Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 927
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Santollo Jessica - - 2007
Estradiol exerts many of its actions by coupling with two nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) proteins, ER alpha, and ER beta. While the acute, anorexigenic effect of estradiol appears to involve such a mechanism, the relative contributions of ERalpha and ERbeta are equivocal. To address this problem, food intake was monitored ...
Samra Rania Abou - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Insoluble fiber consumption is associated with reduced risk of obesity and diabetes, but its mechanisms of action are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe the effect of insoluble fiber on appetite, short-term food intake, and blood glucose (BG) before and after a meal 75 min later in healthy ...
Sysko Robyn - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to measure test meal consumption and the changes in hunger and fullness during a test meal in obese individuals with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and normal-weight controls. METHOD: Twelve women with BED, 12 obese control participants, and 12 normal-weight control participants ...
Marsh Karen J - - 2007
In a given period of time, herbivores often eat less as dietary plant secondary metabolite (PSM) concentrations increase. This reduction in total food intake is interpreted as a need for the herbivore to regulate PSM ingestion in order to avoid toxication. However, regulation of PSM ingestion involves more than the ...
Rudolph Tanja K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: High-fat meals have negative effects on endothelial function, but vitamin-rich side orders may prevent these negative effects. OBJECTIVE: The acute effects of conventional and alternative fast-food meals on vascular function and various cardiovascular biomarkers were investigated. DESIGN: In a crossover study, flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilatation (FMD) and cardiovascular disease risk ...
Finlayson Graham - - 2008
Eating is an action open to awareness by the individual; however, it cannot be claimed that processes that control the expression of eating habits are necessarily explicit. This distinction between implicit and explicit processes may enhance understanding of the expression of food reward (particularly the concepts of liking and wanting ...
Colasurdo Nadia - - 2007
This study examines whether the ratio of protein to carbohydrate affects the timing of meals and the propensity to explore of forest tent caterpillars (Malacosoma disstria). The behavior of fourth instar caterpillars was observed on three semi-defined artificial diets varying in protein (p)-carbohydrate (c) ratio. These diets were (a) p14:c28, ...
Bellissimo Nick - - 2007
Television viewing (TVV) is considered a contributing factor to the development of childhood obesity yet it is unclear whether obesity results, in part, from increased energy intake during TVV. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TVV on food intake (FI) of boys at a meal ...
Vinci Debra M - - 2007
This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American ...
Cuddy John S - - 2007
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of supplemental feeding strategies on self-selected activity during wildland fire suppression. METHODS: Seventy-six wildland firefighters were studied in three experiments for three fire seasons. During the first two seasons, subjects consumed, in addition to their sack lunch, 1) liquid ...
Almanza Barbara A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine typical handling practices of home-delivered meals, and provide appropriate handling instructions to reduce the risk of foodborne illness by improving consumer handling of home-delivered meals. DESIGN: Once permission was given by the home-delivered meal site directors, clients were provided a voluntary survey and requested by the delivery ...
Hodgson Jonathan M - - 2007
Plasma total homocysteine concentrations (tHcy) are a putative risk factor for CVD. Tea is a rich dietary source of polyphenols and caffeine, both of which may raise tHcy. However, it is possible that much of any effect is transitory and may be influenced by the consumption of food. Our objective ...
Buckley Marie - - 2007
Convenience foods enable the consumer to save time and effort in food activities, related to shopping, meal preparation and cooking, consumption and post-meal activities. The objective of this paper is to report on the attitudes and reported behaviour of food consumers in Great Britain based on a review of their ...
Rungapamestry Vanessa - - 2007
The isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, has been implicated in the cancer-protective effects of brassica vegetables. When broccoli is consumed, sulforaphane is released from hydrolysis of glucoraphanin by plant myrosinase and/or colonic microbiota. The influence of meal composition and broccoli-cooking duration on isothiocyanate uptake was investigated in a designed experiment. Volunteers (n 12) ...
Foltin Richard W - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to determine if a cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist would selectively decrease consumption of highly palatable food in non-human primates. The CB(1) receptor antagonist SR141716 (rimonabant; 0.12-1.0 mg/kg, i.m.) and the stimulant anorectic drug d-amphetamine (0.12-1.0 mg/kg, i.m.) were administered to non-food deprived baboons for ...
Poortvliet Peter C - - 2007
Many food components can influence satiety or energy intake. Combined together, these food components could represent an interesting dietary strategy in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine the effect of a functional food in the form of a healthy meal course ...
Bauchart Caroline - - 2007
Because of its physiological effects, carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) can be considered as a bioactive food component. The objective of this study was to assess the quantitative significance of intact carnosine absorption after ingestion of different beef meats, using the minipig as animal model. In a preliminary experiment, we evaluated the level ...
Jaeger Sara R - - 2007
The present research investigates the concept of food convenience within the institutional framework of military feeding. The approach views food-related convenience in terms of two broad dimensions: "type of convenience" and "timing of convenience." A discrete choice experiment was conducted with US military personnel (n=179) regarding their perceptions of the ...
Pliner Patricia - - 2007
Two studies examined the effects of the induction of a meal schema on participants' behavior. In the first, participants ate identical preloads either in a traditional meal context or in a non-meal ("tasting session") context where the usual cues associated with meals, such as the use of dishes/utensils and being ...
Saldiva Silvia Regina D M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To identify the feeding practices of children aged 6 to 12 months of age and associated maternal factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study analyzing data from the 2004 Breastfeeding and the Municipalities Project, which was implemented in 136 municipalities in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with 24,448 ...
Bray George A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Fast food is consumed in large quantities each day. Whether there are differences in the acute metabolic response to these meals as compared to 'healthy' meals with similar composition is unknown. DESIGN: Three-way crossover. METHODS: Six overweight men were given a standard breakfast at 8:00 a.m. on each of ...
Yamka R M - - 2007
Fifty-five observations were used to determine the ME content of 8 foods containing different protein sources. The major protein sources tested included low-oligosaccharide whole soybeans; 2 low-oligosaccharide, low-phytate whole soybeans; 2 conventional soybean meals; low-ash poultry meal; low-oligosaccharide, low-phytate soybean meal; and conventional whole soybeans. The ME content of all ...
Lirette Theresa - - 2007
PURPOSE: To investigate Edmonton Meals on Wheels (MOW) recipients' food preferences and meal satisfaction. METHODS: A preliminary study of 13 lunch club participants divided into two focus groups was conducted to determine overall themes in clients' menu preferences and suggestions. A questionnaire was developed, based on previous MOW client comments, ...
Boutelle Kerri N - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence of fast-food purchases for family meals and the associations with sociodemographic variables, dietary intake, home food environment, and weight status in adolescents and their parents. DESIGN: This study is a cross-sectional evaluation of parent interviews and adolescent surveys ...
Zinner Norman - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Sildenafil citrate has been used worldwide by men with erectile dysfunction. The prescribing information for sildenafil suggests ingestion 1 hour before sexual activity and also notes reduced maximum plasma concentration and delayed time to maximum concentration following ingestion with a high-fat meal. The clinical impact of coingestion of food ...
Sysko Robyn - - 2007
This study investigated the relationship between self-reported dietary restraint and expectancies about caloric content on test meal consumption among undergraduate women. Participants completed two test meal sessions during which they were asked to consume as much milkshake from a covered opaque container as they wished. In one session, participants were ...
Keogh J B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of barley flour (barley cultivar, Hordeum Vulgare var Himalaya 292) incorporated into breakfast and lunch compared with otherwise identical meals containing white wheat flour on the thermic effect of food (TEF), subsequent food intake and metabolic parameters. DESIGN: Randomized single blinded crossover study. SETTING: Outpatient ...
Caton S J - - 2007
To compare the effects on appetite and energy intake (EI) within a meal and across 4 days of drinking wine either before (aperitif) or with (co-ingestion) a meal, 11 men attended the laboratory on three occasions. On each occasion participants were given breakfast in the laboratory then 3 h later ...
King J W - - 2007
Evidence suggests that dab and rainbow trout are able to quickly adjust their food intake to an appropriate level when offered novel diets. In addition day-to-day and meal-to-meal food intake varies greatly and meal timing is plastic. Why this is the case is not clear: Food intake in fish is ...
Ray S K - - 2006
A cross-sectional observational study was carried out between April to May 2006 by interview method and observation technique with the objective to know the knowledge regarding hand washing in the community and it was done in the slum and nonslum urban areas and also one rural area. The result shows ...
Wansink Brian - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although most people underestimate the calories they consume during a meal or during the day, calorie underestimation is especially extreme among overweight persons. The reason for this systematic bias is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between calorie underestimation and body mass reflects a tendency for all persons ...
Foltin Richard W RW Division on Substance Abuse, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 120, New York, NY 10032, USA. - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to develop a foraging model that engenders large meals. Eight free-feeding baboons were first given periodic access to a chocolate sugar-coated candy (M & Ms) and then a jelly sugar-coated candy (Skittles). Baboons had access to food 24 h each day, but they had ...
Vaughan C - - 2006
Melanocortin-4 receptor knockout (MC4RKO) mice are hyperphagic and develop obesity under free feeding conditions. We reported previously that MC4RKO mice did not maintain hyperphagia and as a result lost weight when required to press a lever to obtain food on a fixed ratio procurement schedule. To assess the generality of ...
Schwartz Gary J - - 2006
The caudal brainstem nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is the initial central nervous system (CNS) terminus for a variety of gastrointestinal mechanical, nutrient chemical and gut peptide signals that limit the amount of food consumed during a meal. It receives neuroanatomical projections from gut vagal and non-vagal visceral afferents ...
Henry, Megan
Qualitative methods were used to explore the role of Meals on Wheels (MOW) in the lives of frail elders. This study explored the interface between the way MOW operates and clients' need to discover the ways that a meal intervention program integrates with existing lives, beliefs, and cultural values. A ...
Holsen Laura M - - 2006
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder associated with developmental delay, obesity, and obsessive behavior related to food consumption. The most striking symptom of PWS is hyperphagia; as such, PWS may provide important insights into factors leading to overeating and obesity in the general population. We used functional magnetic resonance ...
Stroebele Nanette - - 2006
The relationship of listening to music while eating with food consumption in the natural environment was assessed in 78 college students. They recorded their food intake along with environmental factors such as meal duration, music, including speed and volume, location, number of people present and the time of day in ...
Thibault Louise - - 2006
Recent evidence indicates that rats can learn to avoid aversive consequences of several hours of food deprivation by eating more of food having orosensory characteristics that predict a protracted fast. Two new studies tested if macronutrient composition of a flavoured meal before the reinforcing fast influences this acquisition of anticipatory ...
Brighenti Furio - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Low postprandial blood glucose is associated with low risk of metabolic diseases. A meal's ability to diminish the glucose response to carbohydrates eaten during the following meal is known as the "second-meal effect" (SME). The reduced glycemia elicited by low-glycemic-index (LGI) foods consumed during the first meal has been ...
Ovaskainen M-L - - 2006
BACKGROUND: An increasing frequency of snacks has been observed in meal pattern studies. Snacks can alter the diet because of their high-energy density and low-nutrient content or on the contrary. OBJECTIVE: The prominence of snacks in energy intake and food consumption was assessed. DESIGN: Dietary data were collected for 2007 ...
Skoog S M - - 2006
It is unknown if sorbitol, a widely used laxative agent, accelerates colonic transit, and if these effects are modified by concomitant meal ingestion. Colonic transit was assessed by (111)In scintigraphy in 40 healthy subjects. After a 24-h scan, subjects received sorbitol (30 mL of 70% solution) or dextrose (30 mL ...
- - 2006
AIM: To describe complementary feeding practices in the Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) sample. METHODS: Food frequency questionnaires and 24-h dietary recalls were administered to describe child feeding throughout the first 2 y of life. This information was used to determine complementary feeding initiation, meal frequency and use of fortified ...
Cooper Steven J - - 2006
Free-feeding rats meet much of their daily energy requirements by consuming food in meals during the nocturnal phase of the night/day cycle. Meal pattern analysis methodology has been developed to record the patterns of meal taken over a 24-h period, and to provide detailed information on a number of meal-related ...
Crystal Jonathon D - - 2006
The mechanism of anticipating long-intervals (16-21 h) was investigated. Rats earned food by interrupting a photobeam in a food trough during 3- or 4-h meals. Intermeal intervals were 16, 21, and 24 h (offset to offset) for independent groups of rats (n=8 per group). After approximately a month of experience ...
Roura Elena - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Plant polyphenols have been studied largely because of the possibility that they might underlie the protective effects afforded by fruit and vegetable intake against cancer and other chronic diseases. Measurement of polyphenol content excreted in urine as an indicator of polyphenol consumption may offer a routine screening method that ...
Capaldi Elizabeth D - - 2006
The present study tested whether foods categorized as meals reduce subsequent intake more than isocaloric foods categorized as snacks. The study was repeated three times with variations. In each variation we manipulated whether subjects received meal or snack foods in an isocaloric load. In Variation 1, subjects consumed less following ...
Ziegler Paula - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To describe nutrient intake and food patterns of lunches and snacks eaten at various locations by US toddlers. DESIGN: A national, cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers and primary caretakers reported toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. SUBJECTS: Toddlers (n=632), aged 15 to 24 months, a ...
Waterhouse Jim - - 2006
To understand better how disruption to daily routines and circadian factors affect food intake, some aspects of 361 passengers' eating habits during long-haul flights across eight time zones were investigated. Two meals were provided during each flight. Passengers stated whether or not they had eaten part or all of each ...
Sammon A M - - 2006
Endemic cancer of the oesophagus in Africa is associated with the use of maize as the staple. In one African community endemic cancer of the oesophagus has been shown to have a strong statistical association with the consumption of foods based on maize in the meal form. A strong association ...
Williamson Donald A - - 2006
This study tested if: (1) a preload of mycoprotein and tofu consumed before a lunch meal have a greater effect on satiety when compared to a chicken preload, (2) the mycoprotein and tofu preloads, compared to chicken, are not associated with compensation or eating more food at a subsequent dinner ...
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