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Results 401 - 450 of 854
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Kobelt P - - 2006
Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a, is the most powerful peripherally active orexigenic agent known. In rodents, ghrelin administration stimulates growth hormone release, food intake, and adiposity. Because of these effects, blocking of ghrelin has been widely discussed as a potential treatment for obesity. Spiegelmer ...
Craig Paul M - - 2005
Transfer to seawater (SW) in rainbow trout elicits an increase in plasma cortisol and a bout of anorexia. Although the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has known hypophysiotropic and anorexigenic properties, it is not known whether CRF-related peptides originating from either the forebrain or the caudal neurosecretory system (CNSS) play a ...
Sindelar Dana K - - 2005
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent orexigenic peptide that is implicated in the feeding response to a variety of stimuli. The current studies employed mice lacking NPY (Npy-/-) and their wild-type (Npy+/+) littermates to investigate the role of this peptide in the feeding response to circadian and palatability cues. To ...
le Roux C W - - 2005
CONTEXT: Patients with gastric or esophageal surgery and transection of the vagus nerve may suffer from appetite and weight loss but without dysphagia or mechanical obstruction to eating. The gastric hormone ghrelin stimulates food intake and GH release in rodents and man. However, rodents with vagotomy are not sensitive to ...
Stylopoulos N - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Although Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective and widely used therapy for severe obesity, the mechanisms by which it induces weight loss are not well understood. Several studies have shown that RYGB in human patients causes a decrease in circulating levels of ghrelin, a gastric hormone that strongly ...
Bewick Gavin A - - 2005
Nociceptin or orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor NOP1 are expressed in hypothalamic nuclei involved in energy homeostasis. N/OFQ administered by intracerebroventricular or arcuate nucleus (ARC) injection increases food intake in satiated rats. The mechanisms by which N/OFQ increases food intake are unknown. We hypothesized that N/OFQ may regulate hypothalamic ...
Wynne Katie - - 2005
Anorexia and malnutrition confer significant morbidity and mortality to patients with end-stage kidney disease but are resistant to therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether subcutaneous administration of ghrelin, an appetite-stimulating gut hormone, could enhance food intake in patients who are receiving maintenance peritoneal dialysis and have ...
Abbott Caroline R - - 2005
The gastrointestinal-derived hormone peptide YY (PYY) is released from intestinal L-cells post-prandially in proportion to calorie intake, and modulates food intake. Peripheral administration of PYY((3-36)) reduces food intake and body weight in rodents and suppresses appetite and food intake in humans. PYY((3-36)) is hypothesised to inhibit food intake via activation ...
Williams Diana L - - 2005
Ghrelin, a ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is an orexigenic hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract. In humans and other animals, circulating ghrelin levels fluctuate over the course of the day in relation to food intake. If circulating ghrelin plays a role in determining food intake from meal ...
Parker Barbara A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone secreted primarily from the gastric mucosa. It plays a role in energy balance by stimulating appetite, thereby increasing food intake and enhancing weight gain and fat mass deposition. Plasma ghrelin concentrations increase with fasting and are suppressed by nutrient intake. The aim of this ...
le Roux C W - - 2005
Obesity is taking on pandemic proportions. The laws of thermodynamics, however, remain unchanged, as energy will be stored if less energy is expended than consumed; the storage is usually in the form of adipose tissue. Several neural, humeral and psychological factors control the complex process known as appetite. Recently, a ...
Rutherfurd-Markwick Kay J - - 2005
As interest in the ability of functional foods to impact on human health has grown over the past decade, so has the volume of knowledge detailing the beneficial roles of food-derived bioactive peptides. Bioactive peptides from both plant and animal proteins have been discovered, with to date, by far the ...
Shechter Yoram - - 2005
Administration of peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) to fasting humans or mice shortly before re-feeding effectively reduced their food intake, but PYY(3-36) exhibited a functional half-life of only approximately 3 h. Attachment of poly(ethylene glycol) to proteins and peptides (PEGylation) prolongs their half-life in vivo, but completely inactivated PYY(3-36). We developed a ...
Kim Ryang Yeo - - 2005
Melanocortins are known to be involved in the inhibition of food intake and energy metabolism. Acute and chronic intracerebroventricular administration of several different analogues of alpha-MSH, such as alpha-MSH, NDP-MSH, alpha-MSH-ND, [Gln(6)]alpha-MSH-ND, and [Lys(6)]alpha-MSH-ND, which were substituted in the position of His(6) with Gln and Lys, and cyclic16k-MSH to C57J/BL6 ...
Abbott Caroline R - - 2005
The vagus nerve forms a neuro-anatomical link between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain. A number of gastrointestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin and ghrelin, require an intact vagal-brainstem-hypothalamic pathway to affect CNS feeding circuits. We have shown that the effects of peripheral administration of both peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) and glucagon-like peptide-1 ...
Shousha Saad - - 2005
When rat or human ghrelin is administered to chickens or rats it stimulates the release of growth hormone, however, its effects on food intake differ between the two species. To investigate this discrepancy, we measured plasma ghrelin concentrations before and after food intake, and determined the effects of central (intracerebroventricular, ...
Unniappan Suraj - - 2005
Ghrelin was originally purified and characterized in rats and humans as the first identified endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. In mammals, ghrelin is mainly produced in the stomach, with minor levels of ghrelin present in the brain and various other tissues. Ghrelin is involved in the regulation ...
Valdés J L - - 2005
Arousal depends on the concerted activity of the ascending arousal system (AAS) but specific stimuli may primarily activate some nuclei of this system. Motivated behaviours are characterized by behavioural arousal, although it is not known which AAS nuclei are active during a motivated behaviour. To address this issue, rats were ...
Legakis Ioannis N - - 2005
A large number of neurotransmitters have been identified that influence food intake when administered directly into the central nervous system of experimental animals. In some cases, there is evidence that endogenous release is stimulated by the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract and that blockage of the signal results ...
Chen Hui - - 2005
Although nicotinic receptors have been demonstrated in hypothalamic appetite-regulating areas and nicotine administration alters food intake and body weight in both animals and humans, the mechanisms underlying the effects of smoking on appetite circuits remain unclear. Conflicting effects of nicotine on the major orexigenic peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been ...
Ueno Hiroaki - - 2005
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth-hormone-secretagogue receptor, was isolated from human and rat stomach. It is a 28-amino acid peptide with a posttranslational acyl modification that is indispensable for its activity. In addition to stimulating growth-hormone secretion, food intake, and body weight gain, ghrelin also plays a role in ...
Zheng Huiyuan - - 2005
Metabolic, cognitive, and environmental factors processed in the forebrain modulate food intake by changing the potency of direct controls of meal ingestion in the brain stem. Here, we behaviorally and anatomically test the role of the hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) system in mediating some of these descending, indirect controls. Melanotan II ...
Moreno Griselda - - 2005
Neonatal monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) treatment destroys hypothalamic arcuate nucleus neuronal bodies, thus inducing several metabolic abnormalities. As a result, rats develop a phenotype characterized by hyperleptinemia and by impaired NPY but normal preproorexin hypothalamic mRNAs expression. Thus, our study was designed to explore whether hypothalamic effects of orexin A on ...
Halatchev Ilia G - - 2005
Peptide YY (PYY) is a postprandially released gut hormone. Peripheral administration of one form of the peptide PYY3-36 produces a short-term reduction in food intake in rodents. Initial reports suggested that effects of PYY3-36 on food intake are mediated by increasing the anorexigenic drive from melanocortin neurons in the hypothalamic ...
Gardiner J V - - 2005
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is the most potent stimulant of feeding when administered by intracerebroventricular injection. Despite this, there is conflicting evidence as to its importance in the regulation of daily food intake and energy balance. It has been suggested that whilst it is important in the response to starvation it ...
Yaron Avraham - - 2005
The class 3 Semaphorins Sema3A and Sema3F are potent axonal repellents that cause repulsion by binding Neuropilin-1 and Neuropilin-2, respectively. Plexins are implicated as signaling coreceptors for the Neuropilins, but the identity of the Plexins that transduce Sema3A and Sema3F responses in vivo is uncertain. Here, we show that Plexin-A3 ...
Saito Ei-Suke - - 2005
It is known that, in rats, central and peripheral ghrelin increases food intake mainly through activation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. In contrast, intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin inhibits food intake in neonatal chicks. We examined the mechanism governing this inhibitory effect in chicks. The ICV injection of ghrelin or ...
Day Diane E - - 2005
Fasting has widespread physiological and behavioral effects such as increases in arcuate nucleus neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in rodents, including Siberian hamsters. Fasting also stimulates foraging and food hoarding (appetitive ingestive behaviors) by Siberian hamsters but does relatively little to change food intake (consummatory ingestive behavior). Therefore, we tested ...
Ramos Eduardo J B - - 2005
Obesity is increasing in severity and prevalence in the United States and represents a major public health issue. No effective pharmacologic treatment leading to sustained weight loss currently exists. The growing interest in the regulation of food intake stems from the current drug treatments for obesity, almost all of which ...
Whitlock B K - - 2005
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) stimulates feeding when injected intracerebroventricularly (ICV) in rats. At present it is not clear whether the function of MCH is similar in ruminants, which are species with a continuous delivery of nutrients. Therefore the current investigation sought to determine the role of MCH in sheep. In the ...
Laferrère Blandine - - 2005
GHRP-2 is a synthetic agonist of ghrelin, the newly-discovered gut peptide which binds to the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin has two major effects, stimulating both GH secretion and appetite/meal initiation. GHRP-2 has been extensively studied for its utility as a growth hormone secretagogue (GHS). Animal studies have shown ...
Benoit Stephen C - - 2005
The ingestion of foods is comprised of two distinct phases of behavior: appetitive and consummatory. While most food intake paradigms include both phases, the intraoral intake test emphasizes the stereotyped consummatory-phase by infusing a liquid food directly into the oral cavity. Several hypothalamic peptides have been shown to increase intake ...
Ramsey Jon J - - 2005
Orexin A has been reported to stimulate food intake in rats while orexin B does not. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of orexin A or orexin B administration on food intake in adult, male rhesus monkeys. Food intake was measured at 2 and 8 h ...
Farr Susan A - - 2005
Orexin-A is a peptide produced in the lateral hypothalamus/perifornical area, which stimulates feeding. The production of orexin-A is determined by the metabolic state of the animal. We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role as a mediator of feeding induced by a variety of neuropeptides. This ...
Crowley W R - - 2005
Relatively little is known concerning the interaction of psychostimulants with hypothalamic neuropeptide systems or metabolic hormones implicated in regulation of energy balance. The present studies tested whether methamphetamine alters the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AgRP), two important orexigenic neuropeptides, or proopiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor for the ...
Comoli E - - 2005
The study of the neural basis of predatory behavior has been largely neglected over the recent years. Using an ethologically based approach, we presently delineate the prosencephalic systems mobilized during predation by examining Fos immunoreactivity in rats performing insect hunting. These results were further compared with those obtained from animals ...
Kovács Eva G - - 2005
The objective of the present study was to determine the rostrocaudal distribution and the effect of reduced food intake (60% of the average daily food intake for 1-4 weeks) on the amount of leucine-enkephalin (Leu-enk), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (Gal) in the lateral septum of male rat brain. Using ...
Yang S-C - - 2005
The present studies aimed to determine whether cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide in the nucleus of accumbens shell (AcbSh) is implicated in the regulation of food intake. Bilateral intranuclear injections of CART peptide (55-102, 1 microg/microl/side) into the AcbSh decreased food intake with no change in locomotion activity and ...
Akimoto-Takano Saeko - - 2005
Aging is associated with a progressive decrease in appetite and food intake. The appetite-stimulating peptides orexin A, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin are known to play a critical role in food intake. In this study, the stimulatory effect of intracerebroventricular administration of these peptides on food intake was compared among ...
Lago Francisca - - 2005
Ghrelin is a recently discovered brain-gut peptide with two main physiological actions: growth hormone secretagogue activity and food intake inducer. Although its production is prevalently gastric, ghrelin is widely expressed in several tissues, where it might therefore act as a paracrine or autocrine factor. It is becoming clear that ghrelin ...
Rubino Francesco - - 2005
Circulating levels of ghrelin, a stomach peptide that promotes food intake, rise before and fall after meal. We aimed to investigate whether there is an independent contribution of the small bowel to the regulation of ghrelin and appetite. A duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) with preservation of normal gastric volume and exposure ...
Stratford Thomas R - - 2004
Injections of muscimol into the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) induce large increases in food intake in satiated rats and also activate neurons in a number of feeding-related brain regions, including NPY-containing neurons in the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and cells in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. This suggests that the NPY system ...
Keen-Rhinehart Erin - - 2005
Fasting triggers many effects, including increases in circulating concentrations of ghrelin, a primarily stomach-derived orexigenic hormone. Exogenous ghrelin treatment stimulates food intake, implicating it in fasting-induced increases in feeding, a consummatory ingestive behavior. In Siberian hamsters, fasting also stimulates appetitive ingestive behaviors such as foraging and food hoarding. Therefore, we ...
Tovar Sulay A - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Peptide YY (PYY) 3-36 has recently been recognized as an important gut hormone that influences food intake. Peripheral injections of PYY 3-36 in rats inhibit food intake in experimental animals as well as in lean and obese human subjects. This hormone has been suggested as an attractive therapeutic option ...
Wei Zhao-Jun - - 2004
We obtained a full-length cDNA encoding diapause hormone (DH) and pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) in Samia cynthia ricini based on both reverse transciptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategies. The open reading frame (ORF) of this cDNA encodes a 198-amino acid precursor protein that contains a ...
Angeles-Castellanos Manuel - - 2005
When food is restricted to a few hours daily, animals increase their locomotor activity 2-3 h before food access, which has been termed food anticipatory activity. Food entrainment has been linked to the expression of a circadian food-entrained oscillator (FEO) and the anatomic substrate of this oscillator seems to depend ...
Cani Patrice D - - 2004
The CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist, N-piperidino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methylpyrazole-3-carboxamide (rimonabant; SR141716A), and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) are known to reduce food consumption, by, at least partially, a peripheral regulation of feeding. The effects of systemic SR141716A or OEA (5 mg/kg) administrations on food consumption in 24 h food-deprived and fed rats were investigated. In fasted ...
Vilaplana Lluïsa - - 2004
Myosuppressins are a group of 10-residues FMRFamide-related peptides reported in Dictyoptera, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera. Myosuppressins inhibit visceral muscle contractions and, in the cockroach Blattella germanica, inhibit food intake. In B. germanica, the cDNA of leucomyosuppressin (LMS) has been cloned and sequenced. The deduced precursor is 96 amino acids long ...
Tups A - - 2004
Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). However, the functional interaction of ligand and receptor is not very well understood. We demonstrate that GHSR mRNA is up-regulated after food deprivation (48 h) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus of the seasonal Siberian hamster, ...
Schwartz Gary J - - 2004
Understanding normal and dysfunctional energy regulation and body weight regulation requires neural evaluation of the signals involved in the control of food intake within a meal, as well as signals related to the availability of stored fuels. Work from our laboratory has focused on peripheral and central nervous system studies ...
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