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Results 551 - 600 of 683
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Cushman J H - - 1991
A great number and variety of interactions are widely assumed to be mutualistic because the species involved exchange goods or services from which they appear to derive benefit. A familiar example is pollination, in which animal vectors receive food in the form of nectar and/or pollen, while the ovules of ...
De Zutter L - - 1991
A collaborative study was performed in 15 laboratories to evaluate the use of motility enrichment on modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) medium for rapid Salmonella detection in a variety of food products. The results of this procedure were compared with those obtained by the cultural procedure using Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth as ...
Pumfrey L - - 1991
A most probable number (MPN) technique using a DNA probe was developed for determination of Salmonella in naturally contaminated meat meals. The method eliminated the need for 180 selective plates and 75 selective tubes and saved 27 h when compared with a traditional technique; yet it still yielded identical MPN ...
Ellison A - - 1991
Bioluminescence provides a novel tool with which to probe in real time the recovery of microorganisms such as Salmonella typhimurium from sub-lethal injury, a condition of immense importance in the enumeration of microorganisms in food and environmental samples such as from estuarine waters. We describe the application of in vivo ...
Oosterom J - - 1991
A large number of countries annually report high numbers of Salmonella infections in man. Since it is estimated that these reported cases only represent 1 to 10% of the real incidence of this disease, it must be concluded that human salmonellosis is a serious problem all over the world. The ...
Izat A L - - 1991
Two trials were conducted to compare the standard culture procedure and the Report Salmonella Visual Immunoassay for detection of salmonellae in rinse fluid recovered from raw poultry carcasses. Both assays were evaluated with and without preenrichment in lactose broth prior to enrichment in selenite cystine broth. Live birds were inoculated ...
Butzler J P - - 1991
In the last 10 years Campylobacter jejuni has emerged as the most frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in man. Acute enterocolitis, the most common presentation of C. jejuni infection, can affect persons of all ages. C. jejuni has been found in virtually every country where investigations have been carried out. ...
Carver D K - - 1991
Flock records from a commercial turkey company were analyzed to determine if poult source affected flock performance. Comparisons were made between flocks supplied by two hatcheries (X and Y) reared on the same farms and among flocks reared on different farms. Flocks from hatchery X had significantly better livability and ...
al-Lahham A B - - 1990
During a one-year period, 283 food handlers in Irbid, Jordan were investigated for the presence of potential enteropathogens in their stools. The prevalence rate of enteropathogens among non-Jordanian food handlers (48.0%) was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than that of the Jordanian group (12.3%). The isolation rates of Salmonella ...
Curiale M S - - 1990
Two modified fluorescent enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Salmonella in food have been developed. Both of the new procedures, which substitute a colorimetric substrate for the fluorescent substrate and in which results are read visually or with a photometer, are modifications of AOAC method 989.15. The visually read procedure ...
Durand A M - - 1990
The prevalence of Salmonella in southern Africa in farm feeds and by-products of animal origin during 1982-1988 was determined. Salmonella occurred in 5.18% of the farm feed samples and in 9.54% of the by-product samples. Different serovars were isolated, some only once. The findings underestimate the true prevalence of Salmonella ...
Entis P - - 1990
A collaborative study was carried out in 30 laboratories to validate improvements to the official final action hydrophobic grid membrane filter (HGMF) screening method for Salmonella in foods, 985.42, by comparing the performance of the improved HGMF method against that of the AOAC/BAM conventional culture method. Six products were included ...
Hedman P - - 1990
The mode of transmission of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, a urinary tract pathogen, was investigated in three related studies. The presence of this organism was sought, during a period of 1 year, in 1331 specimens of various foods, in 920 beef and pork carcasses and on 107 cultures which had been inoculated ...
Schuurkamp G J - - 1990
In early 1987 guidelines were re-enforced for pre-employment medicals and 6-monthly health checks on foodhandlers in the Ok Tedi mining project in Papua New Guinea. The health monitoring program was stepped up as a result of two typhoid cases imported from the highlands and catering subcontractors failing to comply with ...
Chan S W - - 1990
A second generation nucleic acid hybridization assay has been developed and evaluated against the conventional culture method for detection of salmonellae in foods. The assay involves a liquid hybridization with Salmonella-specific oligonucleotide probes, capture of probe:target hybrids onto a solid support (plastic dipstick), and a colorimetric end point detection. The ...
Van Poucke L S - - 1990
A micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (micro-ELISA) using the Salmonella-TEK screen kit was tested for the detection of Salmonella spp. in pure cultures as well as in 30 artificially contaminated food samples and in 45 naturally contaminated food samples. Different raw, fleshy foods and processed foods were used as test products. The ...
Curiale M S - - 1990
A collaborative study was performed in 11 laboratories to validate a colorimetric DNA hybridization (DNAH) method for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods. The method was compared to the standard culture method for detection of Salmonella in nonfat dry milk, milk chocolate, soy isolate, dried whole egg, ground black pepper, ...
Curiale M S - - 1990
A colorimetric enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method for detection of Salmonella in foods has been compared to the AOAC colorimetric monoclonal EIA screening method (986.35, 15th ed.; 46.B21-46.B29, 14th ed.). The assays use the same monoclonal antibodies and have similar reactivity toward Salmonella. However, the new assay uses antibody-coated microtiter wells ...
Perales I - - 1989
The use of two semisolid media (semisolid Rappaport and semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis) for the isolation of Salmonella spp. from coastal waters was compared with the use of conventional media. Two hundred and fifty six samples were studied; Salmonella spp. were detected in 83. The semisolid media were the most sensitive, detecting ...
Fricker C R - - 1989
From a total of 563 samples of various foodstuffs purchased from retail outlets in the Reading area 287 were found to contain mesophilic Aeromonas spp. The types of sample which were most frequently contaminated were poultry (79.3%) and offal (84.3%). Of three media compared for their efficiency in recovering Aeromonas ...
Flowers R S - - 1989
A collaborative study was performed to validate the performance of the 1-2 TEST for detection of motile salmonellae in foods. Detection is based on observation of an immobilized band of cells. Twenty-three laboratories participated in the study. The 1-2 TEST (immunodiffusion test) was compared with the standard culture procedure (BAM/AOAC; ...
Flowers R S - - 1989
A collaborative study was performed in 13 laboratories to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) procedure for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods. The EIA was compared with the standard culture procedure for detection of Salmonella in 6 food types: ground black pepper, soy flour, dried whole eggs, milk chocolate, nonfat ...
Fantasia M - - 1989
A total of 150,072 strains of Salmonella were isolated in Italy over a 14-year period. The strains from humans, food, animals and from environmental samples reached the National Centre for Enterobacteria in Rome and the interregional Centres for Enterobacteria in Milan, Palermo and Pisa to be characterized according to their ...
Michanie S - - 1988
Hazard analysis of food preparation practices were conducted in four households and eleven others were visited to survey both food preparation practices and environmental conditions. Households selected had members who were suffering from either diarrhea of unknown etiology or alleged typhoid fever. Hazard analyses and sanitary surveys included gathering data ...
Hinton M - - 1988
The feed given to young broiler chickens was contaminated artificially with Salmonella kedougou, a serotype associated with both subclinical infections in commercially reared chickens and food poisoning in humans. No evidence was obtained to suggest that the growth promoting antibiotic avilamycin, added to the feed at the rate of either ...
Flowers R S - - 1988
A collaborative study was performed in 13 laboratories to validate a visual enzyme immunoassay (EIA) procedure, TECRA, for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods. The EIA method was compared with the standard culture procedure for detection of Salmonella in 6 food types: ground black pepper, soy flour, dried whole eggs, ...
Chapman P A - - 1988
Food poisoning due to Salmonella typhimurium phage type 141 was unusual in the Sheffield area before 1984. The sudden increase in incidence of this phage type during 1984 and 1985, and its causative role in several small outbreaks in this period have been investigated. Epidemiological and laboratory investigations suggested that ...
Ito K - - 1988
Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 44 of 313 free-living birds from Japan. The highest isolation rate was found in 30 of 87 (34%) crows (Corvus levaillanti and Corvus corone), followed by 2 of 10 (20%) blue magpies (Cyanopica cyanus), 5 of 35 (14%) gray starlings (Sturnus cineraceus), 2 of 16 ...
Rasrinaul L - - 1988
Foods obtained in markets in Bangkok were cultured for bacterial enteric pathogens and examined for their similarity to strains isolated from children under 5 years of age in Bangkok in 1986. Salmonella was isolated from 17%, Campylobacter from 12%, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from 3% of 510 foods examined. ...
Campos L C - - 1988
A study of colicinogeny was made in 748 strains of Salmonella (97 serovars) isolated from different sources: human (291), animal (119), environmental (141), food (102) and animal feed (95). Colicin production was detected in 64 strains (8.6%), particularly isolated from foods (30.4%). Col E1 (53) and Ia (44) were the ...
Flowers R S - - 1988
A modified enzyme immunoassay method (EIA) utilizing an 18 h pre-enrichment, a 6-8 h selective enrichment, and a 14 h M-broth post-enrichment is compared to the standard culture method (AOAC/BAM) on selected low-moisture foods. Tested samples included 238 inoculated, 30 naturally contaminated, and 30 uninoculated foods. By EIA, 235 samples ...
de Wit J C - - 1988
In 28 kitchens of restaurants and 10 kitchens of institutions, the hands of 280 persons were sampled in order to determine the role which hands play in contaminating food during preparation. The presence of salmonellae and the number of Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus in these samples was examined. No salmonellae ...
Ley D H - - 1988
Fecal smears from 112 avian necropsy accessions representing 431 birds were stained with auramine O and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts by fluorescence microscopy. Stained Cryptosporidium oocysts fluoresced bright yellow-green and were easily differentiated from extraneous material by their uniform small size (approx. 5 micron) and morphology. The rates of cryptosporidia-positive ...
Muñoz A - - 1987
Recently a great number of cases of human salmonellosis has been observed, and contaminated foods are the most important source of gastro-intestinal diseases by Salmonella. A comparative study of the efficiency of Salmonella spp. isolation from different kinds of sausage was carried out, using selenite-cystine (SC), Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate (MK) and ...
Harford J P - - 1987
A total of 91 food and environmental samples were examined for the presence of salmonellae using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit (EIA) and a conventional culture technique. A 78% agreement was obtained, but reexamination of culture-negative, EIA-positive samples gave agreement of 86%. The problem of comparing EIA and culture ...
Todd L S - - 1987
The Salmonella Bio-EnzaBead Screening Kit, in its modified form with both the MOPC 467 and the 6H4 antibodies, was used for the detection of salmonellas in naturally contaminated foods and animal feeding stuffs in parallel with a traditional cultural procedure. Initial results showed an 82% agreement between the enzyme immunoassay ...
Barrell R A - - 1987
Isolations of salmonellas from humans and food products are recorded for the period 1981-5 and an attempt has been made to investigate the relationship between serotypes isolated from humans and those from meat products. The predominant serotypes isolated from humans were Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis and S. virchow. S. typhimurium ...
Flowers R S - - 1987
A collaborative study was performed in 15 laboratories to evaluate a modification of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method for detection of Salmonella in foods (46.B21-46.B29). The modified EIA requires 18-24 h pre-enrichment, 6-8 h selective enrichment, and 14-18 h M-broth post-enrichment prior to performing the assay, which requires 1-2 h. ...
Flowers R S - - 1987
A collaborative study was performed in 11 laboratories to validate a DNA hybridization (DNAH) procedure for detection of Salmonella in foods. The DNAH procedure was compared to the standard culture method for detection of Salmonella in 6 foods: ground pepper, soy flour, dry whole egg, milk chocolate, nonfat dry milk, ...
Hinton M - - 1986
Salmonella carriage in broiler chickens was not apparently influenced by the protein concentration of the ration, pelleting or by the coccidiostat monensin. The inclusion of penicillin in the diet was associated with an increase in salmonella shedding, particularly in the first half of the rearing period, but did not influence ...
Yogasundram K - - 1986
Radappertized chicken drumsticks were experimentally contaminated with suspensions of Campylobacter jejuni in two trials. Qualitative analysis on drumsticks with an initial level of contamination of 4.8 X 10(3) CFU/cm2 showed that viability was retained for at least 10 days of storage at either 9 degrees or -12 degrees C. In ...
Müller H E - - 1986
The present paper makes use of the epidemiological statistical data from 372,496 salmonellae isolated in man and 63,345 isolations from non-human material, e.g. animal foodstuffs, domestic animals and food of animal origin, surface waters and drainage waters. There were a total of 187 different serotypes. The data are derived from ...
Flowers R S - - 1986
A collaborative study was performed in 25 laboratories to validate an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) procedure utilizing 2 specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of Salmonella in foods. The EIA was compared with the standard culture procedure for detection of Salmonella in 6 food types: ground black pepper, soy isolate, dried ...
Cerqueira-Campos M L - - 1986
An improved membrane filter method that involves the use of an enzyme-labeled antibody stain has been developed for the rapid detection of Salmonella species in foods. The procedure is carried out directly on a hydrophobic grid-membrane filter without requiring transfer by blotting to nitrocellulose. Pure cultures of 54 Salmonella species ...
Lindblom G B - - 1986
A cross-sectional study of 447 laying hens (age range 0-65 weeks) and a longitudinal study of 164 similar birds showed that Campylobacter jejuni was not present in the faeces of newly hatched chicks, but that colonization arose after 5-9 weeks. A survey of 250 broilers obtained from four breeders showed ...
Ojeniyi A A - - 1986
An outbreak of food poisoning in Ibadan, Nigeria, claimed about 20 lives. A new phage type U282 of Salmonella typhimurium, the causative organism, was isolated from a sandwich filling, which yielded 4 X 10(9) viable organisms/g. The sandwiches were prepared in Lagos and kept without refrigeration until consumption next day. ...
Nashed S M - - 1986
In countries with a prevailing poultry production, salmonellosis is of growing importance. The poultry contaminated with salmonellae plays a significant role in the food poisoning of men and in decreasing the breeding results. The study investigated the viability of Salmonella typhimurium in feed and litter contaminated with this germ, at ...
Beckers H J - - 1985
To evaluate a standard salmonella isolation method a reference material consisting of 0.2 g spray-dried milk inoculated with Salmonella typhimurium and contained in gelatin capsules was prepared. The organisms were distributed homogeneously between capsules, and their numbers were stable for 120 d when the capsules were stored in dry conditions ...
Heisick J - - 1985
Growth of Campylobacter jejuni was compared in enrichment broths of Doyle and Roman (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43:1343-1353, 1982) and Park et al. (C. E. Park, Z. K. Stankiewicz, J. Lovett, and J. Hunt, Can. J. Microbiol. 27:841-842, 1981), as modified by Lovett et al. (J. Lovett, D. W. Francis, and ...
Girdwood R W - - 1985
Salmonella carriage in 5888 gulls sampled by cloacal lavage was found to be 7.8%. Marked geographical and seasonal differences in carriage rates were found. These differences appeared to be associated with human population density and seasonal differences in the reported incidence of human salmonellosis. The maximum duration of salmonella excretion ...
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