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Results 451 - 500 of 927
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Amella E J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: For persons unable to feed themselves, resistance to assistance with meals may result in increased morbidity and premature mortality because of inadequate nutritional intake. Additionally, unwillingness to accept food offered has social and ethical implications in all cultures and may influence caregiving. OBJECTIVE: As part of a larger study, ...
Funaba M - - 2001
To compare the effects of two dietary protein sources, fish meal (FM) and corn gluten meal (CGM), fecal moisture content, nitrogen balance and urinary excretion were examined in adult cats. The dietary protein source did not cause a significant difference in daily food intake, water intake, urine volume, dry matter ...
Sato T - - 2001
Our past microdialysis studies in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of changes in dopamine concentrations in response to changes in food intake [characterized as feeding pattern (changes in meal number and size)] in anorexia of cancer show abnormal presynaptic dopaminergic neurotransmission. To determine postsynaptic receptor status, ...
Horn C C - - 2001
Prior evidence has suggested that meal satiation in the marine mollusk Aplysia is associated with stretch of the crop. The current data, however, suggest that under some conditions, bulk in the crop can be dissociated from the propensity to feed. The crop was hyper-distended 6 h after a satiating meal ...
Fox E A - - 2001
Intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) and intramuscular arrays (IMAs) are the two putative mechanoreceptors that the vagus nerve supplies to gastrointestinal smooth muscle. To examine whether neurotrophin-4 (NT-4)-deficient mice, which have only 45% of the normal number of nodose ganglion neurons, exhibit selective losses of these endings and potentially provide a ...
Van Wymelbeke V - - 2001
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that hunger may be delayed and food intake reduced under metabolic conditions that spare carbohydrate oxidation. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the role of glucose metabolism in the control of food intake in men by using medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) to spare carbohydrate oxidation. DESIGN: ...
von Holst C - - 2001
Experiments were conducted in a laboratory autoclave and in a commercial rendering plant to set a limit for the R-value of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to prove that animal meal had been sufficiently heat-treated. The immunoassay method is currently the only technique used to check for appropriate sterilization of ...
Parks E J - - 2001
The study of postprandial metabolism is in the early stages compared with other areas of atherosclerosis research. Recent advances in postprandial research have included improvements in methodology and the investigation of factors that modulate the lipemic response to a meal. Enough studies have now been performed that normal ranges have ...
Patricia M - - 2001
A consumer survey was conducted in a university fastfood mall to determine the food consumption and buying patterns of Philippine university students. The survey established that a typical fastfood consumer in the test university foodmall is female between 16 and 22 years old, with a purchasing capability of < or ...
Parkinson K N - - 2001
Feeding behaviour in the weaning period is important theoretically and practically. The aim of the study was to develop appropriate observational codes for its description, to assess their reliability, and to examine the relationships between feeding behaviour, meal duration, and food intake. One hundred children aged 12-14 months were visited ...
de Castro J M - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: The time of day of meal ingestion, the number of people present at the meal, the subjective state of hunger, and the estimated before-meal contents in the stomach have been established as influences on the amount eaten in a meal, and this influence has been shown to be heritable. ...
Blondheim D S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Fasting is required by the Jewish and Islamic religions, and may sometimes be necessary for non-religious reasons as well. Very little empiric data are available on the effect of 24 hours of food and water deprivation. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of the dietary composition of different pre-fast meals ...
Russell A W - - 2001
AIMS: To determine the effects of acute hyperglycaemia on appetite and food intake in Type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Two separate studies, each involving eight adults with uncomplicated Type 1 diabetes, were performed: one in the fasted state (A) and the other after a nutrient preload (B). In both studies, ...
Onabolu A O - - 2001
AIM: To study the ecological variation of intake of cassava foods and dietary cyanide load. DESIGN: Ecological study design. SETTING: Five communities in south-western Nigeria where tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) was described as endemic (area A), 11 communities in south-western Nigeria where TAN was described as absent (area B), and ...
Wu Y V - - 2001
Spaghetti was prepared by replacing either 5 or 10% semolina or farina with corn gluten meal, a high-protein fraction from the wet milling of corn, to increase the protein content of pasta. Spaghetti fortified with corn gluten meal had a similar cooked weight and cooking loss but was less firm ...
Bellisle F - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Cognitive restraint, a stable disposition to limit food intake, can be assessed by questionnaires, but there is no quantitative, objective measure of its effect. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to provide an objective measure of the intake-limiting effects of cognitive restraint by testing meal intake under conditions intended to minimize ...
de Castro J M. - - 2001
The heritability of the before and after meal self-ratings of palatability and their relationship to food intake was investigated with 86 identical and 78 fraternal same-sex and 51 fraternal mixed gender adult twin pairs who were paid to maintain 7-day food intake diaries. From the diary reports, the total and ...
Marciani L - - 2001
The relationship between the intragastric distribution, dilution, and emptying of meals and satiety was studied using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging techniques in 12 healthy subjects with four polysaccharide test meals of varying viscosity and nutrient content as follows: 1) low-viscosity nonnutrient, 2) low-viscosity nutrient, 3) high-viscosity nonnutrient, and 4) high-viscosity ...
Derrickson J P - - 2001
The study objective was to quantify interpretations of the term "balanced meals" used in food security status assessments. Telephone interviews included 77 charitable food recipients in Hawaiì. After participants first responded to the question of whether they could afford to eat balanced meals, they next defined what a "balanced meal" ...
Batista M R - - 2001
We investigated the effect of a meal feeding schedule (MFS) on food intake, hepatic glycogen synthesis, hepatic capacity to produce glucose and glycemia in rats. The MFS comprised free access to food for a 2-hour period daily at a fixed mealtime (8.00-10.00 a.m.) for 13 days. The control group was ...
Kearney J M - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: A consideration of eating patterns in the general population is necessary when deriving food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) as promoting the intake of one food may indirectly result in the increased consumption of another, which may not always be desirable. A number of issues that influence meal patterns such as ...
Gustafson D R - - 2001
The milk protein, caseinomacropeptide (CMP), is a predominant breakdown product of casein in the human stomach, and may aid in the regulation of food intake. Using a human feeding study design, this project assessed the effects of CMP on satiety and satiation by measuring the amount of food consumed at ...
Mathey M F - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Taste and smell losses occur with aging. These changes may decrease the enjoyment of food and may subsequently reduce food consumption and negatively influence the nutritional status of elderly persons, especially those who are frail. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of flavor enhancers ...
Taylor M A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To test if a diet of 4.2 MJ/24 h as six isocaloric meals would result in a lower subsequent energy intake, or greater energy output than (a) 4.2 MJ/24 h as two isocaloric meals or (b) a morning fast followed by free access to food. DESIGN: Subjects were confined ...
Erhard H W. - - 2001
Varying the time since the last meal is one means of manipulating feeding motivation. In order to use this method effectively it is necessary to know whether and the extent to which effects of one pre-meal interval are carried over to affect the behaviour during the following meals. Pre-meal interval ...
Schmitt B - - 2001
In humans, eating is assumed to be regulated within a neuronal circuitry integrating hypothalamic "feeding centers" with neocortical regions. Here, DC potentials were recorded in food deprived men to demonstrate a graded tuning of neocortical excitability in conjunction with meal ingestion. In the beginning of food ingestion a pronounced negative ...
Candel M - - 2001
Consumer researchers consider convenience orientation towards meal preparation to be a relevant construct for understanding consumer behavior towards foods. This study set out to conceptualize this construct and to develop a scale that measures it. As examined in two different samples of meal preparers, the resulting scale is reliable, satisfies ...
O'Reilly M F - - 2001
The present authors examined the effectiveness of a behavioural intervention which included escape extinction and differential reinforcement of each bite eaten to treat non-organic food refusal in a child with Williams syndrome. The intervention was implemented by the child's mother in the home during normal meal schedules. The child was ...
Jahng J W - - 2001
The noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 has been reported to increase food intake in rats during scheduled test meals of palatable foods or after food deprivation, but not in nondeprived rats given rodent chow. To determine if MK801 has an effect on spontaneous meals, MK801 (100 microg/kg) was administered 15 ...
Johnson D F - - 2001
The contribution of taste to the food choices of foraging rats was examined. Rats in a laboratory foraging paradigm searched for sequential opportunities to eat at two feeders containing chow-based food pellets that were plain or flavored with saccharin or citric acid. Pellets cost the same number of bar presses ...
Sawaya A L - - 2001
We investigated the effects of food palatability on the thermic effect of feeding (TEF), substrate oxidation and circulating glucose and insulin. Healthy young men (23.4+/-1.0, SD, years, n=10) and older men (69.4+/-1.3, years, n=9) were resident in a metabolic unit for two 2-day study periods. On the second day of ...
Batista M R - - 2001
Rats trained to eat a single daily meal (MF rats), from 8:00-10:00 a.m., increased food intake from the 1st to the 12th (125%) day of feeding training. In this work we compared the influence of the higher food ingestion in the last meal and feeding training on hepatic gluconeogenesis. Thus, ...
Crystal J D - - 2001
The variability of anticipating a meal was investigated. Sprague-Dawley rats earned food by inspecting a food source during a 3-hr interval. Food was not available at other times. In Experiment 1, the meal started 3 or 7 hr after light offset in a 12-hr light-dark cycle. Experiment 2 was conducted ...
Meiselman H L - - 2000
In two independent demonstrations, pre-prepared food was served in different environments: first, identical prepared meals were served in both a training restaurant and in a student cafeteria; second, a prepared main dish was served in a food science laboratory class, and as part of an entire meal in two student ...
Rodriguez-Saona L E - - 2000
Methodology was developed and evaluated for the rapid detection of castor bean meal (CBM) containing the toxic protein ricin by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate techniques. The method is intended to be a prototype to develop a more general approach to detect food tampering. Measurements were made ...
Green S M - - 2000
The present study aimed to compare the action of high-fat and high-carbohydrate (CHO) foods on meal size (satiation) and post-meal satiety in obese women. A within-subjects design was used; each participant received all four nutritional challenges. Fifteen healthy obese women (age 21-56 years, BMI 35-48 kg/m2) participated; thirteen completed all ...
Smith G P - - 2000
The experimental analysis of the controls of eating has undergone a paradigmatic shift in the past decade. Instead of seeing meals as a problem of how intake serves metabolism and nutritional homeostasis, meals are now seen as a problem in behavioral neuroscience. The major developments underlying this significant change are ...
Meguid M M - - 2000
Because daily food intake is the product of the size of a meal and the frequency of meals ingested, the characteristic of meal size to meal number during a 24-h light-dark cycle constitutes an identifiable pattern specific to normal states and obesity and that occurs during early cancer anorexia. An ...
Raynor H A - - 2000
This study investigated the influence of sensory stimulation, with and without post-ingestive consequences, on satiation by varying the form of a preload and the timing of a mixed meal presented after the preload. Twenty-four, normal-weight, non-dieting, college-aged women were randomized to different preload groups: water preload (Water), sip-and-spit energy-dense preload ...
Harper R P - - 2000
Inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can alter behavioral responses such as food intake and mobilize stress hormones. The hypothesis of this study was that food intake and diurnal corticosterone analysis can be used as indicators of adjuvant-induced TMJ inflammation. Groups of rats received adjuvant or no injections at the ...
Gendall K A - - 2000
This study investigated the effects of meals varying in macronutrient composition on plasma tryptophan/large neutral amino acid (tryp:LNAA) ratios and subsequent appetite and mood in women defined as "food cravers." Nine women consumed one of each of a high protein, high carbohydrate and mixed meal on three separate days. Blood ...
de Castro J M - - 2000
In order to investigate palatability influences on the ad lib eating behavior of free-living humans, 564 participants were paid to maintain food intake diaries for 7 days. They recorded their intake along with a global rating of the palatability of the entire meal on a seven-point scale. It was found ...
Parsons C M - - 2000
Three conventional soybean meals (CSBM) and five low-oligosaccharide soybean meals (LOSBM) were evaluated. Meals were prepared by solvent-extracting flakes from generic soybean lines and soybean lines genetically modified to contain varying oligosaccharide content. The mean raffinose, stachyose, and galactinol levels in the CSBM were 0.58, 3.23, and 0%, respectively. The ...
Gopaul N K - - 2000
F2-isoprostanes (F2-IPs) are formed by the free radical-catalysed oxidation of arachidonic acid. The measurement of F2-IPs, especially 8-epi-PGF2alpha, is recognised as a reliable marker of lipid peroxidation and is currently used as a sensitive index of oxidative stress in vivo. The majority of 8-epi-PGF2alpha present in the circulation occurs in ...
Kudo Y - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To examine trends in meal patterns and food choices across two generations of Japanese-American females born in the USA. DESIGN: Cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: Gardena, a suburb of Los Angeles, California. SUBJECTS: One-hundred and seventy-six Japanese-American females, participating in a morning exercise class from December 1998 to January 1999. ...
Eckel L A - - 2000
Rats display strong behavioral rhythms during the ovarian cycle. During estrus, food intake is minimal due to a decrease in meal size, and locomotor activity is maximal. To investigate how activity influences feeding patterns across the ovarian cycle, we used a computerized system to monitor spontaneous meal patterns in intact, ...
Shapiro M - - 2000
PURPOSE: We report two cases of ileoanal J-pouch rupture after rapid consumption of high-fiber, high-calorie meals. METHOD: We review the food intake, presentation, laboratory and radiographic data, and course of two patients who developed ileoanal J-pouch perforation after rapid consumption of meals rich in fiber or calories or both. The ...
Gibson E L - - 2000
In a two-bottle choice test, rats drank more of the fluid having a novel odour than that having an odour which had previously been presented in the later part of meals on concentrated maltodextrin solution. Rats are normally more averse to a novel odour than to a familiar odour; therefore, ...
Legg C - - 2000
Psychometric methods were used to explore the reliability and criterion validity of self-reported food intake in studies of dietary restraint. In Study 1 the reliabilities over days of daily aggregate intakes and of intakes at meals at particular times of day were assessed in 7 day food diaries by 27 ...
Hu X - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that different types of fat have different effects on the postprandial plasma triacylglycerol response. Therefore, the type of fat may influence the appearance of beta-carotene in postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, which is used as an indicator of intestinal beta-carotene absorption. OBJECTIVE: We compared in female subjects the appearance ...
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