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Results 201 - 250 of 855
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Mounien Lourdes - - 2009
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), exert anorexigenic activities. While alpha-MSH is known to inhibit food intake and stimulate catabolism via activation of the central melanocortin-receptor MC4-R, little is known regarding the mechanism by which PACAP inhibits food consumption. We have recently found ...
Gardiner J V - - 2008
The increasing prevalence of obesity and the associated morbidity and mortality has resulted in a major research effort to identify mechanisms that regulate appetite. It is well established that the hypothalamus and brain stem are major sites in the central nervous system (CNS) that regulate appetite. Until recently the missing ...
Mechenthaler I - - 2008
Galanin has diverse physiological functions, including nociception, arousal/sleep regulation, cognition, and many aspects of neuroendocrine activities that are associated with feeding, energy metabolism, thermoregulation, osmotic and water balance, and reproduction. This review will provide a brief overview of galanin actions in some major neuroendocrine processes. Most of the recent data ...
Garza Jacob C - - 2008
Pharmacological and genetic studies have suggested that melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) signaling in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) regulates appetite and energy balance. However, the specific role of MC4R signaling in PVN neurons in these processes remains to be further elucidated in normally developed animals. In the present study, we ...
Monteleone Palmiero - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Vagal activation in the cephalic phase response to food ingestion promotes ghrelin secretion. Because underweight individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterized by increased vagal tone, we hypothesized an enhanced ghrelin production in the cephalic phase of vagal stimulation. Therefore, we investigated the responses of ghrelin and its recently ...
Xu Jie - - 2008
Drosophila melanogaster postfeeding larvae show food-averse migration toward food-free habitats before metamorphosis. This developmental switching from food attraction to aversion is regulated by a neuropeptide Y (NPY)-related brain signaling peptide. We used the fly larva model to delineate the neurobiological basis of age-restricted response to environmental stimuli. Here we provide ...
Johansson Andreas - - 2008
Our understanding of the central regulation of food intake and body weight has increased tremendously through implication of a high number of neuropeptides. However, lack of all-embracing studies have made comparison difficult in the past. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of the different neuropeptides ...
Faulconbridge Lucy F - - 2008
Ghrelin increases food intake when injected into either the forebrain or hindbrain ventricles. Brain areas activated by ghrelin after forebrain delivery have been examined using Fos immunohistochemistry and include the hypothalamic arcuate (Arc) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei, and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the medulla. It is ...
Malik Saima - - 2008
Feeding behavior is often separated into homeostatic and hedonic components. Hedonic feeding, which can be triggered by visual or olfactory food cues, involves brain regions that play a role in reward and motivation, while homeostatic feeding is thought to be under the control of circulating hormones acting primarily on the ...
Khorooshi Reza - - 2008
The hypothalamic neuropeptidergic system involved in the photoperiodic control of energy metabolism in seasonal mammals, is poorly understood. In the present study we examined whether distribution and number of the hypothalamic neuronal cell populations containing cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) are influenced by different photoperiod and ambient temperature, or by ...
Asakawa Akihiro - - 2008
Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been employed as surface treatment agents in a variety of products. Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a PFC that is found globally in the environment and in human tissues, has been increasing significantly in serum levels over the past 50 years. Here, we demonstrated that PFOA inhibits feeding ...
Dostálová I - - 2009
Gastrointestinal hormones play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of food intake and postprandial satiety. Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid orexigenic peptide produced mainly by the stomach that is involved in both the long-term regulation of body weight and the short-term regulation of postprandial satiety. Impairments in ghrelin secretion ...
Santollo Jessica - - 2008
Available data suggest that estradiol exerts an inhibitory effect on food intake by modulating the actions of multiple gut- and brain-derived peptides implicated in the control of food intake. For example, recent studies have shown that estradiol decreases the orexigenic effects of ghrelin and melanin-concentrating hormone. In the present study, ...
Takeda Hiroshi - - 2008
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chemotherapy with an anticancer agent generally causes gastrointestinal tract disorders such as vomiting and anorexia, but the mechanism remains unclear. Rikkunshito, a kampo preparation, is known to alleviate such adverse reactions. In this study, we attempted to clarify the mechanism. METHODS: We investigated the decreases of plasma ...
Rorato R - - 2008
Inflammatory and infectious processes evoke neuroendocrine and behavioral changes known as acute-phase response that includes activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and reduction of food intake. Besides its action as the most important ACTH secretagogue, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), synthesized in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), is also involved in the control ...
Keating Glenda L - - 2008
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are neurotransmitters found throughout the nervous system and in the periphery. CART has an important role in the regulation of food intake, anxiety, endocrine function, and in mesolimbic-mediated reward and reinforcement. This short report casts light upon previous descriptions of presumed behavioral seizure and ...
Parkinson James R C - - 2008
Peptide YY (PYY) is secreted postprandially from the endocrine L cells of the gastrointestinal tract. PYY(3-36), the major circulating form of the peptide, is thought to reduce food intake in humans and rodents via high-affinity binding to the autoinhibitory neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor within the arcuate nucleus. We studied the ...
Depoortere I - - 2008
The finding that obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's stimulatory effect on food intake and gastric emptying has been questioned. The effect of obestatin has been mostly investigated in fasted rodents, a condition associated with high blood levels of ghrelin which may mask the effect of ...
Fadel Jim - - 2008
Since its discovery less than a decade ago, interest in the hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin system has blossomed due to the diversity and importance of the roles played by these neuropeptides. Orexin neurons have widespread projections throughout the central nervous system and intense research has focused on elucidating the pathways and mechanisms ...
Becskei Csilla - - 2008
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is an important target for metabolic and hormonal signals controlling food intake. As demonstrated by c-Fos studies, arcuate neurons are activated in food-deprived mice, whereas refeeding reverses the fasting-induced activation. To evaluate whether an increase in blood glucose has an inhibitory effect on these neurons, we ...
Becskei C - - 2008
The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) is the presumed target site for the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which is secreted from the stomach during fasting. Ghrelin directly activates Arc neurones. Similar to exogenous ghrelin, overnight food deprivation also induces c-Fos expression in the Arc of mice. In the present study, we tested ...
Caminos Jorge E - - 2008
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti related peptide (AgRP), cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and melanocortins, the products of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC), are hypothalamic peptides involved in feeding regulation and energy homeostasis. Recent evidence has demonstrated their expression in rat and human placenta. In the current study, we have investigated the expression ...
Stárka L - - 2008
Melatonin plays a key role in the circadian timing system. At present, many other functions of melatonin are known. Question remains whether changes in endogenous melatonin may be associated with food intake. Hence, the levels of melatonin, C-peptide and glucose were followed during a daily regimen (16 hours) including standardized ...
Giovambattista Andrés - - 2008
It is known that ghrelin and des-N-octanoyl (desacyl) ghrelin modulate food intake and adipogenesis in vivo. However, desacyl ghrelin represents the majority of ghrelin forms found in the circulation. The present study explored whether ghrelin gene-derived compounds could modulate, in vitro, adipocyte endocrine function and preadipocyte differentiation. Retroperitoneal (RP) adipocytes ...
Kojima Masayasu - - 2008
The endogenous ligand for growth-hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) was purified from the stomach and we named it "ghrelin", after a word root ("ghre") in Proto-Indo-European languages meaning "grow", since ghrelin has potent growth hormone (GH) releasing activity. In addition, ghrelin stimulates appetite by acting on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, a ...
Field Benjamin C T - - 2008
Food intake and bodyweight are tightly regulated by the brainstem, hypothalamus and reward circuits. These centres integrate diverse cognitive inputs with humoral and neuronal signals of nutritional status. Our knowledge of the role of gut hormones in this complex homeostatic system has expanded enormously in recent years. This review discusses ...
Benoit Stephen C - - 2008
Recent conceptualizations of food intake have divided ingestive behavior into multiple distinct phases. Here, we present a temporally and operationally defined classification of ingestive behaviors. Importantly, various physiological signals including hypothalamic peptides are thought to impact these distinct behavioral phases of ingestion differently. In this review, we summarize a number ...
Chaudhri Owais B OB Department of Metabolic Medicine, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, United - - 2008
The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has imparted renewed impetus to the study of the mechanisms of appetite regulation. Digestion and nutrient absorption take place in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, whereas food intake is controlled by neuronal circuits in the central nervous system. The need for gut-brain cross talk is ...
Schusdziarra Volker - - 2008
Feeding regulation involves both anorectic and orexigenic neuropeptides mainly located in the hypothalamus. To gain further insight into the interaction between these two groups of regulators inhibition of feeding induced by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) was examined during stimulation of food intake by equimolar doses of ghrelin and galanin. The experiments ...
Leitner Claudia - - 2008
The reversal of obesity is a difficult feat at best and is a growing problem as the obesity epidemic increases worldwide. Considerable focus has been made on the arcuate nucleus (Arc) in the control of body and lipid mass and food intake. To test the role of the Arc in ...
Tiesjema Birgitte - - 2007
It is well known that neuropeptide Y (NPY) increases food intake. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are both involved in the acute, hyperphagic effects of NPY. Although it is obvious that increased energy intake may lead to obesity, it is less understood which aspects of ...
Harrison Joanne L - - 2008
Ghrelin is a circulating peptide, primarily secreted by the gut, that has reported actions within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis to stimulate food intake, inhibit GnRH/LH secretion and stimulate GH secretion in monogastric species. Here, we examine responses to centrally administered ghrelin in a seasonal ruminant. Estradiol-implanted castrated male sheep with indwelling ...
Ropelle Eduardo R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: A high-protein diet (HPD) is known to promote the reduction of body fat, but the mechanisms underlying this change are unclear. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) function as majors regulators of cellular metabolism that respond to changes in energy status, and recent data demonstrated ...
Valassi Elena - - 2008
Appetite is regulated by a complex system of central and peripheral signals which interact in order to modulate the individual response to nutrient ingestion. Peripheral regulation includes satiety signals and adiposity signals, while central control is accomplished by several effectors, including the neuropeptidergic, monoaminergic and endocannabinoid systems. Satiety signals, including ...
Moran Lisa J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition associated with obesity and with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Abnormalities in appetite regulation in PCOS patients may contribute to difficulties in weight management. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine appetite, appetite hormones, and ad libitum food consumption before and after weight loss ...
Wurst Friedrich Martin - - 2007
Evidence is growing that appetite regulating peptides such as leptin and ghrelin, but also other hormones including prolactin are altered in alcoholism. The brain pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) system which has important mediating roles in alcohol intake also has important functions in prolactin regulation and energy homeostasis. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated ...
Pascual Núria - - 2008
A number of evidences suggest that tachykinin-related peptides (TRPs) of insects can stimulate food consumption after being released from the midgut to the hemolymph. The idea of the present work has been to test this hypothesis in the anautogenous cockroach Blattella germanica. First, we have identified the peptide LemTRP-1 (APSGFLGVR-NH(2)) ...
Lee Michelle - - 2008
Hypothalamic POMC neurons regulate energy balance via interactions with brain melanocortin receptors (MC-Rs). POMC neurons express the MC3-R which can function as an inhibitory autoreceptor in vitro. We now demonstrate that central activation of MC3-R with ICV infusion of the specific MC3-R agonist, [D-Trp(8)]-gamma-MSH, transiently suppresses hypothalamic Pomc expression and ...
Jaimes-Hoy Lorraine - - 2008
TRH neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), regulate pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT). Fasting activates expression of orexigenic peptides from the arcuate nucleus, increases corticosterone while reduces leptin, and pro-TRH mRNA levels despite low serum thyroid hormone concentration (tertiary hypothyroidism). TRH synthesis is positively regulated by anorexigenic peptides whose expression is ...
Bojkowska Karolina - - 2008
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding, depresses sexual behavior, and its expression in the brain is modulated by energetic status. We examined the role of NPY in female musk shrews, a species with high energetic and reproductive demands; they store little fat, and small changes in energy can rapidly diminish or ...
Lambert Didier M - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylgycerol) and related N-acylethanolamines (N-oleoylethanolamine) exhibit opposite effects in the control of appetite. The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities and differences of three major lipid-signaling molecules by focusing on their mode of action and the proteins involved in the control ...
White N E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: SR141716 has been shown to significantly inhibit food intake and reduce body weight by antagonizing CB(1) receptors. The gut hormones peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)) and oxyntomodulin (OXM) inhibit food intake through Y(2) and Glucagon-Like-Peptide (GLP)-1 receptors respectively. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of co-administration of SR141716 with either PYY(3-36) or ...
Batterham Rachel L RL Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University College London, London WC1E 6JJ, UK. - - 2007
The ability to maintain adequate nutrient intake is critical for survival. Complex interrelated neuronal circuits have developed in the mammalian brain to regulate many aspects of feeding behaviour, from food-seeking to meal termination. The hypothalamus and brainstem are thought to be the principal homeostatic brain areas responsible for regulating body ...
Moulin Aline - - 2007
A series of ghrelin receptor ligands based on the trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazole structure were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro binding and biological activity. In this study, we explored the significance of the aminoisobutyryl (Aib) moiety, a common feature in numerous growth hormone secretagogues described in the literature. Potent agonist ...
Hsieh Yih-Shou - - 2007
Phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is an appetite suppressant. Repeated treatment with PPA can decrease food intake on initial days, but on subsequent days, food intake gradually returns to normal (tolerant effect). In an attempt to investigate the underlying mechanisms of PPA tolerance, the authors examined the roles of catecholamine (CAT) and hypothalamic ...
Schneider Eve R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The question is which hypothalamic systems for food intake might play a role in ethanol intake and contribute to alcohol abuse. The peptide orexin was found to exhibit similar properties to galanin in its relation to dietary fat and may therefore be similar to galanin in having a stimulatory ...
Frederick-Duus D - - 2007
The corticopetal basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) is crucial for normal attentional function and cortical acetylcholine release is increased by stimuli with high motivational salience. Projections from the lateral hypothalamus to the basal forebrain have been previously described and have been hypothesized to relay interoceptive information to this area but ...
De Vriese Carine - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide updated information on the role of ghrelin in food intake and energy homeostasis, and on its mechanism of action. Moreover, the potential of ghrelin as a target for drugs to treat cachexia and obesity will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: ...
Klein Sarah E - - 2008
The study of the somatostatins (SS) signaling system in fish has provided important information about the structure, function, and evolution of SSs and their receptors. The SS signaling system elicits widespread biological actions via multiple hormone variants, numerous receptor subtypes, and a variety of signal transduction pathways. SSs alter growth ...
Brito Márcia N - - 2007
Melanocortins are implicated in the control of energy intake/expenditure. Centrally administered melanotan II (MTII), a synthetic melanocortin 3/4-receptor agonist, decreases adiposity beyond that accountable by food intake decreases. Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) mRNA is expressed on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) outflow neurons to white adipose tissue (WAT) in Siberian hamsters, suggesting ...
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