Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 682
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Montville R - - 2001
Human hands are an important source of microbial contamination of foods. However, published data on the effectiveness of handwashing and glove use in a foodservice setting are limited. Bacterial transfer through foodservice quality gloves was quantified using nalidixic acid-resistant Enterobacter aerogenes (a nonpathogenic surrogate with attachment characteristics similar to Salmonella). ...
Niemira B A - - 2001
Food substrate chemistry is known to influence radiation sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria. The sensitivity of a citrus juice outbreak strain of Salmonella Enteritidis to gamma radiation was determined in five commercial orange juice formulations. The juices differed in pH (3.87 to 4.13), calcium concentration (2.1 versus 36.9 mM), juice composition ...
Hoffman K L - - 2001
Bacterial growth during food transport and storage is a problem that may be addressed with packaging materials that release antimicrobials during food contact. In a series of five experiments, EDTA, lauric acid (LA), nisin, and combinations of the three antimicrobial agents were incorporated into a corn zein film and exposed ...
Sato K - - 2001
Electronic records from the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System between January 1, 1991, and June 30, 1998, were reviewed, and data on 593 Salmonella serotypes isolated from feces or intestinal contents of adult dairy cattle with diarrhea were analyzed to determine spatial and temporal clustering. A statistically ...
Stewart D S - - 2001
Growth of Salmonella was assessed during sprouting of naturally contaminated alfalfa seeds associated with two outbreaks of salmonellosis. Salmonella was determined daily in sprouts and sprout rinse water samples by a three-tube most probable number (MPN) procedure and a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Growth of Salmonella in the sprouts was ...
Reeves J B JB - - 2001
The objective was to evaluate near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determining the composition of poultry manures. Poultry manure samples were obtained from a commercial testing laboratory along with conventionally determined analyte values for total N, NH(4)(+)-N, organic N (computed as total minus NH(4)(+)-N), minerals, and moisture. Samples were blended ...
Ribot E M - - 2001
We developed a rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocol for subtyping Campylobacter isolates based on the standardized protocols used by PulseNet laboratories for the subtyping of other food-borne bacterial pathogens. Various combinations of buffers, reagents, reaction conditions (e.g., cell suspension concentration, lysis time, lysis temperature, and restriction enzyme concentration), and ...
Leuschner R G - - 2001
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 and PT6 are associated with food poisoning outbreaks and are often found in food only in low concentrations. In this study a reproducible laboratory-scale procedure for preparation of mayonnaise is presented. The mayonnaise that simulates a naturally low-level contaminated product can be used for validation ...
Hald B - - 2001
AIMS: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. METHODS AND RESULTS: The chicks were sampled first by cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the depopulation and ...
Eriksson de Rezende C L - - 2001
Controlling water activity (a(w)) can significantly impact the growth of Salmonella in poultry litter and manure - a phenomenon that was studied quantitatively using two common serotypes of Salmonella. The quantitative effect of changes in levels of a(w) on Salmonella populations was determined using inoculated, frosted glass rectangles placed in ...
Sugita-Konishi Y - - 2001
We studied the activity of wine against entero-pathogenic bacteria both in vitro and in vivo. The food-borne bacteria were killed in both red and white wine within 30 min. However, the results of a Salmonella infection experiment using mice suggested that wine was not effective in preventing food-borne diseases in ...
Joseph B - - 2001
Biofilm formation by two poultry isolates of Salmonella on three commonly used food contact surfaces viz plastic, cement and stainless steel were studied. Biofilm formation of both the isolates showed a similar trend with the highest density being on plastic followed by cement and steel. Salmonella weltevreden formed biofilm with ...
Worcman-Barnink D - - 2001
The detection and identification of Salmonella spp. is still troublesome and time consuming to the food industry. Employing the modified semi-solid Rappaport-Vassiliadis medium (MSRV), presumptive results for Salmonella can be obtained in 48 h, representing an interesting alternative to the standard methods. The specificity and sensitivity of the MSRV method ...
Aulicino F A - - 2001
Monitoring was carried out during summer 1997 along a selected area of the Tyrrhenian coast near the Tiber river mouth. Fifty-eight seawater samples, collected from 19 stations, were examined for coliforms, streptococci, Enteroviruses, Salmonellae, coliphages, Bacteroides fragilis phages, Pseudomonas, alophilic Vibrios, Aeromonas and yeasts. Salmonellae and coliphages were isolated in ...
Hughes D - - 2001
The TECRA Unique Salmonella test uses the principle of immunoenrichment to allow rapid detection of Salmonellae in food. A collaborative study was conducted to compare the TECRA Salmonella Unique test with the reference culture method given in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Three food types (milk ...
Mourot J - - 2001
Meat from monogastric animals, essentially pigs and poultry, is from afar the most consumed of all meats. Meat products from every species have their own characteristics. For a long time, pig meat has been presented as a fatty meat because of the importance of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Actually, when the ...
Ferretti R - - 2001
A PCR-based method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food was developed. The method, set up on typical salami from the Italian region of Marche, is sensitive and specific and shows excellent correlation with the conventional method of reference when naturally contaminated foods are analyzed. Moreover, it can be ...
Nacapunchai D - - 2001
The aim of this study was to determine the presence of free-living amebae in aquatic habitats of human environments in Thailand and Hamamatsu district, Japan. Genus identification was based on the morphology of cyst and trophozoite forms and a flagellation test for genus Naegleria. The pathogenic potential was tested in ...
Jeffrey J S - - 2001
A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the relationship of farm variables and management practices to fecal shedding of Campylobacter or Salmonella on commercial squab (young pigeon) farms. A detailed survey provided information on biosecurity, cleaning and disinfection, bird health, vector control, and loft and pen. Twenty pigeons on each ...
Swanenburg M - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual cleaning and ...
Hammack T S - - 2001
Twenty-three laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare the relative effectiveness of Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) medium incubated at 42 degrees C, selenite cystine (SC) broth (35 degrees C), and tetrathionate (TT) broth (35 and 43 degrees C) for recovery of Salmonella from the following foods with a low microbial load: ...
Richter J - - 2000
The Oxoid SPRINT Salmonella test was compared with the ISO method (ISO 6579: 1993) for the detection of Salmonella in milk and dairy products. Samples were artificially contaminated, in some cases with sublethally injured salmonellas. Experiments with raw milk, soft cheese made from heat-treated milk (mould-ripened and with smear) and ...
Kodaka H - - 2000
Mannitol lysine crystal violet brilliant green agar (MLCB) is widely used in Japan for Salmonella isolation because the medium has been commercially available. Colonies of Salmonella on MLCB appear colorless with black centers due to H2S gas production; however, most Citrobacter freundii also produce H2S gas. In order to distinguish ...
Jeníková G - - 2000
A combination of immunomagnetic separation and polymerase chain reaction (IMS-PCR) was used to detect Salmonella in food samples. Pre-enrichment of samples was combined with filtration through a membrane for the removal of food debris. The IMS-PCR assay combines selective extraction of bacteria by specific antibodies with primer specific PCR amplification ...
Hayes J R - - 2000
Because Salmonella spp. can be spread from the production environment to the consumer, strategies are required to control Salmonella. One such intervention involves control of the distribution of the organism in poultry litter. In this regard, we have attempted to determine whether Salmonella spp. are uniformly distributed throughout the litter ...
Maciorowski K G - - 2000
Salmonellosis is a cyclic problem in the food industry, to which animal feed has been contributory. Current conventional methods of Salmonella spp. detection require 96 h for detection and confirmation. With modern and just-in-time production schedules, a 96-h hold represents a significant expense in storage and decontamination. The commercially available ...
Natrajan N - - 2000
Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the food-grade microorganism Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. This peptide inhibits many gram-positive bacteria, and when combined with chelating agents it inhibits gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella sp. The efficacy of packaging films treated with nisin-containing formulations to reduce Salmonella contamination of fresh broiler ...
Natrajan N - - 2000
The objective of this study was to examine the use of protein- arid polysaccharide-based films containing bacteriocin formulations for inhibiting salmonellae on fresh broiler skin. The lethality of the films containing a nisin-based formulation was determined against Salmonella Typhimurium-contaminated broiler drumstick skin samples coated with the film. In the first ...
Burnett S L - - 2000
In 1996, the first documented outbreak of salmonellosis associated with the consumption of peanut butter was reported. This study was undertaken to determine survival characteristics of high (5.68 log10 cfu g(-1)) and low (1.51 log10 cfu g(-1)) inocula of a five-serotype mixture of Salmonella in five commercial peanut butters and ...
Baylis C L - - 2000
This study compared the performance of two commercial preparations of buffered peptone water. Performance was assessed in terms of ability to resuscitate and recover low numbers of stressed cells, buffering capacity, growth of Salmonella bacteria in pure culture and growth of Salmonella in food pre-enrichments. Although both the preparations of ...
Shane S M - - 2000
Campylobacter jejuni, a widespread food-borne pathogen is responsible for enteritis in the populations of both industrialised and developing nations and is acquired by consumption of contaminated water, milk and food products. Contaminated poultry meat is regarded as an important source of campylobacteriosis, with both commercial broiler and turkey growing flocks ...
Traub-Dargatz J L - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella spp among horses in the US horse population and prevalence of Salmonella spp in grain or other concentrate used as horse feed on equine operations in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE POPULATION: Horses on 972 operations in 28 states. ...
Feldsine P T - - 2000
Six foods representative of a wide variety of processed, dried powder processed, and raw food types were analyzed by the Assurance Gold Salmonella Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and AOAC INTERNATIONAL culture method. Paired samples of each food type were simultaneously analyzed; one sample by the Assurance method and one by the ...
Craven S E - - 2000
Several methods were evaluated for collecting fecal and intestinal samples from wild birds found near broiler chicken houses. A few intestinal samples and cloacal swabs were obtained from European starlings and house sparrows. Most of the samples collected consisted of wild bird droppings found on or near the houses. Samples ...
Feldsine P T - - 2000
Six foods representative of a wide variety of processed, dried powder processed, and raw food types were analyzed by the Visual Immunoprecipitate Assay (VIP) for Salmonella and AOAC INTERNATIONAL culture method. Paired samples of each food type were simultaneously analyzed; one sample by the VIP method and one by the ...
Schlosser W - - 2000
In July 1996, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), published the Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems final rule to improve food safety of meat and poultry products. The final rule established, among other requirements, pathogen reduction performance standards for ...
Kingsley R A - - 2000
The recent emergence of food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) and Escherichia coli O157:H7, has generated increasing interest in how infectious diseases can invade, persist and spread within new host populations. To alter their host range pathogens require adaptations, which ensure their circulation in a new ...
Ogihara H - - 2000
Eight strains of Salmonellae were incubated in TSB culture medium at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Volatile compounds derived from the bacteria were collected using solid-phase microextraction fibers and then applied to gas chromatography (GC). Similarity analysis of the GC patterns thus obtained could separate these strains on principal ...
Heinitz M L - - 2000
Field laboratories of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration collected and tested 11,312 import and 768 domestic seafood samples over a 9-year period (1990 to 1998) for the presence of Salmonella. The overall incidence of Salmonella was 7.2% for import and 1.3% for domestic seafood. Nearly 10% of import and ...
Owens C M - - 2000
Halothane screening has been used in the swine industry to identify animals susceptible to stress and prone to developing pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat. This study evaluated the ability of halothane to identify stress-susceptible turkeys prone to developing PSE meat when reared to market age and transported before slaughter. Male ...
Thorns C J - - 2000
In many countries of the world, bacterial food-borne zoonotic infections are the most common cause of human intestinal disease. Salmonella and Campylobacter account for over 90% of all reported cases of bacteria-related food poisoning world-wide. Poultry and poultry products have been incriminated in the majority of traceable food-borne illnesses caused ...
Hald B - - 2000
In order to elucidate the rate of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. carriage in Danish broiler production and to identify risk factors for occurrence of campylobacter in broiler flocks, a total of 88 randomly selected broiler flocks were tested for campylobacter infection, and a subsequent study of risk factors based on a ...
Wan J - - 2000
The Probeliatrade mark Salmonella sp. PCR amplification and detection kits (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Marnes La Coquette, France) were evaluated for the rapid and specific detection of Salmonella agona artificially inoculated into skim milk powder and ricotta cheese. The Probeliatrade mark results were compared with those obtained using the Australian Standard ...
Escartín E F - - 2000
The quantitative survival of material contaminants of Salmonella serovars was studied in raw pork during frozen storage. Raw pork samples were obtained from public markets in Guadalajara, Mexico, and tested for Salmonella. Three positive samples were selected for survival studies in three different trials. Populations of Salmonella were determined by ...
Frimpong E H - - 2000
Three hundred and seven healthy food handlers and 34 blood-culture positive enteric fever patients were screened for Salmonellae agglutinins using the Widal test. Of the 307 healthy food handlers, only 3 (1.0%) had an anti-O titre of > or = 1/160 and 8 (2.6%) an anti-H titre of > or ...
Norris D O - - 2000
Fecal matter analyses were applied to two cases: a homicide and a robbery. Scrapings of fecal matter removed from samples of clothing obtained from a homicide suspect were examined for their plant cell and cell fragment content and compared with fecal matter from a rape-homicide victim and scrapings from her ...
Bolder N M - - 1999
Intestinal colonization and shedding of pathogenic bacteria in animal feces is an important factor in both human food safety and animal health. The effect of broiler feed additives flavophospholipol (FPL; Flavomycin, bambermycins) and salinomycin sodium (SAL; Sacox) given singly on the excretion of Salmonella enteritidis, Campylobacter jejuni, and Clostridium perfringens ...
Fach P - - 1999
A commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit was evaluated for the detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The test combines PCR amplification and sandwich hybridization of the amplified DNA in microtiter plates. The sensitivity and specificity was evaluated with 52 Salmonella strains and 51 non-Salmonella strains and showed ...
Gray J P - - 1999
The histerid beetle Carcinops pumilio (Erichson) occurs naturally in poultry house manure and is an important predator of house fly eggs and larvae. Because efforts to commercially produce C. pumilio have been unsuccessful, one fly control strategy under consideration is the direct transport of adult C. pumilio between poultry houses ...
Peng H - - 1999
We previously reported an accelerated method to detect salmonellae in foods. It consisted of a preenrichment step (6 h) followed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and automated detection, based on positive biochemical characteristics, during overnight incubation. We describe here a simplified procedure with a detection limit of 2 CFU/25 g of ...
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