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Results 301 - 350 of 854
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Schiltz Craig A - - 2007
Cues predictive of food availability are powerful modulators of appetite as well as food-seeking and ingestive behaviors. The neurobiological underpinnings of these conditioned responses are not well understood. Monitoring regional immediate early gene expression is a method used to assess alterations in neuronal metabolism resulting from upstream intracellular and extracellular ...
Gonzalez Patricia Verónica - - 2006
Interleukins, in particular interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), reduce food intake after peripheral and central administration, which suggests that they contribute to anorexia during various infectious, neoplastic, and autoimmune diseases. On the other hand, ghrelin stimulates food intake by acting on the central nervous system (CNS) and is considered an important regulator of ...
McGowan B M BM Department of Metabolic Medicine, Imperial College London, 6th Floor Commonwealth Bldg., Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, - - 2007
The insulin superfamily, characterized by common disulphide bonds, includes not only insulin but also insulin-like peptides such as relaxin-1 and relaxin-3. The actions of relaxin-3 are largely unknown, but recent work suggests a role in regulation of food intake. Relaxin-3 mRNA is highly expressed in the nucleus incertus, which has ...
Toshinai Koji - - 2007
Age-related decreases in energy expenditure have been associated with the loss of skeletal muscle and decline of food intake, possibly through a mechanism involving changes of growth hormone (GH) secretion and feeding behavior. Age-related declines of growth hormone secretion and food intake have been termed the somatopause and anorexia of ...
Tremblay Frédéric - - 2007
It has been recently proposed that obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, reduces food intake by activating the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39. To gain further insights into the role of GPR39 in body weight homeostasis, we characterized the phenotype of mice with targeted disruption of the GPR39 ...
Chelikani Prasanth K - - 2006
Ghrelin stimulates, while glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] inhibit, food intake and gastric emptying in rats. We determined the dose-dependent effects of a 3-h intravenous infusion of ghrelin at dark onset on food intake in freely feeding rats, and on the inhibitory effects of intravenous infusion of GLP-1 ...
Kmiec Z - - 2006
Energy homeostasis and fuel metabolism undergo significant modifications in the course of ageing. During the second half of life many humans increase their body mass and develop glucose intolerance that may lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, many old people suffer from being underweight, and this "anorexia of ...
Wynne Katie - - 2006
Oxyntomodulin and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) are released from intestinal enteroendocrine cells in response to a meal. These circulating hormones are considered to be satiety signals, as they have been found to decrease food intake, body weight and adiposity in rodents. Their effect on energy homeostasis is mediated by the hypothalamus ...
Kodama Eiji - - 2006
Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits a food-associated behavior that is modulated by the past cultivation temperature. Mutations in INS-1, the homolog of human insulin, caused the defect in this integrative behavior. Mutations in DAF-2/insulin receptor and AGE-1/phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3)-kinase partially suppressed the defect of ins-1 mutants, and a mutation in DAF-16, a ...
Zeng Hongkui - - 2006
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide with a variety of physiological functions mediated by two receptors, peripheral NMUR1 and central nervous system NMUR2. Here we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of mice deficient in the central nervous system receptor NMUR2. We show that behavioral effects, such as ...
Wolfgang Michael J - - 2006
Energy balance is monitored by hypothalamic neurons that respond to peripheral hormonal and afferent neural signals that sense energy status. Recent physiologic, pharmacologic, and genetic evidence has implicated malonyl-CoA, an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis, as a regulatory component of this energy-sensing system. The level of malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus ...
Navar Daniel - - 2006
Recent studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) reduced the neural production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in frog hypothalamic explants. The objective of this study was to assess if DHEA can block the NPY induced increase in food intake in lean and obese Zucker rats. Rats were given one of the ...
Johnstone Louise E - - 2006
We trained rats to a regime of scheduled feeding, in which food was available for only 2 hr each day. After 10 days, rats were euthanized at defined times relative to food availability, and their brains were analyzed to map Fos expression in neuronal populations to test the hypothesis that ...
Nogueiras Rubén - - 2007
Ghrelin stimulates food intake and adiposity and thereby increases body weight (BW) in rodents after central as well as peripheral administration. Recently, it was discovered that the gene precursor of ghrelin encoded another secreted and bioactive peptide named obestatin. First reports appeared to demonstrate that this peptide requires an amidation ...
Miura Tohru - - 2006
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intraperitoneal (IP) administration of n-octanoic acid-modified ghrelin stimulates food intake in the goldfish. We examined the involvement of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the orexigenic action of ghrelin using a NPY Y1-receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226. Food intake induced by ICV or IP injection of ghrelin was suppressed by ICV ...
Kramer Phillip R - - 2007
In previous studies food intake and meal size significantly decreased in rats two days after injecting 4 mg/kg/day nicotine tartrate. Food intake returned to normal after nine days of continued nicotine treatment, when reduced meal size is countered by an increase in meal number. Nicotine also reduced body weight after ...
Tung Y C Loraine YC Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2QR, United - - 2006
Functional disruption of either MC3R or MC4R results in obesity, implicating both in the control of energy homeostasis. The ligands for these receptors are derived from the prohormone proopiomelancortin (POMC), which is posttranslationally processed to produce a set of melanocortin peptides with a range of activities at the MC3R and ...
Kawauchi Hiroshi - - 2006
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) was originally discovered in fish, in which it causes aggregation or concentration of melanin granules in melanophores, thus regulating body color. MCH is a cyclic neuropeptide synthesized as a preprohormone in the hypothalamus of all vertebrates. Mammalian MCH plays an important role as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator ...
Bhatti Sofie F - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the physiologic endocrine effects of food intake and food withholding via measurement of the circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), glucose, and insulin when food was administered at the usual time, after 1 day's withholding, after 3 days' withholding and after ...
Seoane L M - - 2006
The isolation of ghrelin unveiled a new system implicated in food intake regulation. The recently isolated hormone obestatin derives from the same precursor of ghrelin and seems to perform opposite actions. It could be part of a dual system connecting gut and brain to regulate energy homeostasis. The ability of ...
Warzecha Z - - 2006
Ghrelin, a nature ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), stimulates a release of growth hormone, prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Also, ghrelin increases food intake in adult rats and humans and exhibits gastroprotective effect against experimental ulcers induced by ethanol or stress. The aim of present study was to ...
Samson Willis K - - 2007
Derived from the same prohormone, obestatin has been reported to exert effects on food intake that oppose those of ghrelin. The obestatin receptor GPR39 is present in brain and pituitary gland. Since the gene encoding those two peptides is expressed also in those tissues, we examined further the possible actions ...
Will Matthew J - - 2007
It has long been known that central opioid systems play an important role in certain aspects of appetite and food intake, particularly with regard to the hedonic or rewarding impact of calorically dense food, such as fat and sugar. Ventral striatal enkephalin may be a key component of this system, ...
Szentirmai Eva - - 2007
Ghrelin, a gut-brain peptide, is best known for its role in the stimulation of feeding and growth hormone release. In the brain, orexin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ghrelin are parts of a food intake regulatory circuit. Orexin and NPY are also implicated in maintaining wakefulness. Previous experiments in our laboratory ...
Anukulkitch Chantacha C Prince Henry's Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Victoria, - - 2007
We studied the effects of photoperiod on metabolic profiles, adiposity, and gene expression of hypothalamic appetite-regulating peptides in gonad-intact and castrated Soay rams. Groups of five to six animals were studied 6, 18, or 30 wk after switching from long photoperiod (LP: 16 h of light) to short photoperiod (SP: ...
Wolf George - - 2006
In animals, food intake and therefore energy balance is regulated by a center in the hypothalamus of the brain. Neurons there release appetite-inhibiting (anorexigenic) or appetite-stimulating (orexigenic) peptide hormones according to whether energy intake exceeds or is less than expenditure, respectively. Recent evidence for the "malonyl coenzyme A hypothesis" showed ...
Gil-Campos Mercedes - - 2006
Regulation of energy homeostasis requires precise coordination between peripheral nutrient-sensing molecules and central regulatory networks. Ghrelin is a twenty-eight-amino acid orexigenic peptide acylated at the serine 3 position mainly with an n-octanoic acid, which is produced mainly in the stomach. It is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue ...
Yin Jieyun - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of ghrelin on food intake, gastric motility and whether gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is capable of reversing these effects of ghrelin in dogs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven healthy dogs were equipped with a gastric cannula and electrodes for the measurement of antral motility and gastric ...
Novak C M - - 2006
Brain neuromedin U (NMU) has been associated with the regulation of both energy intake and expenditure. We hypothesized that NMU induces changes in spontaneous physical activity and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) through its actions on hypothalamic nuclei. We applied increasing doses of NMU directly to the paraventricular (PVN) and arcuate ...
Coll Anthony P AP Departments of Clinical Biochemistry and Medicine, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2XY, - - 2006
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a polypeptide precursor that undergoes extensive processing to yield a range of peptides with biologically diverse functions. POMC-derived ACTH is vital for normal adrenal function and the melanocortin alpha-MSH plays a key role in appetite control and energy homeostasis. However, the roles of peptide fragments derived from ...
Chaudhri Owais - - 2006
The role of gastrointestinal hormones in the regulation of appetite is reviewed. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body. Gut hormones function to optimize the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients by the gut. In this capacity, their local effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion ...
Ishizuka Tomoko - - 2006
A considerable number of neuropeptides are involved in the hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior. We previously reported that leptin, the ob gene product, expressed its anorectic effect though the histaminergic system via histamine H(1) receptors. However, the interactions among the orexigenic neuropeptides, such as orexin-A, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ghrelin, ...
Cummings David E - - 2006
Ghrelin, an acylated upper gastrointestinal peptide, is the only known orexigenic hormone. Considerable evidence implicates ghrelin in mealtime hunger and meal initiation. Circulating levels decrease with feeding and increase before meals, achieving concentrations sufficient to stimulate hunger and food intake. Preprandial ghrelin surges occur before every meal on various fixed ...
Zhao Hongyu - - 2006
Ghrelin woas recently de-orphaned as an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), and is implicated as a short-term meal initiator and a long-term energy balance regulator. Administration of ghrelin causes increases in food intake and body weight in both rodents and humans. Inhibiting its actions with GHS-R anti-sense ...
Schmidt P T - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The timing of the migrating motor complexes (MMC) at food intake may influence gastric emptying and release of regulatory hormones. This report studies the relationships between phases I (motor quiescence) and II (intermediate frequency contractions) of MMC and prandial gut hormone response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven fasting volunteers ingested ...
Mounien Lourdes - - 2006
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exert opposite actions in energy homeostasis: NPY is a potent orexigenic peptide whereas PACAP reduces food intake. PAC1-R and VPAC2-R mRNAs are actively expressed in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus which contains a prominent population of NPY neurons. By using ...
Kim Min-Seon - - 2006
Insulin signaling in the hypothalamus plays a role in maintaining body weight. Studies suggest that the forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 is an important mediator of insulin signaling in peripheral tissues. Here we demonstrate that in normal mice, hypothalamic Foxo1 expression is reduced by the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. These ...
Wolden-Hanson Tami - - 2006
Aging is associated with a loss of the ability to maintain homeostasis in response to physiologic and environmental disturbances. Age-related dysregulation of food intake and energy balance appears to be the result of impaired responsiveness of hypothalamic integrative circuitry to metabolic cues, which can lead to lack of appropriate food ...
Woods Stephen C - - 2006
GABA stimulation of hypothalamic GABAA receptors increases food intake and body weight. Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (Hap1), is highly expressed in the hypothalamus and increases activity at GABAA receptors; mice lacking Hap1 are hypophagic. A recent paper (Sheng et al.,2006) further explores the role of Hap1 in the control of food intake.
Félétou Michel - - 2006
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is present in the hypothalamus, where it is believed to play a key role in the control of food intake. Evidence for this assertion has come from studies demonstrating that acute administration of NPY into the hypothalamus or into the brain ventricles leads to increased food intake. ...
Spinedi Eduardo - - 2006
It has been proposed that ghrelin induces food intake by a mechanism due to the stimulation of hypothalamic NPY-ergic activity. It is recognized that bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) enhances hypothalamic CRH-ergic function and reduces appetite. Thus, the aim of the present study was to test whether, icv-administered, ghrelin modulates NPY- and ...
Sakurai Takeshi - - 2006
Orexins were initially recognized as regulators of feeding behavior due to their exclusively production in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), a feeding center. Subsequently, the finding that orexin deficiency causes narcolepsy in humans and animals suggested that these hypothalamic neuropeptides play a critical role in regulating and maintaining sleep/wakefulness states. ...
Kelly Scott P - - 2006
A potential role for prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) in appetite regulation and hydromineral balance in goldfish was examined. PrRP was found to be expressed in discrete regions of the goldfish brain, in particular, the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal (IP) or intracerebroventricular administration of PrRP had dose-dependent effects to suppress food intake in goldfish. ...
Rigamonti Antonello E - - 2006
The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (Rimonabant) is known to reduce food intake by central and peripheral mechanisms. Recently, SR141716 has been reported to block the orexigenic effect of ghrelin, a potent orexigenic peptide produced by the stomach. This study investigated whether in rats, made tolerant to the hypophagic effect ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2006
Our recent research has indicated that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of n-octanoic acid-modified ghrelin (acyl ghrelin) stimulates food intake and locomotor activity in the goldfish. The manner in which peripherally administered acyl ghrelin regulates food intake, however, remains unclear. In contrast to acyl ghrelin, non-acylated ghrelin (des-acyl ghrelin) ...
Erdmann Johannes - - 2006
Obese subjects have lower basal and an attenuated decrease of postprandial plasma ghrelin following carbohydrate-rich meals, while the response to protein is unknown. Therefore, plasma ghrelin levels were examined after ingestion of satiating amounts of a protein- or carbohydrate-rich meal in relation to food and energy intake and hunger/satiety ratings ...
Tian Nan - - 2006
Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to reduce body weight in overweight subjects in clinical practice, as well as in rats and mice with diet-induced obesity. In the present study, this effect of EA was tested in lean rats subjected to long-term food restriction (FR, food was offered only 1 h/day). ...
Serby Michael D - - 2006
Ghrelin, a gut-derived orexigenic hormone, is an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). Centrally administered ghrelin has been shown to cause hunger and increase food intake in rodents. Inhibition of ghrelin actions with ghrelin antibody, peptidyl GHS-R antagonists, and antisense oligonucleosides resulted in weight loss and food ...
Kaiya Hiroyuki - - 2007
This is a test-report of ghrelin levels in plasma and proventriculus, the glandular portion of the avian stomach, by using a specific radioimmunoassay for acylated ghrelin, as well as the expression of the ghrelin gene in the proventriculus after a 12-h fasting period followed by a 6-h feeding period with ...
Choi Sujean - - 2006
Appetite suppressants lose efficacy when given chronically; the mechanisms are unknown. We gave male rats once-daily dl-fenfluramine (dl-FEN, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) injections for 15 days and measured mRNA expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in hypothalamic neurons on days 1, 2 and 15. dl-FEN ...
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