with age, and the prevalence of hypertension are directly related to sodium intake. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials document a consistent effect of sodium consumption on blood pressure. The majority of sodium consumption in the United ...
Pietinen Pirjo - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of choosing food products labelled either as low or high in salt on salt intake in the Finnish adult population. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The National FINDIET 2002 survey with 48-hour recalls from 2007 subjects aged 25-64 years. Sodium intake was calculated based on the Fineli ...
Valentine Verle - - 2007
Salt consists of sodium and chloride, and is important for normal physiologic function. High sweat rates in athletes result in loss of both fluids and sodium. Fluid replacement with hypotonic solutions will lead to incomplete rehydration and possible complications such as hyponatremia, decreased performance, heat cramps, or other heat-related illness. ...
Rasmussen Lone B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. DESIGN: The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The increase in iodine intake ...
Sunwold Duane - - 2007
One of the challenges with renal diets is how to make flavorful food while maintaining the low sodium restrictions. I have found three spice companies that have created seasoning mixtures using a mixture of herbs that do not add sodium or potassium chloride in their flavors. The recipe Ginger Roasted ...
Lung Shih-Chun Candice - - 2008
Tea is the second most commonly consumed drink in the world. Excess fluoride intakes from tea drinks may cause health effects. This work assesses infusible fluoride levels in popular tea sold in Taiwan and evaluates potential exposure factors. Lungjing, pouchong, tienguanyin, oolong, pureh, and black tea specimens were purchased from ...
Bhuridej Patita - - 2007
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of toothbrush size and dentifrice type/brand on amounts of dentifrice being placed when trying to replicate pictures with different amounts of dentifrice, including a pea-sized amount. METHODS: This laboratory trial used one researcher to repeatedly dispense five dentifrice products on three different child-sized toothbrushes using ...
Wang Xiaoyong - - 2007
The composition and rheological properties of beta-lactoglobulin/pectin coacervates have shown significant correlations with sodium chloride concentration (C(NaCl)) and initial protein/polysaccharide ratio (r). An increase of C(NaCl) from 0.01 to 0.21 M at r = 5:1 leads to the increase in both beta-lactoglobulin and pectin contents in the coacervates, which can ...
White Donald J - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: A repeated measures digital imaging technique (Digital Plaque Image Analysis-DPIA) was used to assess the antiplaque effectiveness of a 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrice. METHODOLOGY: Subjects were qualified to enter the study based upon a previous assessment of dental plaque accumulation while brushing with a standard (non-antimicrobial) fluoridated dentifrice. Fourteen ...
Meyer-Lueckel H - - 2007
After the consumption of food items prepared with fluoridated salt elevated fluoride concentrations can be observed in saliva, whereby enamel mineralization is supposed to be positively affected. The aim of this double-blind (with respect to fluoride), placebo-controlled, randomized, cross-over study was to evaluate the effects of the consumption of either ...
Kim Hyun Ju - - 2007
High sodium intake is considered to be the major risk factor for hypertension but studies about sodium intake on prevention and management of hypertension is limited due to the difficulties in assessment of sodium intake. Dietary sodium comes not only from naturally occurring sodium in foods but also from the ...
Stimec Matevz - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Slovenia is classified as being iodine-deficient. We recently found that Slovenian adolescents are iodine-sufficient (median urinary iodine concentration of the population 140 microg/l) and the prevalence of goiter is low (0.9%). The objective of this study was to evaluate iodine intake, the prevalence of marginal, low and excessive intake ...
Voigt G - - 2007
For testing the potential use of stable iodine as a countermeasure to reduce radioiodine transfer to milk, concentrations of stable iodine and radioiodine in the milk of dairy cows fed different amounts of stable iodine were measured. The results indicated that, compared to a normal average stable iodine intake of ...
Marshall Teresa A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Relationships among sugars and dental caries in contemporary societies are unclear. The authors describe young children's intakes of nonmilk extrinsic (NME) and intrinsic/milk sugars and relate those intakes to dental caries. METHODS: The authors conducted cross-sectional analyses of dietary data collected from the Iowa Fluoride Study using three-day diaries ...
Uritski Anna - - 2006
Time-resolved emission was used to measure the photoprotolytic cycle of an excited photoacid as a function of temperature, both in liquid water and in ice, in the presence of an inert salt. The inert salt affects the geminate recombination between the transferred proton with the conjugate base of the photoacid. ...
Lim K K - - 2006
This is a cross-sectional study conducted from January to September 2004 in a group of school children aged 8 -10 years old. The schools and study subjects were selected using stratified systematic sampling technique. A total of 44 schools and 1100 subjects were selected from schools with iodinator and schools ...
Tracy C Richard - - 2006
Many of the threats to the persistence of populations of sensitive species have physiological or pathological mechanisms, and those mechanisms are best understood through the inherently integrative discipline of physiological ecology. The desert tortoise was listed under the Endangered Species Act largely due to a newly recognized upper respiratory disease ...
Bellizzi V - - 2007
Blood pressure (BP) is hardly controlled in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared the effect of very low protein diet (VLPD) supplemented with ketoanalogs of essential amino acids (0.35 g/kg/day), low protein diet (LPD, 0.60 g/kg/day), and free diet (FD) on BP in patients with CKD stages 4 and 5. ...
Misra S K - - 2006
Worldwide, fluoride occurs naturally in some aquifers at concentrations above the WHO guideline values or Bureau of Indian Standards or CPHEEO - MUD - GOI parametric values. Fluoride in excess of the permissible limits in drinking water causes a number of endemic conditions referred to collectively as "fluorosis". Endemic fluorosis ...
Nishimuta Mamoru - - 2006
The effects of orally ingesting 500 mL of four kinds of test solutions that were isotonic to physiological saline (i.e., containing sodium (Na) and potassium (K) as chloride with Na/K molar ratios of 1, 2, 3 and 4) on urine flow, Na and K excretions from Japanese male students were ...
Jaffery Jonathan B - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate conflicts that patients face when advised to limit multiple nutrients in their diet. DESIGN: We analyzed the phosphorus content of low-sodium foods compared with their regular-sodium content counterparts, and the sodium content of low-phosphorus foods compared with foods containing higher levels of phosphorus. Low-sodium and low-phosphorus foods ...
Türkoğlu Sifa - - 2007
The effects of the food preservatives sodium benzoate (SB), boric acid (BA), citric acid (CA), potassium citrate (PC) and sodium citrate (SC) have been studied on root tips of Allium cepa L. Roots of A. cepa were treated with a series of concentrations, ranging from 20 to 100 ppm for ...
Rothman Jessica M - - 2006
Like several other non-human primates, mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda consume decaying wood, an interesting but puzzling behaviour. This wood has little obvious nutritional value; it is low in protein and sugar, and high in lignin compared to other foods. We collected pieces of ...
Chandra Amar K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the iodine nutritional status of school children in selected areas of Imphal West District of Manipur where endemic goitre and associated iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are prevalent in the post-salt iodization period. METHODS: A total of 961 school children in the age group 6-12 yrs of both ...
Hong Liang - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Several studies have focused on the timing of fluoride intake relative to the development of dental fluorosis. This study reports the relationships of fluoride intake during the first 48 months of life with fluorosis on early-erupting permanent teeth. METHODS: Subjects were followed from birth to 48 months with questionnaires ...
Stapleton Paul D - - 2006
Staphylococcus aureus grows in the presence of high-salt concentrations. The green tea polyphenolic compound epicatechin gallate (ECg) extended the staphylococcal lag phase to values greater than 6 h in the presence of NaCl, KCl and LiCl; this effect was not observed with epicatechin. Osmoprotectants glycine betaine and l-proline were unable ...
De Groef Bert - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Perchlorate is a known competitive inhibitor of the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS). Possible thyroid-related effects of environmental perchlorate have created great health concerns, especially in the US, resulting in a debated reference dose (RfD) of 0.0007 mg/kg per day in drinking water recommended by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). ...
Chuang S H - - 2006
This study investigated the feasibility of improving the removal of anions from a secondary effluent by coagulation/flocculation (Coag/Floc) and dissolved air flotation (DAF) using a pilot-scale wastewater reclamation plant in a high-tech industrial park. The pilot plant was equipped with units of Coag/Floc, DAF, activated carbon beds (AC), microfiltration modules ...
Kapil Umesh - - 2006
Iodine deficiency disorders are an important public health problem in India. It is wrongly believed that populations residing in coastal areas do not suffer from iodine deficiency as they consume sea foods which are rich in iodine. A high prevalence of iodine deficiency has been reported in 11 districts of ...
Malik Yashpal S - - 2006
Norovirus-associated foodborne outbreaks have become a major public health concern all over the world. Food service establishments are always looking for disinfectants and sanitizers that are effective against various microbes but are non-corrosive and non-toxic to food and food contact surfaces. The efficacy of sodium bicarbonate against certain bacteria and ...
Remer Thomas - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Because worldwide iodine status (IS) depends on continuous fortification, the adequacy of IS needs to be regularly monitored. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to evaluate IS in a longitudinal sample of healthy schoolchildren who regularly used table salt iodized with 20 microg I/g. DESIGN: Urine osmolality (Uosm) and 24-h urinary ...
Kollipara Usha K - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Sodium restriction is important in the management of heart failure (HF). Although many low-sodium educational resources are available, few are directed specifically at urban African Americans. METHODS AND RESULTS: A registered dietitian prospectively interviewed 50 African-American and 25 white patients in an urban public hospital (derivation cohort) in Dallas, ...
Cao Jin - - 2006
In order to determine the fluoride content of various products of black tea and to make safety evaluations, 37 commodities in the different manufactured forms of tea were assessed by means of ion-selective electrode and spectrophotometric methods. The results showed wide differences in fluoride levels. The fluoride content was found ...
Attin Thomas - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of carbamide peroxide (CP) on enamel fluoride uptake by comparing enamel fluoride uptake from a 1% amine fluoride (AmF) gel with the fluoride acquisition from a 10% carbamide peroxide agent supplemented with 1% AmF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three enamel cylinders ...
Seal Andrew J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the iodine status of long-term refugees dependent on international food aid and humanitarian assistance. DESIGN: A series of cross-sectional two-stage cluster or systematic random sample surveys which assessed urinary iodine excretion and the prevalence of visible goitre. Salt samples were also collected and tested for iodine content ...
Huang Her-Hsiung - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The surface topography can affect the friction behavior between an orthodontic wire and brackets during clinical applications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a fluoride-containing environment on the surface topography variations of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) orthodontic archwires. METHODS: Four different NiTi commercial orthodontic archwires ...
Gilbey Andrew - - 2006
This study examined whether members of the general public were able to accurately interpret the nutritional information regarding salt on the packaging of food products. 226 participants answered brief questions about their salt intake awareness and were asked to estimate the salt content of a food product, using the nutritional ...
Zohouri Fatemeh V - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Due to increased consumption of pre-packaged drinks, tap water may no longer be the principal source of water intake and consequently fluoride intake. Little is known about the importance of solid foods as fluoride sources and how the relative contribution of foods/drinks to fluoride intake is affected by residing ...
Buzalaf Mar??lia Afonso Rabelo - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the fluoride (F) concentrations in whole, defatted and chocolate milks commercially available in Brazil and to estimate the daily F intake from these sources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: F concentrations were determined for 23 brands of milks, after HMDS-facilitated diffusion, using ...
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