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Results 501 - 550 of 936
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Parsons C M - - 2000
Three conventional soybean meals (CSBM) and five low-oligosaccharide soybean meals (LOSBM) were evaluated. Meals were prepared by solvent-extracting flakes from generic soybean lines and soybean lines genetically modified to contain varying oligosaccharide content. The mean raffinose, stachyose, and galactinol levels in the CSBM were 0.58, 3.23, and 0%, respectively. The ...
Gopaul N K - - 2000
F2-isoprostanes (F2-IPs) are formed by the free radical-catalysed oxidation of arachidonic acid. The measurement of F2-IPs, especially 8-epi-PGF2alpha, is recognised as a reliable marker of lipid peroxidation and is currently used as a sensitive index of oxidative stress in vivo. The majority of 8-epi-PGF2alpha present in the circulation occurs in ...
Kudo Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in meal patterns and food choices across two generations of Japanese-American females born in the USA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: Gardena, a suburb of Los Angeles, California. SUBJECTS: One-hundred and seventy-six Japanese-American females, participating in a morning exercise class from December 1998 to January 1999. ...
Eckel L A - - 2000
Rats display strong behavioral rhythms during the ovarian cycle. During estrus, food intake is minimal due to a decrease in meal size, and locomotor activity is maximal. To investigate how activity influences feeding patterns across the ovarian cycle, we used a computerized system to monitor spontaneous meal patterns in intact, ...
Shapiro M - - 2000
PURPOSE: We report two cases of ileoanal J-pouch rupture after rapid consumption of high-fiber, high-calorie meals. METHOD: We review the food intake, presentation, laboratory and radiographic data, and course of two patients who developed ileoanal J-pouch perforation after rapid consumption of meals rich in fiber or calories or both. The ...
Gibson E L - - 2000
In a two-bottle choice test, rats drank more of the fluid having a novel odour than that having an odour which had previously been presented in the later part of meals on concentrated maltodextrin solution. Rats are normally more averse to a novel odour than to a familiar odour; therefore, ...
Legg C - - 2000
Psychometric methods were used to explore the reliability and criterion validity of self-reported food intake in studies of dietary restraint. In Study 1 the reliabilities over days of daily aggregate intakes and of intakes at meals at particular times of day were assessed in 7 day food diaries by 27 ...
Hu X - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that different types of fat have different effects on the postprandial plasma triacylglycerol response. Therefore, the type of fat may influence the appearance of beta-carotene in postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, which is used as an indicator of intestinal beta-carotene absorption. OBJECTIVE: We compared in female subjects the appearance ...
Whitfield L R - - 2000
The pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, were characterized in 16 healthy subjects following administration of 10 mg atorvastatin tablets with, or 3 h after, evening meals for 15 days in an open-label, randomized, 2-way crossover study. Atorvastatin was well tolerated. Atorvastatin administration with evening meals resulted ...
Westerterp-Plantenga M S - - 2000
Cumulative food intake curves have been obtained by monitoring eating from a plate, placed on a scale built into a table, and connected to a digital computer. They describe and integrate parameters of consumption of an ad lib single course meal, i.e. meal size, meal duration, eating rate, change in ...
Bravo D - - 2000
The present study was aimed at determining rumen phosphorus availability of some feedstuffs assessed with the nylon bag technique: forage (alfalfa), cereals (control-C wheat, formaldehyde treated-FT wheat, barley, corn), cereal by-products (wheat bran, wheat distillers, corn distillers) and meals (C and FT soya bean meals, rapeseed meals and sunflower meals). ...
Yeomans M R - - 2000
Detailed analysis of the pattern of change in rated appetite within a meal have proved a useful technique through which to explore appetite control. Variability in individual ratings, and technical difficulties in achieving ratings at equivalent stages of a meal, have lead to the use of curve-fitting techniques to model ...
Karaağaoğlu N - - 2000
This study was conducted in five provinces and food consumption, physical activity types and duration for 3 consecutive days were recorded in the questionnaire together with some general characteristics of 750 (320 males, 430 females) adults who were on fast during Ramadan at time of interview. One hundred and eighty-seven ...
Simmons S F - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The current approach to assessing nutritional intake requires nursing home (NH) staff to document total percentage of food and fluid consumed at each meal. Because NH staff tend to significantly overestimate total food intake, methods need to be developed to improve the accuracy of food intake measurement. OBJECTIVE: To ...
Hendy H M - - 2000
Although Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997) suggests that teacher modeling would be one of the most effective methods to encourage food acceptance by preschool children, opinions of experienced teachers have not yet been sampled, teacher modeling has rarely been examined experimentally, and it has produced inconsistent results. The present study ...
Kriwanek S - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Gastric restriction surgery relies on obstruction to oral intake by formation of a gastric pouch. Therefore, the therapeutic effect is closely related to intolerance for different types of food, and an ingestion of an unbalanced diet. We investigated dietary changes after VBG and their associations with therapeutic success. METHODS: ...
Marciani L - - 2000
Normal meals are highly viscous, and viscosity is a key factor in influencing gastric emptying of food. However, the process of meal dilution and mixing is difficult to assess with the use of conventional methods. The aim of this study was to validate an in vivo, novel, noninvasive, echo-planar magnetic ...
Woods S C - - 2000
This chapter reviews the recent literature on hormonal and neural signals critical to the regulation of individual meals and body fat. Rather than eating in response to acute energy deficits, animals eat when environmental conditions (social and learned factors, food availability, opportunity, etc.) are optimal. Hence, eating patterns are idiosyncratic. ...
de Castro J M - - 2000
To investigate palatability influences on the ad lib eating behavior of free-living humans, 54 French participants were paid to maintain food intake diaries for four 7-day periods. They recorded their intake along with palatability ratings, on a seven-point scale, of each individual item eaten and also a global rating of ...
Chapelot D - - 2000
Sibutramine is a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor exerting a weight reducing effect partly via its anorectic properties. We investigated the effects of 15 mg sibutramine on objective (intake) and subjective (sensations) parameters of eating behavior in 24 young male subjects. At 0830 h subjects took either placebo or sibutramine ...
Landström U - - 2000
The investigation included six drivers engaged in day driving and six drivers engaged in night driving. Changes in wakefulness were analysed by means of a questionnaire where the drivers were asked to rate their wakefulness on a 100 mm rating scale. Changes in wakefulness were analysed during intake of food ...
Ahn S - - 1999
Changes in dopamine (DA) efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats were monitored using in vivo microdialysis during sensory-specific satiety experiments. Rats consumed significant amounts of a palatable food during an initial meal but ate little when the same food was available as a second meal. ...
Garrett D A - - 1999
The objective of this study was to develop a model for assessing the bioavailability of carotenoids from meals using an in vitro digestion procedure. A meal was prepared using baby food carrots, spinach, and a meat, plus tomato paste. The aqueous fraction was isolated from digesta to determine the quantity ...
Collier G - - 1999
Certain popular models of the regulation of food intake predict a positive correlation between the size of a meal and the preceding and/or following intermeal interval. However, the reported strength of these prandial correlations has varied widely in the literature. To determine what factors may influence the strength of these ...
Benton D - - 1999
A recent major theory was that a meal high in carbohydrate increased the rate that tryptophan enters the brain, leading to an increase in the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin that modulates mood. Although such a mechanism may be important under laboratory conditions it is unlikely to be of significance ...
De Castro J M - - 1999
The heritability of the before and after meal self-ratings of hunger and thirst and their relationship to food intake was investigated with 110 identical and 102 fraternal same-sex and 53 fraternal mixed-gender adult twin pairs who were paid to maintain 7-day food intake diaries. From the diary reports, the total ...
Bloch T D - - 1999
This article provides practitioners with meal plan samples at four calorie levels as a guide for planning athletes' food choices. Many good and practical publications are available for trainers and dietitians who assist athletes in their nutritional plans. The two primary needs of people with increased physical activity are increased ...
Meguid M M - - 1999
The effects of anorexia induced by early tumor, and anorexia induced by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on food intake and the indexes of food intake, were investigated in rats infused with saline after jugular catheter placement and concomitant inoculation with methylcholanthrene (MCA)-induced tumor cells on day 0, and in rats ...
de Castro J M - - 1999
It has been established that the genes influence body size. Recently, it has become clear that food intake is also influenced by heredity. Surprisingly, the genetic effect on intake was found to occur independent of body size. Taking height and body weight into consideration, strong influences of heredity were found ...
Prothro J W - - 1999
BACKGROUND: The objective was to assess the use of physician-prescribed special diets, food preferences, and daily and occasional drug use by elderly participants in a Title III-C Nutrition Program. METHODS: Data were collected by nonrandom interviews of congregate and meals-on-wheels clients. Chi-square was used to assess whether food and drug ...
Varma M - - 1999
Based on our previous observation that, when eating the same amount of food per 100 g b.wt., male rats gain five to seven times more weight than females who have an estrous cycle every 4 to 5 days, we questioned whether lower weight gain seen in female rats could be ...
Thibadeau S - - 1999
Research has demonstrated that providing extra and sometimes unlimited food quantities following meals can be effective in reducing or eliminating ruminative vomiting in persons with developmental disabilities. In this study, providing access to white bread was evaluated as an alternative method of satiation-based treatment of rumination displayed by an 18-year ...
Ledoux N - - 1999
Caseinomacropeptide (CMP)is a 64 amino acids peptide which is the first product released after kappa-casein hydrolysis. The present work investigates the kinetics delivery of CMP in human jejunal lumen during the digestion of intrinsically [15N]-labelled casein, whey protein, yoghurt and pea flour meal. Effluents were collected through a nasointestinal tube ...
Yeomans M R - - 1999
Previously we have suggested that individual subjects interpret the phrase "palatable food" in different ways. To test the consistency of the use of this term, 50 male volunteers consumed a simple lunch on two occasions, once with a more palatable food and once with a more bland version. Ratings of ...
Prothro J W - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Elderly persons 60-103 years of age, who were participants in a Title III-C Nutrition Program, provided information regarding weekly frequencies of food group consumption, weekend meals and snack patterns, and several nonfood items that may affect food intakes. METHODS: Nonrandomized volunteers were interviewed in senior centers or in their ...
Tumilero S - - 1999
A transient significant decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) from 107 +/- 3 to 98 +/- 3 mmHg (P < 0.05) was observed in elderly (59-69 years of age), healthy volunteers 25-30 min following ingestion of a test meal. In young volunteers (22-34 years of age), a postprandial decrease ...
De Graaf C - - 1999
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the pleasantness of a food on satiation (meal termination) and satiety. It was also studied whether or not the subsequent availability of other attractive foods affected the effect of palatability on intake. In a within-subjects repeated-measures design, 35 (26 female ...
Varma M - - 1999
Effects of operative stress on food intake, meal size, and meal number were measured in 15 female rats before and after jugular vein catheterization. All rats had 5-d estrous cycles which correlated with cyclical feeding patterns that were most prominent during dark phase eating. In proestrous, meal number peaked (30.3+/-1.32), ...
Chai J K - - 1999
Because food intake is a function of meal number and meal size and because gender-related hormones are involved in feeding regulation, we explored effects of orchiectomy and testosterone replacement on the relationship between meal number and size and changes in resulting feeding patterns in adult male rats, randomized into orchiectomy ...
Gendall K A - - 1999
This study investigated the effects of meals differing in macronutrient composition on subsequent food craving, bingeing, nutrient intake, and mood. Nine women who had prospectively demonstrated episodes of craving received one each of a high-protein, high-carbohydrate, and mixed meal on three separate days. Appetite and mood ratings were taken before ...
de Castro J M - - 1999
The heritability of the before-meal stomach content effects on food intake was investigated with 110 identical and 102 fraternal same-sex and 53 fraternal mixed-gender adult twin pairs who were paid to maintain 7-day food intake diaries. From the diary reports, the total and meal intakes of food energy and the ...
Araya H - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of energy density and food volume intakes in one meal (lunch-time) on food and energy intakes in the subsequent meal (tea-time). DESIGN: During lunch, two meals with different energy densities (1.26 and 0.69 kcal/g) were offered to preschool children using normal foods and maintaining a ...
Prinz-Langenohl R - - 1999
The aim of our study was to determine whether the area-under-the-plasma-response-curve method with the positive area (AUC+) as primary analysis variable is suitable to evaluate the availability of food folate in humans. Healthy volunteers (n = 20) received four test meals in a randomized, four-period cross-over design as follows: meal ...
Behmer S T - - 1999
Behavioural studies of the grasshopper Schistocerca americana were undertaken to identify the mechanisms that regulate the intake of dietary sterols. In the first experiment, grasshoppers were allowed to feed on spinach, a plant containing only unsuitable sterols; immediately after this first meal, a suitable or unsuitable sterol was injected into ...
Winkler G - - 1999
Seven-day food records of the MONICA project Augsburg dietary survey, which were collected in 1984/85 from 899 men aged 45-64 years (random sample), were used to analyse meal patterns. The combination of the three traditional meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) with one eating event between was most frequent, followed by two ...
Wahlqvist M L - - 1999
Eating patterns are a relatively neglected area of nutrition assessment with considerable potential health importance. Cross-cultural and socio-anthropological studies provide insight into the great range of food patterns which are related to health, biochemical measurements and anthropometry. The International Union of Nutritional Sciences (IUNS) study of aged folk in food-culturally ...
Schlettwein-gsell D - - 1999
The paper discusses the assessment method for meal patterns in the course of the SENECA follow-up survey in 1993 in eight study towns across Europe and relates the percentage of energy intake at the midday meal to geographical latitude, total energy intake, energy intake as snacks, number of cooked meals, ...
Tamura F - - 1999
Control of the circulatory and respiratory systems is especially important in severely disabled people. The purpose of this study was to clarify the response of hemoglobin oxygen saturation level (SpO(2)), pulse rate, and respiratory rate during oral feeding in severely disabled persons. Continuous measurement of these variables was done by ...
Pinnington L - - 1999
The purpose of this investigation was to determine what implications consistent presentation of food, delivered by an assistive feeding device at a position regarded as optimal, would have for the maintenance of food intake, duration of meals, and efficiency of eating. The trial employed an AB within-subjects design and extended ...
Ackroff K - - 1999
The combined effects of meal cost and food flavor on meal size were studied with a method that avoided the covariation of nutrient composition and caloric density with palatability. As rats (Rattus norvegicus) drank flavored fluids (unpalatable 0.05% sucrose octaacetate [SOA], neutral 0.05% saccharin, and palatable 2% Polycose + 0.2% ...
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