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Wanyenya Irene - - 2004
Cross-contamination during food preparation has been identified as an important factor associated with foodborne illnesses. Handling practices used during preparation of broiler chickens in 31 fast-food restaurants and 86 semisettled street stands (street vendors) were assessed by use of a standard checklist. These establishments used wood, plastic, or metal cutting ...
Klon Anthony E - - 2004
We have previously shown that a machine learning technique can improve the enrichment of high-throughput docking (HTD) results. In the previous cases studied, however, the application of a naive Bayes classifier failed to improve enrichment for instances where HTD alone was unable to generate an acceptable enrichment. We present here ...
Metzger-Boddien Christoph - - 2004
A commercially available PCR kit (AnDiaTec Salmonella sp. PCR-ELISA) was developed and evaluated for the detection of Salmonella sp. in food samples. The test is based on PCR amplification and hybridization of the amplified DNA to a microtiter plate followed by the detection of PCR product in the manner of ...
McMahon Wendy A - - 2004
A collaborative study was conducted to compare the VIDAS Salmonella (SLM) with Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) method for detection of Salmonella in foods to the current standard method presented in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) and the culture method presented in AOAC's Official Methods of Analysis. The ...
Rybolt M L - - 2004
The poultry industry is now operating under increased regulatory pressure following the introduction of the pathogen reduction and hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) rule in 1996. This new operation scheme has greatly increased the need for on-farm food safety risk management of foodborne bacteria, such as Salmonella. Information needed ...
Feglo P K - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of chronic typhoidal salmonellae amongst food vendors in Kumasi Ghana. DESIGN: A prospective study. SETTING: Sitting and itinerant food vendors in Kumasi. METHODS: Screening of 258 (230 females of 28 males) healthy food vendors for Salmonella typhi, and S. paratyphi A, B, and C, using ...
Vadhanasin Sumontha - - 2004
Since 1998, pathogen reduction regulations for poultry have been enforced through the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and through hazard analysis critical control point evaluation. This enforcement has focused attention on pathogen control and sanitation in the United States and in other countries, including ...
Yeh Jui-Yueh - - 2004
Calcium lactate is used by the beverage industry as a source of calcium to fortify fruit juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of various concentrations of calcium lactate on the fate of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in orange juice. Commercial nonfortified orange juice was supplemented ...
Murphy R Y - - 2004
Thermal inactivation D and z values of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were obtained for chicken thigh and leg meat and skin. The D values of Salmonella at 55 to 70 degrees C were 43.33 to 0.07 min in the meat and 43.76 to 0.09 min in the skin. The D ...
Sørensen L L - - 2004
In Denmark, a serological Salmonella surveillance programme in finishing pig herds has been in place since 1995. The programme was founded on data from experimental studies, which demonstrated a strong association between Salmonella serology and the prevalence of these bacteria. The current study was carried out in three Danish abattoirs ...
Meldrum R J - - 2004
The Public Health Laboratory Service in Wales, in cooperation with local authorities and the Food Standards Agency Wales, carried out a survey to establish baseline figures for the contamination of raw retail chicken with Salmonella and Campylobacter available within Wales, a devolved part of the United Kingdom with a population ...
MacDougall Laura - - 2004
Salmonella enterica var. Heidelberg was isolated from an unusual food source during routine case follow-up, prompting a case control investigation of frozen chicken nuggets and strips. Most frozen nuggets and strips are raw; however, par-frying lends a cooked appearance. As such, suitable food preparation precautions might not be undertaken by ...
Sommers Christopher H - - 2004
Treatment of foods, such as red meat and poultry, that contain palmitic acid with ionizing radiation leads to the formation of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone (2-DCB), a compound found only in irradiated foods. In this study, the Salmonella mutagenicity test and the yeast DEL assay were used to evaluate the genotoxic potential of ...
Touch Visalsok - - 2004
Lactoperoxidase (LPO) from skim milk was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The purified protein was used to catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate by H2O2 in an antibacterial system (LPO system). The LPO system was used to inactivate or inhibit Salmonella enteritidis in tomato juice, carrot juice, milk, liquid whole egg, and ...
Sumner John - - 2004
During the 1990s, there was radical change in regulation of meat and poultry hygiene in Australia, and Australian Standards were developed for each sector of the meat industry. Systems for industry/government co-regulation and company-employed meat inspection were introduced based on company HACCP programs approved and audited by the Controlling Authority. ...
A Yixin Fu,Salmonella M,Cdcac ...
Introduction Salmonella spp. ha. evolved thecay(mRp toengaR host cells in verysophistica-j interatica , 2 . This is most likelya consequence of the millions ofyea7 of close aosey-((p7 of thesebaseyp@ withvertebray hosts. Such longstay)k@ ay)k@7@yD ha undoubtedly refined theinteraRyD7 of Salmonella with host cells,ultimaR77 resulting ina rela)-(yD well-baD7@pj coexistence. Thisstay(k-@ ma ...
Davidson William R - - 2004
From July 1998 through October 2002, radiometric culture (ileocecal lymph node, mesenteric lymph node, and feces) and serologic testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to survey white-tailed deer (Odocoilens virgianus) from the soutlheastern United States for infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb), the causative agent of paratuberculosis ...
Briggs Julie - - 2004
The TECRA Salmonella Visual Immunoassay (VIA) using Rappaport-Vassiliadis RV[R10] as a single selective enrichment broth has Final Action approval (AOAC Method 998.09). TECRA has recently developed a protocol (TECRA ULTIMA), which involves the addition of a new additive to a 1 mL aliquot of the RV[R10] broth, prior to the ...
McMahon Wendy A - - 2004
A new method for detection of Salmonella in foods in 48 h has been granted AOAC First Action approval in selected foods (Official Method 2001.08) using both the VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) method and a combination of 3 selective plates: Hektoen enteric (HE), bismuth sulfite (BS), and xylose lysine desoxycholate ...
McMahon Wendy A - - 2004
A new method for detection of Salmonella in foods in 48 h has been granted AOAC First Action approval in selected foods (Official Method 2001.07) using both the VIDAS Immuno-Concentration Salmonella (ICS) method and a combination of 3 selective plates: Hektoen enteric (HE), bismuth sulfite (BS), and Salmonella Identification (SMID).
Irwin Peter - - 2004
We present herein the partitioning characteristics of anti-Salmonella and anti-Escherichia coli O157 immunomagnetic beads (IMB) with respect to the nonspecific adsorption of several nontarget food-borne organisms with and without an assortment of well-known blocking agents, such as casein, which have been shown to be useful in other immunochemical applications. We ...
Ellingson Jay L E - - 2004
Rapid pathogen testing is vital to the food industry. Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) provide reliable negative results in 48 h, but a presumptive positive (suspect) EIA result must be confirmed by traditional culture methods, requiring an additional 72 h. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing technology is accepted as an accurate diagnostic ...
Martinez-Urtaza Jaime - - 2004
A contamination by Salmonella Senftenberg in frozen mussels was detected in 1998 during a routine analytical surveillance. From June 1998 to December 2001, a total of 3,410 samples of steamed frozen mussels and items related to their manufacture were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella Senftenberg was isolated in ...
Hald Tine - - 2004
Based on the data from the integrated Danish Salmonella surveillance in 1999, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each of the major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. The model was set up to calculate the number of domestic and sporadic cases caused by different Salmonella sero ...
Sapsford Kim E - - 2004
Campylobacter and Shigella bacteria are common causes of food- and water-borne illness worldwide. There is a current need in food, medical, environmental, and military markets for a rapid and user-friendly method of detecting such pathogens. The array biosensor developed at the NRL encompasses these qualities. In this study, 25-min, sandwich ...
Prendergast D M - - 2004
Sponge samples were taken from the carcases, meat, personnel and surfaces involved in stunning, slaughter and dressing/boning activities at three abattoirs, and from retail beef products. The samples were examined for the presence of central nervous system (CNS)-specific proteins (syntaxin 1B and/or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), as indicators of ...
Durecko R - - 2004
In their case report, most of the patients with salmonellosis mentioned consumption of meals containing poultry products, primarily eggs and egg products as a source of their disease. Microbiological analysis of samples showed that in more than 88 % of cases the infection agent was identified as Salmonella enteritidis. This ...
Bangtrakulnonth Aroon - - 2004
We serotyped 44,087 Salmonella isolates from humans and 26,148 from other sources from 1993 through 2002. The most common serovar causing human salmonellosis in Thailand was Salmonella enterica Weltevreden. Serovars causing human infections in Thailand differ from those in other countries and seem to be related to Salmonella serovars in ...
Gauthier M - - 2004
AIMS: A simple DNA macroarray system was developed for detection of antibiotic resistance and other marker genes associated with the multidrug-resistant food pathogen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104. METHODS AND RESULTS: A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) incorporating digoxigenin-dUTP was used to simultaneously amplify seven marker sequences, with ...
Davies Peter R - - 2004
Food animal producers have ethical obligations to reduce the risk of foodborne hazards in animals under their care. Contaminated feed is a recognized source of Salmonella infection of food animals and regulations to control Salmonella contamination of animal feed have existed in some countries for decades. The impact of reducing ...
Bhavsar S P - - 2004
PURPOSE: Campylobacter spp. is a major food borne pathogen and shows resistance towards gamma radiation. In the present study, effect of gamma radiation was assessed on the indigenous strains of Campylobacter spp. inoculated in food and water samples. METHODS: Campylobacter spp. were isolated from river water and faeces of various ...
Kubo I - - 2004
AIMS: This study investigated the effect of a series of naturally occurring aliphatic (2E)-alkenals against Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis ATCC 35640 and evaluated their antibacterial action. METHOD AND RESULTS: A homologous series of aliphatic (2E)-alkenals from C5-C13 were tested for their antibacterial activity against Salm. Choleraesuis. The antibacterial action of ...
Cheung P-Y - - 2004
AIMS: To evaluate the LightCycler Salmonella Detection Kit and the TaqMan Salmonella Gold Detection and Quantitation Kit for the real-time PCR detection of Salmonella in various food samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ready-to-eat foods and raw food samples were artificially contaminated with Salmonella serotypes. In the specificity test, bacterial DNA extracted ...
Murinda Shelton E - - 2004
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of various protocols for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni from bulk tank milk and bovine fecal samples that were stored frozen for varying times, and to develop a rapid DNA-based protocol that distinguishes C. jejuni from other thermophilic Campylobacter spp. ...
Koutsoumanis Konstantinos P - - 2004
The growth limits of a mixture of five strains of Salmonella Typhimurium in tryptic soy broth were examined at different environmental conditions. The response of the pathogen was monitored in a total of 350 combination treatments of temperature (10 to 35 degrees C), pH (3.76 to 6.44), and water activity ...
Fegan N - - 2004
AIMS: A survey to determine the prevalence and numbers of Salmonella in beef cattle presented for slaughter at abattoirs across Australia was conducted between September 2002 and January 2003. METHODS AND RESULTS: Automated immunomagnetic separation (AIMS) was used for detection and isolation of Salmonella enriched from cattle faeces. Salmonella were ...
Beal J D - - 2004
AIMS: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of copper ions on the survival of Salmonella typhimurium DT104:30 in acidified liquid food substrates. METHODS AND RESULTS: The decimal reduction time (Dvalue) of Salm. typhimurium DT104:30 was determined in acidified liquid pig feed (LPF) and skimmed milk (SM) ...
Birk T - - 2004
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to develop a food-based model system that resembles the environment that Campylobacter jejuni experiences on raw poultry products and use this model system to investigate growth and survival of the bacterium. METHODS AND RESULTS: Chicken juice was collected from frozen chickens and subsequently ...
Moore Christina M - - 2003
The degree of transfer of Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was evaluated from a stainless steel contact surface to a ready-to-eat food (lettuce). Stainless steel coupons (25 cm2) were inoculated with a 20-microl drop of either C. jejuni or Salmonella Typhimurium to provide an inoculum level of approximately ...
Kühn Inger - - 2003
The objectives of the present study were to generate knowledge of enterococcal populations in the food chain, by studying the population structure (in measures of abundance and diversity) among enterococci in different geographical regions and in different parts of the food chain, as well as the similarities between different enterococcal ...
Kusumaningrum H D - - 2003
Effective cleaning and sanitizing of food preparation sites is important because pathogens are readily spread to food contact surfaces after preparation of contaminated raw products. Tolerance of Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus to surface cleaning by wiping with regular, microfiber, and antibacterial-treated cloths was investigated. Wiping with cleaning cloths resulted ...
Goodridge C - - 2003
The rapid and accurate detection and enumeration of low levels of Salmonella Typhimurium in food processing facilities are critical components of an effective hazard analysis critical control point program. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid (8 h) most probable number (MPN)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the ...
Meldrum R J - - 2003
Ready-to-eat foods at retail and catering establishments were randomly sampled at the point of sale for a period of 15 months. During this period, 4,469 food samples were examined for the presence of Campylobacter with the use of plate-based methodology. A range of different ready-to-eat food types, all of which ...
Yang Chengbo - - 2003
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading human food-borne pathogen. The rapid and sensitive detection of C. jejuni is necessary for the maintenance of a safe food/water supply. In this article, we present a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for quantitative detection of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated poultry, milk and ...
Bragg R R - - 2003
A full continuous disinfection programme, consisting of disinfection during cleanout of poultry houses prior to placement of chickens, disinfection of the drinking water and spray disinfection of the birds during production was evaluated in broilers under experimental condition as well as under field conditions. Under controlled conditions, the experimental design ...
De Cesare Alessandra - - 2003
Although many cases of Campylobacter and Salmonella enteritis have been attributed to the undercooking of poultry and other foods, cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods via food contact surfaces and worker contact has also been identified as a significant risk factor. Cross-contamination may be particularly important in relation to the ...
Kusumaningrum H D - - 2003
The retention of bacteria on food contact surfaces increases the risk of cross-contamination of these microorganisms to food. The risk has been considered to be lowered when the surfaces are dry, partly because bacterial growth and survival would be reduced. However, some non-spore-forming bacteria might be able to withstand dry ...
Sauli I - - 2003
In Switzerland. the safeguarding of food is the responsibility of industry, organizations, and governmental authorities. The dispersion of the tasks and the diversity of implemented safety measures among involved stakeholders do not allow a general overview of the national safety assurance level provided. A comprehensive evaluation of the level of ...
Hughes Denise - - 2003
A collaborative study was conducted to compare a new enrichment procedure for the TECRA Salmonella Visual Immunoassay (TSVIA) with the reference method given in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (7th Ed.). Three food types (milk powder, pepper, and soy flour) were analyzed in Australia and 3 ...
Wegener Henrik C - - 2003
We describe Salmonella control programs of broiler chickens, layer hens, and pigs in Denmark. Major reductions in the incidence of foodborne human salmonellosis have occurred by integrated control of farms and food processing plants. Disease control has been achieved by monitoring the herds and flocks, eliminating infected animals, and diversifying ...
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