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Results 351 - 400 of 855
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Choi Sujean - - 2006
Appetite suppressants lose efficacy when given chronically; the mechanisms are unknown. We gave male rats once-daily dl-fenfluramine (dl-FEN, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injections for 15 days and measured mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in hypothalamic neurons on days 1, 2 and 15. dl-FEN ...
Nakamachi T - - 2006
Orexin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of feeding behaviour and the sleep-wakefulness cycle in mammals. However, in spite of a growing body of knowledge concerning orexin in mammals, the orexin system and its function have not been well studied in lower vertebrates. In the present ...
Dridi Sami - - 2006
Cerulenin, a natural fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor, and its synthetic analog C75 are hypothesized to alter the metabolism of neurons in the hypothalamus that regulate ingestive behavior to cause a profound decrease of food intake and an increase in metabolic rate, leading to body weight loss. The bulk of ...
Kojima Masayasu - - 2006
The endogenous ligand for the growth-hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor was purified from stomach and named ghrelin. It has potent GH-releasing activity and stimulates appetite by acting on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a region known to control food intake. Ghrelin thus plays important roles in maintaining GH release and energy homeostasis ...
Goncalves Carolina G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Tumor growth leads to cancer anorexia that is ameliorated using omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3FA). We hypothesize that omega-3FA modulates up-regulation of hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and down-regulation of anorexigenic alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and serotonin 1B receptors (5-HT(1B)-receptors) in tumor-bearing rats. METHODS: Twenty-eight tumor-bearing rats were fed either ...
Casper Regina C - - 2006
This paper discusses the hypothesis that a 'drive for activity" in the presence of physiological and endocrine changes consistent with starvation is a characteristic symptom of acute anorexia nervosa (AN). This 'drive for movement', along with alertness and lack of fatigue, so unlike the motor slowing and loss of energy ...
Haselton Aaron T - - 2006
The dipteran crop is an elaborate diverticulation of the foregut that serves as an important food reservoir and feeding regulator. Peptidergic innervation has been associated with the crop of the blow fly Phormia regina and myotropic neuropeptides have been previously demonstrated to affect crop contraction rates, in vitro. The blow ...
Kinzig Kimberly P - - 2006
The gut peptide ghrelin has been shown to stimulate food intake after both peripheral and central administration, and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus has been proposed to be the major site for mediating this feeding stimulatory action. Ghrelin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and hindbrain ghrelin administration has been ...
Kuramochi Motoki - - 2006
Galanin-like peptide (GALP), a 29-amino-acid neuropeptide, is located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), binds to galanin receptor subtype 2, and induces food intake upon intracerebroventricular (icv) injection in rats. However, neural mechanisms underlying its orexigenic action remain unclear. We aimed to identify the nuclei and neuron species that mediate ...
Pinilla L - - 2006
Development and normal function of the reproductive axis requires a precise degree of body energy stores. Polypeptide YY-(3-36) [PYY-(3-36)] is a gastrointestinal secreted molecule recently shown to be involved in the control of food intake with agonistic activity on neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor subtypes Y2 and Y5. Notably, PYY-(3-36) has ...
Guijarro Ana - - 2006
The immune and neuroendocrine systems are closely involved in the regulation of metabolism at peripheral and central hypothalamic levels. In both physiological (meals) and pathological (infections, traumas and tumors) conditions immune cells are activated responding with the release of cytokines and other immune mediators (afferent signals). In the hypothalamus (central ...
Heiman Mark L - - 2006
Ghrelin was discovered for its ability to bind the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a) and stimulate growth hormone release. However, much research conducted with this novel stomach hormone is focused on proposed roles for it to participate in regulating energy balance. Exogenous administration of ghrelin stimulates food consumption in experimental ...
Helmling Steffen - - 2006
According to the World Health Organization, 300 million people are clinically obese worldwide. As a major risk factor in the development of life-threatening diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, obesity is quickly evolving into a serious public health threat on a global scale. This alarming situation calls ...
Hosoda Hiroshi - - 2006
Ghrelin, identified as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, functions as a somatotrophic and orexigenic signal from the stomach. Ghrelin has a unique post-translational modification: the hydroxyl group of the third amino acid, usually a serine but in some species a threonine, is esterified by octanoic acid ...
le Roux Carel W CW Department of Metabolic Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, - - 2006
To study the effect of bariatric surgery on the entero-hypothalamic endocrine axis of humans and rodents. Bariatric surgery is the most effective obesity treatment as it achieves substantial and sustained weight loss. Glycemic control and enhanced satiation improve before substantial weight loss occurs. Gut peptides, acting both peripherally and centrally, ...
Gilg S - - 2006
Ghrelin is mainly secreted during fasting. While an orexigenic effect of peripherally injected ghrelin has been reported, reproducing this effect has often proven difficult. Here, we hypothesized that ghrelin's effect to increase food intake may depend on the experimental conditions (e.g., age of animals). We therefore investigated the effect of ...
Volkoff Hélène - - 2006
In fish, as in all vertebrates, the brain is the primary center of regulation of food intake. Afferent signals continuously inform the central nervous system about changes in energy homeostasis. The brain interprets and integrates these signals and responds with efferent signals that help maintain a constant energy balance. Neuropeptides ...
Zigman Jeffrey M - - 2005
Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor). Since its discovery, accumulating evidence has suggested that ghrelin may play a role in signaling and reversing states of energy insufficiency. For example, ghrelin levels rise following food deprivation, and ghrelin administration stimulates feeding and increases ...
Konturek P C - - 2005
Obesity is one of the most common metabolic diseases and the greatest threats of the health because of possibility of numerous complications. In order to design effective drugs or apply the helpful surgical procedure it is essential to understand physiology of appetite control and pathophysiology of obesity. According to the ...
Fetissov Sergueï O - - 2005
A mutation in the Contactin-1 gene results in an ataxic and anorectic phenotype that is apparent by postnatal day 10 and lethal by postnatal day 19 [Berglund et al. (1999) Neuron 24, 739-750]. The resemblance of this phenotype with the anorexia (anx/anx) mouse mutation prompted us to investigate the hypothalamic ...
Kelley Ann E AE Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, 6001 Research Park Blvd., Madison, WI 53719, USA. - - 2005
Work over the past decade has supported the idea that discrete aspects of appetitive motivation are differentially mediated by separate but interacting neurochemical systems within the nucleus accumbens (Acb). We review herein a series of studies in rats comparing the effects of manipulating Acb amino acid, opioid, acetylcholine, and dopamine ...
Misra Madhusmita - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Peptide YY (PYY) is an intestinally derived anorexigen that acts via the Y2 receptor, and Y2 receptor deletion in rodents increases bone formation. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with a deliberate reduction in food intake and low bone density, but endocrine modulators of food intake in AN are not ...
Song C Kay - - 2005
Energy balance results from the coordination of multiple pathways affecting energy expenditure and food intake. Candidate neuropeptides involved in energy balance are the melanocortins. Several species, including Siberian hamsters studied here, decrease and increase food intake in response to stimulation and blockade of the melanocortin 4-receptor (MC4-R). In addition, central ...
Ito Mikiko - - 2005
Serotonin transporters (SERTs) are pre-synaptic proteins specialized for the clearance of serotonin following vesicular release at central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system synapses. SERTs are high affinity targets in vivo for antidepressants such as serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and ...
Aldegunde M - - 2006
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most potent stimulants of food intake in mammals, but very little is known about NPY actions in fish. The present study investigated the role of NPY in food intake in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food intake was monitored at different times after ...
Shrestha Yogendra B - - 2006
MT II, agonist for MC3/4-Rs, inhibited Ghrelin's orexigenic effect in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). To further investigate the role of the melanocortin system as mediator of ghrelin's orexigenic actions, we explored the involvement of AgRP in Ghrelin's orexigenic effect by testing the effect on food intake after ...
Hu Zhiyuan - - 2005
The cellular level of malonyl-CoA, an intermediate in fatty acid biosynthesis, depends on its rate of synthesis catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase relative to its rate of utilization and degradation catalyzed by fatty acid synthase and malonyl-CoA decarboxylase, respectively. Recent evidence suggests that hypothalamic malonyl-CoA functions in the regulation of feeding ...
Koban Michael - - 2006
Chronic rapid eye movement (paradoxical) sleep deprivation (REM-SD) of rats leads to two conspicuous pathologies: hyperphagia coincident with body weight loss, prompted by elevated metabolism. Our goals were to test the hypotheses that 1) as a stressor, REM-SD would increase CRH gene expression in the hypothalamus and that 2) to ...
De Smet B - - 2006
To elucidate the role of endogenous ghrelin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and gastric emptying, ghrelin knockout mice (ghrelin(-/-)) were generated. Body weight, food intake, respiratory quotient, and heat production (indirect calorimetry), and gastric emptying ((14)C breath test) were compared between ghrelin(+/+) and ghrelin(-/-) mice. In both strains, the ...
Kinzig Kimberly P - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To model how consuming a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet influences food intake and body weight. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Food intake and body weight were monitored in rats with access to chow (CH), LC-high-fat (HF), or HF diets. After 8 weeks, rats received intracerebroventricular injections of a melanocortin agonist (melanotan-II) ...
de Rijke C E - - 2005
When rats are given access to a running-wheel in combination with food restriction, they will become hyperactive and decrease their food intake, a paradoxical phenomenon known as activity-based anorexia (ABA). Little is known about the regulation of the hypothalamic neuropeptides that are involved in the regulation of food intake and ...
Shaw Amanda M - - 2005
Ghrelin stimulates food intake in part by activating hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons/agouti related peptide (AGRP) neurons. We investigated the role of AGRP/melanocortin signaling in ghrelin-induced food intake by studying melanocortin 3 and 4 receptor knockout (MC3R KO and MC4R KO) mice. We also determined whether reduced ghrelin levels and/or ...
Stütz Adrian M - - 2005
The melanocortin system plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. The Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a natural antagonist of the action of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) at the melanocortin receptors (MCR). AGRP is upregulated by fasting while intracerebroventricular injections of synthetic AGRP lead to increased appetite and ...
Stanley Sarah - - 2005
Our knowledge of the physiological systems controlling energy homeostasis has increased dramatically over the last decade. The roles of peripheral signals from adipose tissue, pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract reflecting short- and long-term nutritional status are now being described. Such signals influence central circuits in the hypothalamus, brain stem, and ...
Pritchard Lynn E - - 2005
It is well established that agouti-related protein (AGRP) can act as a competitive antagonist to proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides at the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), and that this homeostatic mechanism is important as a means of coordinating appetite with perceived metabolic requirement. However, there are clearly additional facets to the physiological role ...
Irani Boman G - - 2005
The process of energy homeostasis is a highly regulated process involving interacting signals between a variety of anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides, proteins and signaling molecules. The melanocortin system is an important component of this complex regulatory network. Involvement of the melanocortin pathway in the control of food intake and body ...
Chen Chih-Yen - - 2005
Although des-acyl ghrelin is thought of as a non-functional peptide, studies show that it decreases food intake and gastric emptying in mice. However, no studies have examined the effects of centrally administered des-acyl ghrelin on food intake and gastrointestinal transit in rats. We investigated the effects of intracisternal (IC) administration ...
Egecioglu Emil - - 2006
We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) overexpression in the brain increased food intake, accompanied with increased hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) expression. Ghrelin, which stimulates both appetite and GH secretion, was injected intracerebroventricularly to GHR-/- and littermate control (+/+) mice to determine whether ghrelin's acute effects on appetite are ...
Wu Qi - - 2005
Omnivores, including humans, have an inborn tendency to avoid noxious or unfamiliar foods. Such defensive foraging behaviors are modifiable, however, in response to physiological needs. Here we describe a method for assessing risk-sensitive food acquisition in Drosophila melanogaster. Food-deprived fly larvae become more likely to feed on noxious foods (adulterated ...
Gotoh Koro - - 2006
Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is an anorexigenic gastrointestinal peptide that is also synthesized in the hypothalamus. The goal of these experiments was to determine whether apo A-IV interacts with the central melanocortin (MC) system in the control of feeding. The third ventricular (i3vt) administration of a subthreshold dose of apo A-IV ...
Neary Nicola M - - 2005
Peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon like peptide (GLP)-1 are cosecreted from intestinal L cells, and plasma levels of both hormones rise after a meal. Peripheral administration of PYY(3-36) and GLP-1(7-36) inhibit food intake when administered alone. However, their combined effects on appetite are unknown. We studied the effects of peripheral ...
Tovar Sulay - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Several hormones expressed in white adipose tissue influence food intake at the central level. We sought to determine whether resistin, a circulating adipose-derived hormone in rodents, has actions on the hypothalamus by determining the effects of central resistin injection on food intake and on hypothalamic Fos protein expression. DESIGN: ...
Allison Kelly C - - 2005
CONTEXT: Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings with ingestion of food. It is associated with obesity and depressed mood. Greater understanding of hormonal influences on NES is desirable. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate 25-h profiles of hormones involved in energy balance, sleep, and ...
Makarenko Irina G - - 2005
Tumor growth leads to anorexia and decreased food intake, the regulation of which is via the integrated hypothalamic peptidergic and monoaminergic system. Serotonin (5-HT), an anorectic monoamine acts primarily via 5-HT 1B-receptors in hypothalamic nuclei while neuropeptide Y (NPY) acts an orexigenic peptide. We previously reported that 5-HT 1B-receptors are ...
Erlanson-Albertsson Charlotte C Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden. - - 2005
Appetite regulation is part of a feedback system that controls the energy balance, involving a complex interplay of hunger and satiety signals, produced in the hypothalamus as well as in peripheral organs. Hunger signals may be generated in peripheral organs (e.g. ghrelin) but most of them are expressed in the ...
Pirisino Renato - - 2005
Increasing evidence suggests that not only ammonia, but also its alkyl-derivatives, including methylamine, may modulate neuron firing. Methylamine occurs endogenously from amine catabolism and its tissue levels increase in some pathological conditions, including diabetes. Interestingly, methylamine and ammonia levels are reciprocally controlled by a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity that deaminates ...
Geelissen S M E - - 2006
Ghrelin injection, either centrally or peripherally strongly stimulates feeding in human and rodents. In contrast, centrally injected ghrelin inhibits food intake in neonatal chickens. No information is available about the mechanism and its relationship with energy homeostasis in chicken. Since ghrelin is predominantly produced in the stomach, we investigated the ...
de Rijke Corine E - - 2005
AgRP is a neuropeptide that stimulates food intake through inhibition of central melanocortin receptors (MCRs). In humans, the non-conservative amino acid substitution Alanine (Ala) 67 Threonine (Thr) has been associated with Anorexia Nervosa and with leanness. In the present study, the cellular distribution, processing and in vitro and in vivo ...
Murphy Kevin G - - 2005
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a neuropeptide system with a number of biological roles. The high conservation of CART across species suggests that it has an important role in mammalian physiology. CART is widely expressed in the central nervous system and the periphery, but is particularly concentrated in ...
Dallman Mary F - - 2005
Central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) networks are recruited by chronic stressors and elevated glucocorticoids (GCs) that initiate recruitment of central CRF activity in the amygdala. Increased central activity of the CRF network stimulates all monoaminergic cell groups, as well as premotor autonomic and other limbic structures resulting in the typical arousal, ...
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