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Results 501 - 550 of 680
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Mortensen J E - - 1995
Nine hundred sixteen cultures were obtained from homes of patients with cystic fibrosis, control homes, salad bars, and food markets, and analyzed for the presence of Pseudomonas cepacia and related bacteria. P cepacia was recovered from 5 (18%) of 27 homes, and from 20 (4%) of 509 cultures collected outside ...
Tietjen M - - 1995
Salmonella is one of the most important foodborne pathogens around the world. The knowledge that very low numbers of Salmonella cells can be infectious emphasizes the need for stringent food safety measures Traditional methods for isolating and identifying Salmonella in food rely on preenrichment, selective enrichment in selective and differential ...
Carr L E - - 1995
Litter samples from 24 flocks of broilers and four flocks of broiler breeders were evaluated for Salmonella contamination, water activity (Aw), and total moisture content (MC). The drag swab (DS) monitoring system was used to collect samples to detect Salmonella contamination. Simultaneously, representative samples of the uppermost surfaces of dry ...
Warburton D W - - 1995
A total of 19 government and private industry laboratories in Canada and the United States participated in the collaborative study. Naturally contaminated ground poultry and animal meals, as well as inoculated raw shrimp, were examined for presence of Salmonella by both the modified immunodiffusion method and the Bacteriological Analytical Manual ...
Haque M I - - 1994
1. Four groups of 36 one-day-old broiler chicks were reared for 8 weeks during summer on rice husk litter spread to depths of 20, 30, 40 or 50 mm. 2. The depth of the litter did not significantly affect live weight gain, food consumption, food conversion ratio, liveability or production ...
D'Aoust J Y - - 1994
Non-typhoid Salmonella spp. continue to figure prominently in many national epidemiological registries as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Although Salmonella enterocolitis is generally a self-limiting illness that may require fluid and electrolyte replacement, the disease can spread systemically and degenerate into a chronic condition such as reactive arthritis, ...
Davies R H - - 1994
A comparative study of salmonella contamination in eleven commercial hatcheries in the UK was carried out during 1992/93. The sampling protocol involved individual swabbing and culture from surfaces and items of equipment within each premises. This allowed the identification of many areas where salmonella control measures were not successful resulting ...
Pinder A C - - 1994
Multi-parameter flow cytometry was investigated for the rapid detection of specific serotypes of salmonellas (S. typhimurium and S. montevideo) labelled with fluorescent monoclonal antibodies, both in pure culture and in a typical food matrix (full-fat milk). In all cases, the method was accurate to levels of below 10(4) target cells ...
Irwin R J - - 1994
In 1990-1991, a national survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella species among Canadian commercial turkey flocks. Two hundred and seventy flocks were randomly selected across Canada. The proportion sampled from each province was selected according to each province's share of the national turkey market. Samples, consisting of ...
Pin C - - 1994
A total of 80 food samples were purchased from local retail consumer shops and examined for the presence of motile Aeromonas spp. Of the food categories tested, poultry had the highest incidence, with 100% positive. This was followed by lamb samples, with 60% positive. Raw milk and cheese samples had ...
Warburton D W - - 1994
Seventeen Canadian Federal, Provincial and Public Health Laboratories took part in different phases of a comparative/collaborative study that evaluated rapid methods to the standard Health Protection Branch (HPB) method for the detection of Salmonella. A variety of commercial media were tested, including Brilliant Green Sulpha Agar, Bismuth Sulphite Agar, Hektoen ...
Opara O O - - 1994
The drag-swab Salmonella screening technique was evaluated using less expensive alternatives to double-strength skim milk (2 x SM) as a saturating medium for drag swabs. Ten pre-determined Salmonella-positive poultry houses were studied. In the first phase, Salmonella screening efficiency of drag swabs impregnated with 2 x SM and commercially available ...
Nakamura M - - 1994
Horizontal transmission of Salmonella enteritidis in laying hens and the short-term effect of stress on shedding were examined in 32 seven-month-old laying hens. Half were inoculated with 10(5) colony-forming units of S. enteritidis phage type 4, and the remaining half were left uninoculated to study horizontal transmission. Isolation of S. ...
Eckner K F - - 1994
A collaborative study was performed by 30 laboratories in 3 sets of trials to validate a modified colorimetric monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for Salmonella detection. The modifications to the current methodology included incubation of enrichments and post-enrichments at an elevated temperature, addition of novobiocin to the M-broth post-enrichment, ...
Hofer E - - 1994
The Salmonella serovars involved in 25 food poisoning episodes which occurred in the Southeast and South of Brazil from 1982 to 1991 were identified. The most frequently detected serotype was S. Typhimurium (13/25, 52%), and the food most frequently involved in the transmission of Salmonella was homemade mayonnaise. The need ...
Watier L - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological surveillance can be used to identify problems, suggest hypotheses, and assess the effectiveness of preventive actions. These objectives are pursued in the analysis of the dynamic evolution of Salmonella enteritidis infections. In this analysis, development of the epidemic in France and the United States is compared. METHODS: This ...
Barrow P A - - 1993
The perception of Salmonella infection as a problem to the poultry industry has changed as the industry itself has changed. Other factors include increasing awareness of health and food quality. Acquisition of more information on the microbiology of Salmonella and the epidemiology of infection in poultry and man, have not, ...
Krusell L - - 1993
A new method for the detection of Salmonella in foods and feeds, 'The EiaFoss Salmonella Method' has been performance tested in comparison with a traditional technique, the Rappaport-Vassiliadis cultural procedure, as reference method. The new method is based on a two step enrichment procedure (19 and 3 h) using two ...
Lacey S L - - 1993
Cook-chill systems are increasingly being used in the UK as a convenient means of catering for hospitalized patients. When such a system is operational, it is recommended that sampling of food be performed prior to regeneration. At our hospital we have established a food hygiene laboratory to achieve this. On ...
Aspinall S T - - 1993
AIMS: To develop a selective supplement for the recovery of thermophilic Campylobacter spp, including Campylobacter upsaliensis from faeces, using campylobacter blood free selective agar base as the growth medium. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cefoperazone and of teicoplanin were determined for 51 strains of C upsaliensis, 159 strains of ...
Threlfall E J - - 1993
In contrast to S. typhimurium [19], S. enteritidis is a serotype which has its primary food-animal reservoir in poultry. To date, phage typing has been of paramount importance in studying the epidemiology of this serotype and in particular, has demonstrated the involvement of both poultry meat and whole shell eggs ...
D'Aoust J Y - - 1993
An interlaboratory study was performed in 11 laboratories to validate the use of pre-enrichment and tetrathionate brilliant green (TBG35) and selenite cystine (SC35) enrichment cultures refrigerated 72 h at 2-5 degrees C for greater analytical flexibility in the detection of Salmonella in dry foods. Productivities of refrigerated pre-enrichment and enrichment ...
Morton N - - 1993
Reports of gastrointestinal disease, traced to bacterial contamination of foods, have recently increased in number and scope. Escherichia coli, a variety of Salmonella species and other bacterial pathogens have been isolated in many diagnoses in various parts of the country. Food trace-backs have implicated a variety of uncooked, cooked and ...
Humphrey T J - - 1993
Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4 was recovered significantly more frequently from the crops of birds which had been denied food for 24 hours than from birds allowed food ad libitum. There was, however, no difference in its isolation rate from tissues. Within one hour of infection, S enteritidis could be ...
Pearson A D - - 1993
Chickens on a broiler farm in southern England were found to be colonized with Campylobacter jejuni of a single serotype, Lior 1 Penner 4. The farm was the sole supplier of a local slaughterhouse associated with a campylobacter outbreak in 1984 caused by this serotype. The serotype persisted on the ...
Maipa V - - 1993
The behaviour of Salmonella enteritidis during the Feta cheese making process was investigated. Two lots of pasteurized whole ewe's milk were inoculated to contain 10(6) cfu/ml of S. enteritidis (strain AS1 and AS2) and were processed into Feta cheese following standard procedures. All samples were examined for S. enteritidis both ...
Hatakka M - - 1993
The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from ...
Buyse J - - 1992
1. Differences in responses to lipolytic agents have been investigated in vitro in abdominal adipose tissue from lines of broiler chickens selected for body weight (GL, a 'fat' line) or for food efficiency (FC, a 'lean' line). 2. Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate stimulated in vitro lipolysis, as measured by the ...
Foster B C - - 1992
1. Biotransformation studies with five concentrations of racemic propranolol were conducted using the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella echinulata ATCC 9244. 2. The rate of formation and subsequent disappearance of a new major metabolite, 8-hydroxypropranolol, was dose-dependent. Desisopropylpropranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol were also formed. 4-Hydroxypropranolol was the major fungal metabolite in earlier studies. ...
el-Gazzar F E - - 1992
Salmonellae continue to be a major concern for the dairy industry because these bacteria have caused recent outbreaks of illness and have been isolated from various dairy products in the market place. Salmonellae are generally not heat resistant and normally grow at 35 to 37 degrees C, but they can ...
Brooks J L - - 1992
Two enzyme-linked amperometric immunosensors specific for salmonellas were developed as rapid methods for quantifying and detecting these organisms in pure cultures and foods. Both used alkaline phosphatase as the enzyme reporter molecule but one system used phenyl phosphate as the substrate followed by the electrochemical detection of phenol at a ...
Opara O O - - 1992
Three flocks on 13 different broiler farms were monitored for Salmonella over three consecutive growout periods using the drag swab (DS) technique. One house was consistently negative for Salmonella contamination (7.7%); four houses were consistently positive (30.8%); and eight houses (61.5%) alternated between either a DS Salmonella-negative or -positive status. ...
Henken A M - - 1992
A retrospective, case-control study into risk factors of salmonellosis was undertaken using data from 111 broiler breeder flocks assembled during a 5-yr period. The results of both univariate and multivariate analyses are presented. Many different Salmonella species were detected. Multivariate models were created based on the outcome of univariate analyses. ...
D'Aoust J Y - - 1992
The sensitivity of the standard cultural method of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 6579 and ISO 3565 combined) was compared to that of the Health Protection Branch (HPB) procedure for the detection of foodborne Salmonella. Of 195 foods tested, 84 (43.1%) were found to contain salmonellae by one or ...
Park C E - - 1992
A total of 1564 fresh samples of 10 vegetable types from two different retail levels (533 samples from farmers' outdoor markets and 1031 samples from supermarkets) were surveyed for the occurrence of thermotolerant campylobacters. In samples from the outdoor markets, campylobacters were detected on six types of vegetables; the detection ...
Lauten S D - - 1992
Six novel N-halamine compounds of potential importance as disinfectants to the food-processing industry were tested against Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella gallinarum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas fluorescens in aqueous solution. Inactivation times for 10-fold reductions were determined as a function of water quality at pH 6.5 and 25 degrees C. Phenol coefficients ...
Wierup M - - 1992
In Sweden, competitive exclusion (CE) treatment has been used since 1981 as a part of the national control programme for Salmonella. According to the programme all broiler flocks are tested for Salmonella before slaughter thus providing an evaluation of CE treatment. The CE culture used is mainly for the two ...
Vermunt A E - - 1992
Magnetisable particles, coated with anti-salmonella serum, were used to isolate Salmonella livingstone from pure cultures, mixed cultures and food samples. Beads (10(7] were generally incubated with 10(4) Salm. livingstone cells/ml for 60 min at room temperature. The incubation and washing medium (0.01 mol/l phosphate-buffered saline; PBS) contained 0.1% bovine serum ...
Iversen T-H - - 1992
An experiment using plant protoplasts has been accepted for the IML-1 Space Shuttle mission scheduled for 1991. Preparatory experiments have been performed using both fast and slow rotating clinostats and in orbit to study the effect of simulated and real weightlessness on protoplast regeneration. Late access to the space vehicles ...
Threlfall E J - - 1992
Sixteen plasmid profile types have been identified in drug-sensitive isolates of Salmonella berta isolated from humans and human food in England and Wales in the ten-year period 1981-1990. Since 1988 six profile types of epidemiological importance have caused infections in widely-separated geographical areas and of these, four types have been ...
D'Aoust J Y - - 1992
The effect of prolonged (48 h) incubation on the productivity of five enrichment-temperature conditions (tetrathionate brilliant green, 35 and 43 degrees C; Muller-Kauffman tetrathionate brilliant green, 43 degrees C; Rappaport-Vassiliadis, 43 degrees C; selenite cystine, 35 degrees C) was compared to homologous results obtained under standard (24 h) conditions of ...
Blais B W - - 1991
A rapid and economical semi-quantitative test for Salmonella cells in foods is proposed. Food samples containing different levels of Salmonella cells were homogenized and serially diluted in enrichment broths and then incubated for about 20 h at 37 degrees C. The presence of Salmonella cells in each dilution was assayed ...
Perales I - - 1991
Two semisolid media poured in petri dishes, semisolid Rappaport and modified semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis were compared for the recovery of Salmonella spp. from 154 high- and low-moisture foods and feeds. Semisolid media were inoculated after pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and after enrichment in Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate broth and selenite cystine ...
Murray C J - - 1991
Salmonellae are part of the bacterial flora normally found in Man and animals, although the frequency of occurrence is variable, reflecting the general level of Salmonella in food, water and the environment. They are widely disseminated into environments which have been disturbed by human activities. Wildlife may harbour the organisms ...
Poppe C - - 1991
A nation-wide survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enteritidis and other salmonellas among Canadian commercial broiler flocks. Environmental (litter and/or water) samples from 226 of 294 (76.9%) randomly selected flocks were contaminated with salmonellas. Litter samples were more often contaminated with salmonellas than water samples (47.4 v. ...
D'Aoust J Y - - 1991
Recent reports on the behaviour of Salmonella at chill temperatures (less than 10 degrees C) raise concerns on the purported safety of refrigerated foods. The propensity for growth of salmonellae within 10-28 days in complex broth (5.9 degrees C) and agar (4.0 degrees C) media is overshadowed by more recent ...
Peterz M - - 1991
The present collaborative study compares recovery of Campylobacter jejuni from food in 2 agar media. Six laboratories analyzed 8 samples each of chicken liver inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. Samples were enriched in Preston broth and isolation was carried out on Preston agar (PA) and campylobacter blood-free selective medium (CBFS), a ...
Cushman J H - - 1991
A great number and variety of interactions are widely assumed to be mutualistic because the species involved exchange goods or services from which they appear to derive benefit. A familiar example is pollination, in which animal vectors receive food in the form of nectar and/or pollen, while the ovules of ...
De Zutter L - - 1991
A collaborative study was performed in 15 laboratories to evaluate the use of motility enrichment on modified semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis (MSRV) medium for rapid Salmonella detection in a variety of food products. The results of this procedure were compared with those obtained by the cultural procedure using Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) broth as ...
Pumfrey L - - 1991
A most probable number (MPN) technique using a DNA probe was developed for determination of Salmonella in naturally contaminated meat meals. The method eliminated the need for 180 selective plates and 75 selective tubes and saved 27 h when compared with a traditional technique; yet it still yielded identical MPN ...
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