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Results 401 - 450 of 684
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Gray J P - - 1999
The histerid beetle Carcinops pumilio (Erichson) occurs naturally in poultry house manure and is an important predator of house fly eggs and larvae. Because efforts to commercially produce C. pumilio have been unsuccessful, one fly control strategy under consideration is the direct transport of adult C. pumilio between poultry houses ...
Peng H - - 1999
We previously reported an accelerated method to detect salmonellae in foods. It consisted of a preenrichment step (6 h) followed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and automated detection, based on positive biochemical characteristics, during overnight incubation. We describe here a simplified procedure with a detection limit of 2 CFU/25 g of ...
Cogan T A - - 1999
Thirteen sites in each of 60 domestic kitchens were examined for Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. following the preparation of a chicken for cooking and the application of different hygiene regimes. During food preparation bacteria became widely disseminated to hand and food contact surfaces. Where cleaning was carried out with detergent ...
Lin J S - - 1999
Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most important Salmonella serovars that may cause foodborne disease and human salmonellosis infection. Detection of this organism in the clinical samples of persons with gastroenteritis and the food samples associated with such persons may allow us to trace the cause of disease. Because malic ...
Gooding C M - - 1999
Salmonella is the leading cause of food-borne diarrhoeas in the US. In recent years polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become the method of choice for rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonellae in contaminated foods. As a result, several different primer sets have been reported for use in PCR-based assay systems. ...
Young C R - - 1999
Colonization of the ceca and organ invasion by different isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were investigated in day-of-hatch leghorn chicks. This model of Campylobacter colonization of the ceca demonstrates that 1) day-of-hatch birds do not naturally contain cecal Campylobacter, 2) ceca can be colonized with C. jejuni by oral gavage and ...
Waage A S - - 1999
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with two nested pairs of primers selected from conserved sequences within a 2.3 kb randomly cloned DNA fragment from the Salmonella typhimurium chromosome was developed. The nested PCR assay correctly identified 128 of a total of 129 Salmonella strains belonging to subspecies I, II, ...
Jahraus C D - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Numerous residents of Shelby County, Alabama, were infected with Salmonella when a restaurant unknowingly served food tainted with the bacterium. Because of the similarity in symptoms caused by other gastrointestinal pathogens and the variability in time of presentation, an outbreak such as this could be confused with one of ...
Rajkowski K T - - 1999
Selective plating media are used for the enumeration and isolation of bacterial pathogens from food and water samples. This study compared the quantitative recovery of Salmonella spp. and Vibrio cholerae grown in nutrient-limited, filter-sterilized, reconditioned wastewater over the temperature range of 4 to 45 degrees C using nonselective and pathogen-specific ...
Tan W - - 1999
An automated method to detect salmonellae in foods was developed and tested in food samples intentionally contaminated with the test organisms. Liquid eggs, shell eggs, dry eggs, skim milk and chicken were spiked with Salmonella enteritidis, S. typhimurium or S. newport to yield 2 to 25 CFU per 25 g ...
Johnson L G - - 1999
The microaerophilic bacterium Arcobacter has received increasing attention in recent years regarding its presence in food products. There exist a limited number of methods for the detection of this microorganism, with currently available methods being cumbersome to perform, time consuming, and limited in specificity. The objective of this study was ...
Little C - - 1999
Halal butchers' premises were investigated as they had not been represented in a recent study of butchery products and butchers' premises conducted by the Local Authorities Coordinating Body on Food and Trading Standards and the PHLS. This study examined 183 raw prepared meats and 212 environmental samples from 105 halal ...
Hughes D - - 1999
A collaborative study was conducted to compare a new enrichment procedure for the TECRA Salmonella Visual Immunoassay with the reference method given in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM 7th Ed.). Three food types (milk powder, black pepper, and soy flour) were analyzed in Australia, and ...
Rose N - - 1999
Broiler-chicken are often Salmonella carriers. However, these bacteria are responsible for major food-borne human infection, in which poultry-meat products are frequently implicated. In order to prevent Salmonella spread during the slaughtering process, control measures should be implemented at the farm level to reduce the prevalence before slaughtering. The objective of ...
Obiri-Danso K - - 1999
Until recently, sewage from Morecambe was macerated, but otherwise untreated, and discharged at high water via a short outfall pipe into Morecambe Bay adjacent to a recognized bathing water. In March 1997, a new biological sewage treatment plant came on-line and the effluent was discharged via a longer outfall pipe ...
Ono K - - 1999
To determine the source of food contamination with Campylobacter jejuni, we investigated retail meat, a chicken processing plant and a broiler farm. C. jejuni was found in domestic retailed poultry (45.8%) and imported poultry (3.7%), but not in beef or pork. In the poultry processing plant, there is significant contamination ...
Osano O - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the level of contamination with C. jejuni of raw chicken and beef meats sold in Nairobi and to assess their potential as sources of campylobacter infections to man. DESIGN: Dressed chicken and beef meat samples were randomly sourced from butcheries, markets and supermarkets in various parts of ...
Thompson J M - - 1999
In Salmonella Typhimurium, the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS regulates the expression of genes associated with adaptation, survival, and virulence. Expression of rpoS is known to be under environmental control and yet, to date, there have been no studies that assess the expression of this global regulator in real food ...
Grein T - - 1999
An outbreak of gastrointestinal illness among 127 persons attending a wedding reception in Dublin was investigated. One hundred and fifteen wedding guests were interviewed and information obtained about demographic and clinical characteristics, and food consumed at the reception. Faecal samples from ill guests were submitted for microbiological examination and environmental ...
Hammack T S - - 1999
The relative effectiveness of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium, selenite cystine (SC) broth, and tetrathionate (TT) broth for the recovery of Salmonella spp. from foods with a low microbial load was determined. RV medium made from its individual ingredients and incubated at 42 degrees C was compared with a commercial preparation of ...
Barnhart E T - - 1999
The broiler crop has recently been implicated as a major source of Salmonella contamination at commercial processing. Furthermore, feed withdrawal has been positively correlated with increased Salmonella incidence in the crop, probably due to coprophagy. In the present study, a rapid screening assay was developed to evaluate several potential disinfectants ...
Hao Y Y - - 1999
This study was conducted to investigate the potential hazard of Salmonella Enteritidis surviving during the preparation and baking of cheesecake. Batters prepared with standard- and reduced-fat ingredients were inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of S. Enteritidis (10 and 10(6) CFU/g) and were then baked according to a typical cheesecake recipe. ...
Letellier A - - 1999
The prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica in finishing swine was evaluated using samples of cecal material. Samples were taken at six different slaughterhouses from 1420 healthy, 5-month-old pigs, raised by 223 producers in Quebec (1009 samples), Ontario (283), and Manitoba, Canada (128). Two different broth media (Rappaport-Vassiliadis and ...
Schutze G E - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of foods and the home environment in the development of Salmonella infections in infants and children. METHODS: Home investigations were conducted of patients younger than 4 years of age infected with Salmonella. Cultures were obtained from foods, persons residing in the home, animals/pets/insects, and environmental ...
Levre E - - 1998
Sixty meat loaves were experimentally infected with a strain of Salmonella serovar mbandaka to give approximately 10(7) cells/g. Thirty contaminated loaves were cooked in a microwave oven for 4 min, and 30 other samples for 3 min 30 s, both followed by a standing time of 2 min. No viable ...
Lee A - - 1998
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of food poisoning in humans. C. jejuni is also widespread in food animals, and meat and meat products derived from food animals are the most common vector of bacterial transmission to humans. To determine the role of packing and storage conditions on ...
Kapperud G - - 1998
The epidemiological progression of human salmonellosis in Norway is parallel to trends noted elsewhere in Europe. During the past two decades, the number of reported cases has increased steadily, with a special sharp rise in the early 1980s due to the emergence of Salmonella enteritidis, followed by a levelling off ...
Shaw S J - - 1998
The immunomagnetic separation Dynabeads anti-Salmonella technique was evaluated for the detection of Salmonella species in a variety of foods, feeds, and environmental samples. Salmonella cells in preenrichment broths were captured using the Dynabeads anti-Salmonella system and were then washed and plated on indicator media. A total of 308 naturally contaminated ...
Waterman S R - - 1998
Gastric acidity is recognized as the first line of defense against food-borne pathogens, and the ability of pathogens to resist this pH corresponds to their oral infective dose (ID). Naturally occurring and genetically engineered acid-sensitive enteric pathogens were examined for their ability to survive under acidic conditions of pH 2.5 ...
Cocolin L - - 1998
A primer set of oligonucleotides (Salm 3 and Salm 4) from the invA gene of Salmonellae has been evaluated for the specific detection of Salmonella spp. by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This primer set amplified 33 Salmonella serovars but did not amplify 16 non-Salmonella bacteria. Moreover, after PCR amplification, ...
Blais B W - - 1998
A simple dot blot enzyme immunoassay was developed to screen enrichment broth cultures for the presence of Salmonella. This unique system utilizes macroporous polyester cloth (Polymacron) with an inexpensive hemoglobin coating to provide a high-affinity adsorbent for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigens in test samples. Bound LPS antigens are then detected using ...
Pennycott T W - - 1998
The provision of supplementary food for wild birds in gardens during the winter months is common in the UK, but it is possible that it may precipitate infectious diseases in the birds. This paper describes the results of postmortem examinations of 116 wild finches carried out over a period of ...
Christensen J - - 1998
In the nation-wide Salmonella Control Program in Denmark, the occurrence of Salmonella enterica in pork, pigs at slaughter and herds is monitored. The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate changes in sero-prevalence of meat juice samples and in the occurrence of Salmonella enterica in pork in 1995 ...
Zhao P - - 1998
Foods can become contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms from hands, the cutting board, and knives during preparation in the kitchen. A laboratory model was developed to determine occurrence of cross-contamination and efficacy of decontamination procedures in kitchen food-handling practices. Enterobacter aerogenes B199A, an indicator bacterium with attachment characteristics similar to that ...
Manzano M - - 1998
The authors have developed an easy and rapid detection and identification system for Salmonella spp. in food. The gene inv A was selected as the target sequence. Oligonucleotides derived from conserved regions of this gene were able to exclusively prime the amplification of a 389 bp fragment when Salmonella spp. ...
Amaguaña R M - - 1998
Foods analyzed for Salmonella spp. by the procedure in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual are preenriched at a 1:9 test portion/broth ratio. Various thickening agents preenriched at this ratio become viscous and nonpipettable after 24 h incubation at 35 degrees C. The effects of 3 factors ...
Boonmar S - - 1998
During the period from 1993 to 1996, a total of 27,497 Salmonella isolates from humans, chicken meat, ready-to-eat Thai foods and shrimps were serotyped to know the predominant serovars of Salmonella in humans and foods in Thailand. Seventy-two and 81 serovars of Salmonella were identified in human and food samples, ...
Bennett A R - - 1998
The BAX system for screening Salmonella is one of the first commercial PCR-based systems for the detection of food-borne pathogens. It is able to give a confirmed result within 28 h. There was 98.6% and 95.8% agreement between the BAX system and conventional cultural analysis for the detection of Salmonella ...
SasvÁri L - - 1998
We created experimental situations where observers (great tit, Parus major and marsh tit, P. palustris) acquired one of five types of experience near conspecific and non-conspecific demonstrators: (1) neither demonstrator was feeding; (2) only the conspecific was feeding; (3) only the non-conspecific was feeding; (4) both were feeding and the ...
Pontello M - - 1998
An outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium belonging to phage type (PT) 193 occurred in autumn 1995 and involved 83 individuals in a large area of Northern Italy (Lombardy Region). Epidemiological and microbiological investigations of strains isolated from clinical and food specimens revealed that the vehicle was a batch of ...
Efstratiou M A - - 1998
The value of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. and the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans in sewage polluted coastal water were assessed. All indicators had strong positive association with Salmonella and moderate positive correlations with Staph. aureus and C. ...
Erku W A - - 1998
One hundred samples of ready-to-consume feeding bottle contents from outpatient infants were examined for the presence of Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. Nearly all samples had very high gross bacterial contamination. Three Salmonella isolates were encountered from bottle contents made of cow's milk and gruel made from cereal blend. ...
Gangar V - - 1998
A collaborative study was performed in 27 laboratories to validate the enzyme-linked immunosorbent procedure LOCATE for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods. Results were read visually and with a microtiter plate reader. The LOCATE method was compared with the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM)/AOAC INTERNATIONAL culture method for detecting Salmonella in ...
Ekperigin H E - - 1998
All food animals are susceptible to infection with Salmonella, a genus of gram negative, nonspore-forming, usually motile, facultative anaerobic bacilli belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Salmonella are differentiated into over 2200 serologically distinct types (serotypes) based on differences in somatic, flagellar, and capsular antigens. Infection with Salmonella may or may ...
Tran T T - - 1998
Detection limits for Campylobacter jejuni strains JH93 and ATCC 29428 in a new blood-free enrichment broth (BFEB) were investigated under aerobic conditions. Cultures of Camp. jejuni were inoculated into 50 ml BFEB containing 10% food homogenate in 50 ml screw-cap tubes. After 24 h enrichment under aerobic conditions, Camp. jejuni ...
Kuhnen G - - 1998
Housing conditions influence anatomy, physiology, and behaviour of animals. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the generation of fever, a defence response of the body, is also affected by housing conditions. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were housed in small cages, large cages, or large and enriched cages. ...
Rajkowski K T - - 1998
Healthy pigs can carry Salmonella in their intestine and may shed this pathogen because of stresses incurred during transportation, contaminating trailer floors and bedding material. If not cleaned and sanitized between trips, trailers and bedding have the potential to infect other farms, the abattoir environment, or other animals with Salmonella. ...
Allen V M - - 1997
1. The dietary inclusion of 15 and 25 g/kg mannose was associated with a reduction in the numbers of Salmonella enteritidis (PT4) in the caecal contents of chicks challenged by the food. The same benefit was not recorded for S. infantis, possibly because this strain, unlike S. enteritidis PT4, lacked ...
Catry P - - 1997
Birds of many species intrude on to territories in order to obtain extra-pair copulations, and frequent within-pair copulations are thought to be a response to cuckoldry where mate guarding is not possible. Great skuas are colonial birds in which females are left alone in the breeding territory while males forage ...
Gregory E - - 1997
From October 1993 to August 1994, broiler chickens in four grow-out houses, two previously used (houses 1 and 2) and two newly constructed (houses 3 and 4), were used in a study to determine the source, time of infection, and prevalence of Campylobacter spp. Cecal droppings and cecal samples were ...
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