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Results 451 - 500 of 681
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DeSchepper E J - - 1991
This study compared the amounts and patterns of fluoride release from 11 commercially available glass-ionomer cements into artificial saliva over an 84-day period. The results indicated that the materials differed in the amount of fluoride released, and that Miracle Mix released the highest cumulative total of fluoride over the test ...
Leclercq C - - 1991
Total and domestic (discretionary) consumption of salt was assessed in a sample of 91 households, which were randomly selected in three areas of Italy characterized by different dietary habits. Total salt intake was estimated by the mean urinary sodium in four 24 h collections. Discretionary salt, added during the preparation ...
Hörsted-Bindslev P - - 1991
Fluoride was extracted from 0.3 ml samples of five different light cured lining materials. From two brands, fluoride concentrations ranging from 5 to 10 ppm were quickly established and maintained. From three other brands only very small amounts of fluoride were released. The fluoride released was related to the possible ...
Hegsted D M - - 1991
Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence links excessive salt consumption to hypertension; there appears to be no evidence that it is beneficial. I conclude that it should be public policy to advise and help Americans to reduce their salt intake. Because even mild hypertension increases risk, the overall problem does not ...
Caruana R J - - 1991
We performed a controlled parallel study comparing the effects of heparin sodium to epoprostenol sodium (prostacyclin sodium, Flolan) during hemodialysis in 30 dialysis patients. Mean fiber bundle volume loss and dialyzer function were similar with both anticoagulation methods. Intradialytic symptoms occurred in 100% of the epoprostenol dialyses and 88% of ...
Elmer P J - - 1991
Nutritional-nonpharmacological approaches for the treatment and prevention of hypertension are of great interest. Sodium reduction is one of the primary methods recommended for these purposes. The general public is interested in the reduction of dietary sodium intake and has responded with a decrease in table salt use, the purchase of ...
Girolami J P - - 1991
Urinary kallikrein excretion (UKE) was measured in 20 patients before and after hemodialysis (HD). When compared to the values of normal subjects (136 +/- 56 micrograms/24 h, n = 100), UKE was decreased in all patients before HD (6.6 +/- 5.8 micrograms/24 h, p less than 0.001, n = 20). ...
Kumanyika S - - 1991
This article addresses general and specific aspects of dietary sodium interventions from the perspective of behavioral change. Changing dietary behavior requires relearning a range of habitual behaviors involved in day-to-day eating situations in the context of a diverse and complex food supply and in consideration of numerous factors, other than ...
Sakata S - - 1990
The high level of Japanese salt intake, which has been the major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and hypertension, has decreased since World War II, and reached a steady level. In the present study, the dietary salt intake in Tohoku (once the district of highest sodium intake) and that in ...
Teramoto K - - 1990
Ordinary hospital meals for adults were simultaneously measured for Na and Cl by neutron activation analysis (NAA). Results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Daily Na intake was estimated to be 4 to 8 g, corresponding to 11 to 18 g of salt. Daily Cl intake was estimated to be ...
Mohr C D - - 1990
The role of several regulatory elements in environmental modulation of mucoidy in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied. Transcriptional activation of algD, necessary for the mucoid phenotype, was found to depend on FUS, the newly identified far-upstream sites of the algD promoter. The FUS were delimited to a region spanning nucleotides -432 ...
Baird A N - - 1990
Sixteen horses were allotted to 4 groups of 4 horses each to evaluate the effect of tendon sheath lavage with 4 solutions (balanced electrolyte solution, 0.1% povidone-iodine, 0.5% povidone-iodine, and 0.5% chlorhexidine). The synovitis caused by 0.1% povidone-iodine lavage was not appreciably worse than that caused by balanced electrolyte solution ...
Schellenberg D - - 1990
A 10-y history of high rates of perinatal deaths and congenital anomalies in dogs in a Shetland Sheepdog kennel prompted investigations into the cause(s). Skeletal fluorosis (mottled teeth in pups, bony exostoses in adults) followed use of a commercial dog food later found to contain 460 ppm fluoride (F) from ...
Rugg-Gunn A J - - 1990
Diet can affect teeth both during their formation (pre-eruptively) and locally in the mouth (post-eruptively). Several dietary factors have been considered to act pre-eruptively, affecting the caries-susceptibility of the forming tooth, but only fluoride has been shown to have any distinct effect. The post-eruptive influence of diet is very much ...
Shulman E R - - 1990
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of milk and solid foods on fluoride absorption. Ten adult volunteers received the following four treatments after being NPO for 8 hr: 1) 2.2 mg NaF, 2) 2.2 mg NaF and lunch, 3) 2.2 mg NaF and milk, and 4) ...
Atherton J C - - 1990
In summary, our experiments clearly demonstrate that lithium reabsorption occurs by frusemide- and bumetanide-sensitive reabsorption, but we have failed to identify the mechanism(s) responsible for the lower CLi and FELi in salt-depletion. It is possible that some, as yet unknown, factor increases the activity of the Na, K, 2Cl cotransporter ...
Roberts S B - - 1990
A new method is described for simultaneously monitoring compliance with prescribed-diet and urine-collection regimens during metabolic balance studies. It involves incorporation of the potassium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) into provided foods and measurement of its extent of recovery in urine. A validation study was conducted in 10 healthy adults. ...
Murphy J K - - 1990
Our data indicated that self-reports of consumption of salty foods by children and adolescents were associated with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Specifically, youths 10 to 18 years of age who selected a poster depicting high-sodium foods excreted significantly more sodium than youths who selected a poster depicting low-sodium foods. Future ...
Wackym P A - - 1990
Since much evidence suggests that the endolymphatic sac is responsible for endolymph resorption, and that the endolymphatic sac lateral intercellular spaces which are lined by the energy-dependent transport complex NA+,K(+)-ATPase are important in this process, we sought to evaluate the effects of dietary salt and a food extract that inhibits ...
Savarino V - - 1990
This study was undertaken to evaluate whether intrigastric pH measurements and bile salt concentrations show synchronous fluctuations, in both postprandial and fasting states. It was performed on 5 normal volunteers and 17 non-operated patients suspected of having duodenogastric reflux. In controls the two variables showed different behaviour, especially after eating, ...
Ripa L W - - 1990
Application of fluoride solutions, gels, varnishes, and prophylaxis pastes is reviewed as well as the sequential APF/SnF2 office-rinse method. The most widely-used technique is with 1.23% APF gel (12,300 ppm F) in trays. Clinical results from this method are similar to those achieved with an APF solution of the same ...
Marthaler T M - - 1990
There is ample evidence documenting that simultaneous use of several fluoride application techniques results in an enhanced cariostatic effect. A formula is presented which estimates the combined cariostatic efficacy of such multiple usage. For simultaneously applied topical fluorides, the formula seems to overestimate the combined efficacy. Both higher frequency of ...
Everhardt E - - 1990
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of vaginal douching with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) upon cervical mucus viscoelasticity and sperm penetration in vitro and in vivo. Twenty-five couples with primary infertility for greater than 12 months participated in the study. The selection criteria were: (i) semen quality ...
Mellberg J R - - 1990
For practical reasons, evaluation of topical fluoride products must depend upon clinical and laboratory assessments. While not always a good predictor of clinical efficacy by itself, fluoride uptake is the most commonly used laboratory test. A consideration of the relationship between possible anticaries mechanisms of fluoride, different product types, and ...
Ostela I - - 1990
The in vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus and Lactobacillus casei to dental gels containing various combinations of amine fluoride (AmF 297), stannous fluoride (SnF2), and chlorhexidine (CHX) was studied. The combination of AmF-SnF2 with a total fluoride content of 1.2% was the most effective against mutans streptococci but ...
Goetz K L - - 1990
Although much experimental evidence is consistent with the concept that atrial natriuretic factor (atriopeptin) is an important physiological regulator of renal sodium excretion, this hypothesis remains unproven. Indeed, a rapidly expanding collection of experimental data appears to be more compatible with the opposite conclusion, namely that circulating atriopeptin exerts only ...
Smith R E - - 1990
1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D3 (D3) and sodium fluoride (NaF) were given to chicken embryos and newly hatched chickens infected with a slow onset strain of avian osteopetrosis-inducing virus [MAV-2(O)] to determine if either agent influenced MAV-2(O)-induced proliferation of bone. Embryos were administered MAV-2(O) and treated with: 1) up to 240 micrograms ...
Mao I F - - 1990
The relation between the sweat iodine loss and the urinary iodine excretion was studied on 13 physically active male athletes. There were no statistical differences between the sweat iodine concentrations before and after high iodine food intake, no difference between those before and after 1-h strenuous exercise, or no difference ...
Drummond B K - - 1990
Eight adults ingested five different toothpastes with and without 1,000 ppm (1 microgram/g) fluoride added as NaF or Na2PO3F. The systemic fluoride absorption was estimated by by comparing the areas under salivary fluoride concentration curves produced after the toothpaste ingestion. Of the toothpastes investigated--chalk, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, silica or alumina ...
Edwards D G - - 1989
The amounts of sodium in the average UK diet and the proportions of naturally occurring and added sodium in foods were calculated for the years 1984, 1985, 1986 and 1987. The results for total sodium intake from foods were in close agreement with other published sources and the breakdown of ...
Khin-Maung-Naing - - 1989
The prevalence and aetiology of lowland endemic goitre was studied in Bawlle Village, Htan-ta-bin Township, Rangoon Division. The total goitre rate was found to be 40.9 per cent. Low urinary iodine excretion and high 24-h uptake of 131I by the thyroids of the subjects indicated iodine deficiency which was further ...
Yancey P H - - 1989
Sorbitol, glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC), inositol, and betaine are organic osmolytes that accumulate in renal medullary cells. Two roles have been proposed for them: 1) that all four are "compatible osmolytes" that help regulate cell volume without disturbing function, and 2) that the methylamines (GPC and betaine) are "counteracting osmolytes," i.e., stabilizers ...
Page B D - - 1989
Methyl bromide (MB, bromomethane) is determined in a variety of foods by headspace capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The comminuted food sample as an aqueous sodium sulfate slurry is equilibrated with stirring for 1 h at room temperature before a 1 mL headspace aliquot is removed and injected ...
Bearn J - - 1989
Urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (alpha MT6s) excretion was measured after one day and one, two and three weeks of desipramine treatment in eight depressed patients. There was significant increase in the urinary excretion of alpha MT6s after one week of treatment, and at no time was there any decrease in alpha MT6s ...
Kendrick K M - - 1989
Single-unit recordings were made from neurones in the zona incerta (ZI) of conscious sheep in response to the sight/visual approach or ingestion of various foods, salts and water. Animals were given parotid fistulae so that effects of sodium appetite, induced by not replacing the sodium lost in the saliva, could ...
Ahern D A - - 1989
As Americans attempt to reduce sodium consumption, demand for alternatives to ordinary table salt is increasing. Some of the products now marketed as replacements have substantial levels of sodium chloride. They may, however, also provide potentially beneficial electrolytes, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium. This report reviews the role of ...
Joyce P F - - 1989
A prospective double-blind, randomized study was undertaken to compare the diagnostic accuracy of, and patient tolerance to, sodium meglumine ioxaglate 320 (Hexabrix 320) and sodium meglumine ioxaglate 250 (Hexabrix 250) in aortoperipheral arteriography. There was no significant difference in the incidence or severity of side effects, or radiographic diagnostic quality. ...
White D J - - 1989
Fluoride uptake from anticalculus dentifrices containing combinations of sodium fluoride and variable doses of soluble pyrophosphate has been evaluated in an in vitro fluoride uptake model. Artificial carious lesions were treated for 30 minutes in 25% w/w saliva slurries of dentifrices. Fluoride uptake into the partially demineralized enamel was assessed ...
Oosting E - - 1989
In this study, we have determined and correlated the excretion of the 2 most important histamine metabolites, N tau-methylhistamine and N tau-methylimidazoleacetic acid, in 24-hour urine and morning urine samples of 14 normal healthy persons. We found no significant difference between morning urine and 24-hour urine samples, provided that the ...
Ho S - - 1989
Extracted teeth with intact crowns were stained to compare and evaluate the effectiveness of four bleaching agent combinations. Forty-two permanent and 12 deciduous teeth were used. The bleaching agents were placed into coronal pulp chambers and then evaluated and rated at 1-, 3-, 7-, and 14-day and 6-month intervals. New ...
Schraufnagel D E - - 1989
Scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts is an important tool for the study of microvascular structure but few systematic studies on methods of specimen preparation have been reported. This study sought to determine the relative importance of factors involved in corrosion. It compared potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and water as ...
Vermiglio F - - 1989
The prevalence of goiter among schoolchildren and the daily urinary iodine excretion in the general population were evaluated in 4 municipalities in the endemic goiter area in Northeastern Sicily in two different surveys. The first, carried out in 1977-1978, covered 2,493 (91%) schoolchildren; the second, in 1987-1988, covered 2,167 (92%) ...
Sidi A D - - 1989
A within-subject cross-over study was carried out to examine whether brushing with fluoride toothpastes would alter the composition of approximal plaque. Approximal plaque was collected from 22 subjects following brushing with toothpastes containing sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate with calcium glycerophosphate and a fluoride-free control toothpaste. Concentrations of plaque calcium, ...
Latifah R - - 1989
The level of fluoride in milk samples of a group of Malaysian mothers residing in a fluoridated area (0.7 ppm) was analyzed using a fluoride electrode. All the mothers were residents in the locality for at least a year and they were screened for drugs and fluoride supplements. The concentration ...
Seppä L - - 1989
Fluoride is currently conceived as acting for the most part topically, reducing dissolution and enhancing remineralization of the enamel. The introduction of small amounts of fluoride into the mouth as often as possible is therefore important. Regular use of fluoride toothpastes is the most practicable way of maintaining elevated fluoride ...
Delange F - - 1989
Recent data on iodine excretion in the urine of adults, adolescents and newborns and on the iodine content of breast milk indicate a high prevalence of iodine deficiency (moderate in many cases and severe in a few) in many European countries. These cases may manifest as subclinical hypothyroidism in neonates ...
Dijkman T G - - 1988
In this paper the role and importance of 'CaF2-like' material deposited on enamel (Fon) by means of an APF gel and the varnishes Duraphat and Fluor Protector are described and discussed. The amount of Fon, determined by KOH extraction, is a measure of the amount of CaF2-like material on the ...
Denton D - - 1988
BALB/c mice exhibited a small hedonic intake of 0.3 M NaCl, which was not influenced by change from high to low salt diet or by withholding access to NaCl solution for 1 day. Sodium deficiency produced by furosemide injection consistently caused a highly significant increase in sodium intake. Sodium deficiency ...
Chen S L - - 1988
To estimate the appropriate tolerance limit of fluoride in food in China, fluoride-related endemic diseases, background levels of fluoride in foods, and daily total intake of fluoride per capita were studied in addition to the subchronic toxicity test of fluoride in rats. In the general population, the daily total intake ...
Zervanos S M - - 1988
Several morphological characteristics of the kidney were studied to determine the degree of acclimatization that may occur in three groups of feral hogs raised under different environmental conditions. Two groups of hogs were living in the wild, while another was raised in captivity for three generations and was directly descended ...
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