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Kindt Katie S KS Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla CA 92093, - - 2007
Dopamine has been implicated in the modulation of diverse forms of behavioral plasticity, including appetitive learning and addiction. An important challenge is to understand how dopamine's effects at the cellular level alter the properties of neural circuits to modify behavior. In the nematode C. elegans, dopamine modulates habituation of an ...
Papadimitriou Maria A - - 2007
Peptide YY (PYY) is produced in L cells of the intestine and is released after eating. PYY circulates in a truncated form designated PYY(3-36). PYY(3-36) is thought to be a physiologic anorexigenic peptide. The objective of the current study was to test the effect of exogenous PYY(3-36) on food intake ...
Coll Anthony P AP Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. - - 2007
POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin) is a complex polypeptide precursor which is cleaved into smaller biologically active peptides such as the melanocortins, alpha-, beta- and gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Data from human genetic and murine studies convincingly show that an intact central melanocortin signalling pathway is critical for normal energy homoeostasis. Not only does a ...
Honda Kazuhisa - - 2007
Although the orexigenic action of peptide hormones such as ghrelin and growth hormone releasing peptide is different between chickens and mammals, the anorexigenic action of peptide hormones is similar in both species. For example, central administration of peptide hormones such as leptin, cholecystokinin or glucagon has been shown to suppress ...
Vella K R - - 2007
Mice with a deletion of the hypothalamic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nhlh2 display adult onset obesity, implicating Nhlh2 in the neuronal circuits regulating energy availability. Nhlh2 colocalises with the hypothalamic thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurones in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones in the arcuate nucleus. We show that ...
Kubota Naoto - - 2007
Adiponectin has been shown to stimulate fatty acid oxidation and enhance insulin sensitivity through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the peripheral tissues. The effects of adiponectin in the central nervous system, however, are still poorly understood. Here, we show that adiponectin enhances AMPK activity in the arcuate ...
Taylor, Jason James
Hypothalamic neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (_-MSH, a post-translational cleavage product of proopiomelanocortin, POMC) produced by neurons in both the ARC and the ventromedial nucleus (VMN), appear to be important in regulating food intake and body weight. ...
Sakkou Maria - - 2007
Food intake and activity-induced thermogenesis are important components of energy balance regulation. The molecular mechanism underlying the coordination of food intake with locomotory behavior to maintain energy homeostasis is unclear. We report that the brain-specific homeobox transcription factor Bsx is required for locomotory behavior, hyperphagia, and expression of the hypothalamic ...
Näslund Erik - - 2007
The signaling systems underlying eating behavior control are complex. The current review focuses on gastrointestinal (GI) signaling systems as physiological key functions for metabolic control. Many of the peptides that are involved in the regulation of food intake in the brain are also found in the enteric nervous system and ...
Erdmann Johannes - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Complex carbohydrates such as potato, rice and pasta are frequently consumed accompaniments of meat meals and have different effects on satiety, food intake, glucose, and insulin concentrations. The orexigenic gastric hormone ghrelin contributes to feeding regulation and as yet it is unknown whether there is any differential ghrelin response ...
De Vriese Carine - - 2008
Ghrelin, identified as an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone possessing an unusual octanoyl group on the serine in position 3, crucial for its biological activity. Ghrelin is predominantly produced by the stomach but also by many other tissues such as ...
Asakawa Akihiro - - 2007
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been employed as surface treatment agents in a variety of products. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are the two most commonly found PFCs in the environment and human blood. We investigated the effects of PFOS and PFOA on feeding behavior. PFOS or PFOA was ...
Dhillo Waljit S - - 2007
Obesity is a major public health problem associated with morbidity and mortality and continues to increase worldwide. This review focuses on the regions of the brain that are important in appetite regulation and the circulating factors implicated in the control of food intake. The hypothalamus is critical in the regulation ...
Nergårdh R - - 2007
The hypothesis that treatment with neuropeptide Y (NPY) can increase running activity and decrease food intake and body weight was tested. Female rats with a running wheel lost more weight than sedentary rats and ran progressively more as the availability of food was gradually reduced. When food was available for ...
Coll Anthony P AP Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 2XY, United - - 2007
Numerous circulating peptides and steroids produced in the body influence appetite through their actions on the hypothalamus, the brain stem, and the autonomic nervous system. These hormones come from three major sites-fat cells, the gastrointestinal tract, and the pancreas. In this Review we provide a synthesis of recent evidence concerning ...
Woodside Barbara - - 2007
The nutritional needs of developing young place a large energetic demand on lactating females. In this paper some of the mechanisms through which lactating rats meet these demands are described. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms that drive increased food intake in suckled rats that are independent of milk delivery ...
Bomberg Eric M EM Minnesota Obesity Center, VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN, - - 2007
Centrally administered ghrelin, the endogenous agonist of the growth hormone secretegogue receptor, powerfully stimulates food intake. Although the orexigenic action of this peptide has been well established, it remains unclear whether ghrelin-induced hyperphagia is driven by energy needs or by reward. In our study ghrelin was injected into the lateral ...
Goto Motomitsu - - 2007
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), synthesized in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, is one of the most potent orexigenic neuropeptides in the brain. The NPY neurons project to other hypothalamic nuclei, such as paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and it is reported that NPY contents in the PVN, but not NPY mRNA levels ...
Miura Tohru - - 2007
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of ghrelin, orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates food intake in goldfish. Orexin and NPY interact with each other in the regulation of feeding, while ghrelin-induced feeding has also shown to be mediated by NPY in the goldfish model. To investigate the interaction between ghrelin and orexin, ...
Meunier Nicolas - - 2007
The hormonal regulation of feeding behaviour is well known in vertebrates, whereas it remains poorly understood in insects. Here, we report that the takeout gene is an essential component of nutritional homeostasis in Drosophila. takeout encodes a putative juvenile hormone (JH) binding protein and has been described as a link ...
Osto M - - 2007
Amylin is a pancreatic hormone that is considered to be a satiating signal acting on neurons of the area postrema (AP) in the hindbrain. The adiposity signals leptin and insulin act in the hypothalamus to influence feeding. They also enhance the hindbrain's responsivity to satiating signals, e.g. cholecystokinin (CCK). The ...
Tiesjema, G.
Obesity is a growing problem in western society. Although in most situations energy homeostasis is regulated tightly, in modern lifestyle where plenty of food is available and there is less need to exercise, this homeostatic regulation is overruled, resulting in an increase in the prevalence of obesity. It is therefore ...
Kovács Eva G - - 2007
The effect of 40% food deprivation for 1 week on the immunohistochemically detectable amount of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was studied in the lateral septum (LS) of intact and ovariectomized (OVX) female rats. Animals were either fed ad libitum or 40% food-deprived. Densitometric analysis of immunostained material showed a significant decrease ...
Sherwood Nancy M - - 2007
One approach to understanding the role of PACAP in vivo is to knockdown the translation of PACAP mRNA to protein or to knock out the PACAP gene by targeted disruption. In this paper, we review the effect of PACAP knockdown with morpholinos on early brain development in zebrafish. Also reviewed ...
Cao Zi-Peng - - 2007
Dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been investigated for its beneficial effects on disease prevention and treatment, and now obesity is one of the most perspective researching highlights. In a variety of experimental models, the results of studies on the effects of CLA on food intakes are somewhat inconsistent. Our ...
Yannielli Paola C - - 2007
The orexigenic peptide ghrelin stimulates both food intake and growth hormone release and is synthesized in the stomach and in hypothalamic areas involved in feeding control. The suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN) control most circadian rhythms, although there is evidence that some oscillators, such as food-entrainable oscillators, can drive ...
Stütz Adrian M - - 2007
The Agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), Orexin, melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), leptin, and its hypothalamic receptor (LR) are key regulators of food intake and energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the circadian expression profiles of these genes. We used quantitative ...
Ramakrishnan S - - 2007
Like lactating mammals, male and female ring dove parents increase their food consumption to meet the energetic challenges of provisioning their young. To clarify the neurochemical mechanisms involved, the present study investigated the relationship between parental hyperphagia and changes in activity of the potent orexigen neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the ...
Gourcerol G - - 2007
Ghrelin is a gut peptide well established to induce prokinetic and appetite stimulatory actions. Obestatin is a novel 23-amino acid peptide derived from the processing of the ghrelin gene. The peptide name was in keeping with its initially reported actions to suppress food intake and digestive motility and to antagonize ...
Simler N - - 2007
Acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia is known to decrease food intake, but the molecular mechanisms of such alteration in feeding behavior remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation is affected by acute exposure to hypobaric hypoxia and thus would be involved in initial anorexia. ...
Saitoh Yukie - - 2007
The recent development of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) as insulin sensitizers presents a new line of therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In animal studies, TZDs increase body weight largely due to increased fat pad mass and alterations in adipocyte size and numbers. Accumulating evidence indicates that ghrelin plays a ...
Fåk Frida - - 2007
The duration of breastfeeding has attracted much interest, as a prolonged period of breastfeeding has been shown to reduce the risk of developing obesity. The mechanism behind the reduced risk is, however, poorly understood. The novel hormone ghrelin augments appetite, promotes body weight increase and increases adiposity. The majority of ...
Gruninger Todd R - - 2007
The metabolic and nutritional status of an organism influences multiple behaviors in addition to food intake. When an organism is hungry, it employs behaviors that help it locate and ingest food while suppressing behaviors that are not associated with this goal. Alternatively, when an organism is satiated, food-seeking behaviors are ...
Ishii Toshiaki - - 2007
To investigate how compensatory responses develop after the onset of inhibition of NPY signaling, we examined the effect of continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of neutralizing NPY antibodies (NPY-ab) on daily and fast-induced food intake in mice. A single ICV injection of NPY-ab reduced food intake in fasted mice. In contrast ...
Hashimoto Hirofumi - - 2007
Ghrelin is known as a potent orexigenic hormone through its action on the brain. In this study, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) and iv injection of ghrelin on water intake, food intake, and urine volume in rats deprived of water for 24 h. Water intake that occurred after ...
Clegg Deborah J - - 2007
Ghrelin, the only known orexigenic gut hormone, is secreted mainly from the stomach, increases with fasting and before meal initiation in humans and rats, and increases food intake after central or peripheral administration. To investigate sex differences in the action of ghrelin, we assessed the effects of exogenous ghrelin in ...
Gourcerol G - - 2007
Obestatin is a newly identified ghrelin-associated peptide (GAP) that is derived from post-translational processing of the prepro-ghrelin gene. Obestatin has been reported initially to be the endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor G protein-coupled receptor 39 (GPR39), and to reduce refeeding- and ghrelin-stimulated food intake and gastric transit in fasted ...
Keen-Rhinehart Erin - - 2007
Fasting triggers a constellation of physiological and behavioral changes, including increases in peripherally produced ghrelin and centrally produced hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY). Refeeding stimulates food intake in most species; however, hamsters primarily increase foraging and food hoarding with smaller increases in food intake. Fasting-induced increases in foraging and food hoarding ...
Zizzari Philippe - - 2007
Administration of ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR 1a), induces potent stimulating effects on GH secretion and food intake. However, more than 7 yr after its discovery, the role of endogenous ghrelin remains elusive. Recently, a second peptide, obestatin, also generated from proteolytic cleavage of ...
Taylor Kelli - - 2007
Feeding behavior is comprised of both appetitive and consummatory responses to food. Appetitive responses include the motivated acquisition of food. Consummatory responses, including swallowing, are those that move the food from the mouth to the stomach. Intraoral delivery of liquid food bypasses the requirement for appetitive responses and has been ...
Tena-Sempere Manuel - - 2007
Reproductive function in mammals, defined as the capacity to generate viable male and female gametes, and to support pregnancy and lactation selectively in the female, is sensitive to the metabolic state of the organism. This contention, long assumed on the basis of intuitive knowledge, became formulated on a scientific basis ...
Benani Alexandre - - 2007
The ability for the brain to sense peripheral fuel availability is mainly accomplished within the hypothalamus, which detects ongoing systemic nutrients and adjusts food intake and peripheral metabolism as needed. Here, we hypothesized that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) could trigger sensing of nutrients within the hypothalamus. For this purpose, ...
Dozio E - - 2007
Food intake and energy homeostasis are controlled by peripheral humoral signals, afferent neuronal pathways to the brain and central signals, represented, in particular, by neuropeptides. This review reports the status of development of novel compounds targeting some hypothalamic neuropeptide systems which are currently viewed as potential targets to treat obesity.
Dumont Yvan - - 2007
The mechanism by which blood-borne peptide YY (3-36) (PYY(3-36)) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) inhibit food intake is not clear and could implicate peripheral (vagal afferent pathways) and/or central (direct action on specific brain nuclei) mechanisms. To identify the primary brain structure(s) that could be activated after a peripheral injection of ...
Cummings David E - - 2007
Despite substantial fluctuations in daily food intake, animals maintain a remarkably stable body weight, because overall caloric ingestion and expenditure are exquisitely matched over long periods of time, through the process of energy homeostasis. The brain receives hormonal, neural, and metabolic signals pertaining to body-energy status and, in response to ...
Pérez-Tilve Diego - - 2007
Ghrelin is a potent orexigenic and adipogenic hormone that strongly influences fat deposition and the generation of hunger in obesity. Indeed, hyperghrelinemia appears to promote an increase in food intake as seen in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Exendin (Ex)-4 is an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor (GLP-1r) that has ...
Coppola Anna - - 2007
Over the past century, the hypothalamus has emerged as one of the critical sites involved in energy homeostasis. Degeneration studies in rats performed some six decades ago, first led to identifying hypothalamic subregions controlling food intake and body weight. The idea that the central nervous system (CNS), and the hypothalamus ...
Paley Elena L - - 2007
The neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other taupathies include neurofibrillary tangles and plaques. Despite the fact that only 2-10% of AD cases are associated with genetic mutations, no nontransgenic or metabolic models have been generated to date. The findings of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) in plaques of the AD ...
Murray B A - - 2007
Food proteins contain latent biofunctional peptide sequences within their primary structures which may have the ability to exert a physiological response in vivo. A large range of biofunctional peptides have been isolated from food proteins including opioid, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, mineral binding, growth and muscle stimulating, anti-cancer, proteinase and angiotensin converting ...
Higgins Susie C - - 2007
In the current review we summarize the available data concerning the gastric hormone ghrelin and its receptor. Ghrelin stimulates short-term food intake and long-term body weight regulation via its adipogenic and diabetogenic effects. Ghrelin stimulates gastric emptying, and these effects could be explored from a therapeutic point of view. Ghrelin ...
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