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Dailey Megan J - - 2009
Food is acquired (obtained by foraging) and frequently stored (hoarded) across animal taxa, including humans, but the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are virtually unknown. We found that peptides that stimulate food intake in rats stimulate food foraging and/or hoarding more than intake in Siberian hamsters. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is ...
Goel Namni N University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA. - - 2009
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings accompanied by food intake. Patients with NES display a delayed circadian pattern of food intake but retain a normal sleep-wake cycle. These characteristics initiated the current study, in which the phase and amplitude of behavioral and neuroendocrine circadian ...
Mennigen Jan A - - 2009
Serotonin has been implicated in the regulation of feeding and growth in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms through which serotonin mediates its anorectic effects are only partially understood. In this study we measured food intake and difference in weight gain in sexually regressed female goldfish intraperitionally injected with fluoxetine, a selective ...
Lectez Benoît - - 2009
26RFa is a hypothalamic RFamide neuropeptide that was identified as the endogenous ligand of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR103, and that stimulates appetite in mice. Up until now, the mechanism of action of 26RFa in the hypothalamic control of food intake remains unknown. The high density of GPR103 in ...
Votruba Susanne B - - 2009
Ghrelin has a short-term orexigenic effect but may also be a marker of food intake over time. We previously found an inverse association between ghrelin concentrations and food intake. The objectives were to determine whether the fasting plasma ghrelin concentration is related to food intake and whether the previous day's ...
Anukulkitch Chantacha - - 2009
A study was undertaken in Corriedale ewes to test the lipostat theory using data obtained from a model of seasonal change in food intake and body composition. The theory predicts adipose-derived factors signal to the brain and vice versa, to maintain homeostasis. It is held that leptin acts on cells ...
Bewick Gavin A - - 2009
Ghrelin is the only known peripheral hormone to increase ingestive behavior. However, its role in the physiological regulation of energy homeostasis is unclear because deletion of ghrelin or its receptor does not alter food intake or body weight in mice fed a normal chow diet. We hypothesized that overexpression of ...
Lu Shu-Chen - - 2009
Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide secreted mainly by the stomach. Acyl-ghrelin, which binds to and activates the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a), is considered to be the active form for its orexigenic effects. It has been demonstrated that peripheral administration of ghrelin stimulates food intake and adiposity ...
Zhang Yunbo - - 2009
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The primary objective of this study was to further determine the mechanisms by which isoflavone prevents obesity induced by ovariectomy. METHODS: Female 8-week-old Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups: a sham-operated group; an ovariectomized (OVX) control group; 3 OVX groups orally administered 400 ppm (L-SI), 1,200 ppm ...
Hotta Mari - - 2009
Ghrelin increases hunger sensation and food intake in various patients with appetite loss. Anorexia nervosa (AN) begins with psychological stress-induced anorexia and some patients cannot increase their food intake partly because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. The effects of ghrelin on appetite, food intake and nutritional parameters in anorexia nervosa (AN) ...
Diéguez Carlos - - 2009
The hypothalamus is a specialised area in the brain that integrates the control of energy homeostasis, regulating both food intake and energy expenditure. The classical theory for hypothalamic feeding control is mainly based on the relationship between peripheral signals and neurotransmitters/neuromodulators in the central nervous system. Thus, hypothalamic neurons respond ...
Luquet Serge - - 2009
Energy homeostasis is kept through a complex interplay of nutritional, neuronal and hormonal inputs that are integrated at the level of the central nervous system (CNS). A disruption of this regulation gives rise to life-threatening conditions that include obesity and type-2 diabetes, pathologies that are strongly linked epidemiologically and experimentally. ...
Miura Tohru - - 2009
In goldfish, intraperitoneal (IP) or intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of synthetic ghrelin consisting of 12- or 19-amino-acid residues, deduced from its precursor cDNA, with an octanoic acid modification at the third N-terminal serine residue (Ser(3)), stimulates growth hormone release and food intake. However, native ghrelin generated from its precursor has not ...
Cifani C - - 2009
AIM: Adipose tissue has been the object of intense research in the field of obesity and diabetes diseases in the last decade. Examination of adipocyte-secreted peptides led to the identification of a unique polypeptide, resistin (RSTN), which has been suggested as a link between obesity and diabetes. RSTN plays a ...
Fraser Graeme L - - 2009
Ghrelin, the natural ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (ghrelin receptor), is an orexigenic gut hormone with prokinetic action in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Previously we have shown in a rodent model of postoperative ileus that the synthetic ghrelin receptor agonist TZP-101 prevents the delay in gastric emptying and ...
Thorsell Annika - - 2008
One of the most profound properties of central neuropeptide Y (NPY) is its anxiolytic, or anti-anxiety, effect. This has been demonstrated repeatedly in a number of animal models. In addition, stressors affect NPY expression in the central nervous system, with acute and repeated (chronic) stress having differential effects. Here, a ...
Engelstoft Maja S - - 2008
Enteroendocrine cells, which secrete peptide hormones in response to sensation of food and gut microbiota products, can now be genetically tagged, isolated, cultured, and characterized for expression of the elusive chemosensors, as shown in publications in PNAS (Samuel et al., 2008) and in this issue (Reimann et al., 2008).
Kaiya Hiroyuki - - 2009
A decade has passed since the peptide hormone ghrelin was first discovered in rat stomach. During this period, ghrelin has been identified not only in other mammals but also in fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, and its physiological functions have been widely investigated. Avian ghrelin was first identified in chickens ...
Uchoa Ernane Torres - - 2009
Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, demonstrated by the decrease of food intake following adrenalectomy. Satiety signals are relayed to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which has reciprocal projections with the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. We evaluated the effects of glucocorticoids ...
Takayanagi Yuki - - 2008
Food intake is regulated by a network of signals that emanate from the gut and the brainstem. The peripheral satiety signal cholecystokinin is released from the gut following food intake and acts on fibers of the vagus nerve, which project to the brainstem and activate neurons that modulate both gastrointestinal ...
Takahashi Ken-ichi - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patients with newly diagnosed OSA have been reported to have recent weight gain prior to diagnosis. Ghrelin stimulates food intake and increases weight gain. Plasma ghrelin is decreased in obese and increased in lean individuals. Of the two circulating forms of ghrelin, acylated and unacylated, the former ...
Olszewski Pawel K PK Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, BMC, Uppsala SE 75124, - - 2009
A regular daily meal regimen, as opposed to ad libitum consumption, enforces eating at a predefined time and within a short timeframe. Hence, it is important to study food intake regulation in animal feeding models that somewhat reflect this pattern. We investigated the effect of scheduled feeding on the intake ...
Cha Seung Hun - - 2008
The American diet, especially that of adolescents, contains highly palatable foods of high-energy content and large amounts of high-fructose sweeteners. These factors are believed to contribute to the obesity epidemic and insulin resistance. Previous investigations revealed that the central metabolism of glucose suppresses food intake mediated by the hypothalamic AMP-kinase/malonyl-CoA ...
Shimizu H - - 2009
Nesfatin-1 is a novel satiety molecule in the hypothalamus and is also present in peripheral tissues. Here we sought to identify the active segment of nesfatin-1 and to determine the mechanisms of its action after peripheral administration in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of nesfatin-1 suppressed food intake in a dose-dependent manner. ...
Shi Jinghong - - 2009
Evodiamine (Evo), an alkaloidal component extracted from the fruit of Evodiae fructus (Evodia rutaecarpa Bentham, Rutaceae), decreases the body weight of rats through a poorly defined mechanism. The hypothalamus is one of the areas in the brain linked to the control of food intake and energy expenditure. We postulate that ...
Doucet Eric - - 2008
Peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin have been associated with the regulation of energy balance. The objectives of this study were to determine whether total ghrelin and PYY after a standardized meal predict appetite scores and ad libitum energy intake (EI) and to examine the relationship between total ghrelin and PYY ...
Liu Hua Z - - 2008
Two important neurotransmitters, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), have been confirmed to be involved in food intake regulation. To clarify whether the cerebellum participates in modulation of food intake through these two neurotransmitters, we investigated the distribution and expression levels of 5-HT and NPY in cerebellum of the ...
Inhoff Tobias T Department of Medicine, Division Hepatology, Gastroenterology, and Endocrinology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow, Berlin, - - 2008
Studies showed that the metabolic unlike the neuroendocrine effects of ghrelin could be abrogated by co-administered unacylated ghrelin. The aim was to investigate the interaction between ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin administered intraperitoneally on food intake and neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the arcuate nucleus in non-fasted rats. Ghrelin (13 microg/kg) significantly ...
Ladenheim Ellen E - - 2009
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a bombesin-like peptide widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system. In the brain, GRP mRNA is located in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), a region that receives neural input from the arcuate nucleus and plays a critical role in food intake and energy ...
Ferrer-Lorente Raquel - - 2009
Oleoyl-estrone (OE) mobilizes body fat and decreases food intake. The precise mechanism of its modulation of appetite is unknown. Since the effects of OE on food intake appear early, here we studied the effect of OE on the expression of gut peptides that affect short-term ingestive behavior: ghrelin, leptin, CCK, ...
Yavropoulou Maria P - - 2008
The rapid increase of incretins glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), within 5-15 min, after food ingestion, suggests that a neural mechanism might be involved in the regulation of their secretion. The aim of this study is to determine whether intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY), ...
Jerlhag Elisabet - - 2008
Ghrelin, preferably via hypothalamic circuits, is known to play a role in the control of energy balance, body weight homeostasis and appetite. In addition, it has recently been found that ghrelin injection into key structures of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system increases food intake in rodents and induces locomotor stimulation ...
Nesić D M - - 2008
Ghrelin is 28-amino acid peptide, which is produced mainly in the stomach. Since plasma ghrelin are strictly dependent on food intake, this hormone has significant effects on appetite and energy balance. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of centrally applied ghrelin on feeding dynamism by measuring ...
Soares João-Bruno - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Current medical treatment of obesity is highly ineffective. Soon after its discovery as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R), ghrelin was shown to stimulate food intake (including in humans) and promote body weight gain and adipogenesis. OBJECTIVES: This review discusses the role of the ghrelin/GHS-R pathway ...
Minokoshi Yasuhiko - - 2008
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a cellular fuel gauge that regulates metabolic pathways in nutrient metabolism. Recent studies have strongly implicated that AMPK in the hypothalamus regulates energy metabolism by integrating inputs from multiple hormones, peptides, neurotransmitters, and nutrients. Leptin is an adipocyte hormone that regulates food intake ...
Benoit Stephen C - - 2008
The regulation of energy balance depends on the precise co-ordination of multiple peripheral and central systems. Much recent research has highlighted the importance of behavioral mechanisms is this control and suggested that the regulation of body weight shares central nervous system pathways in common with other complex behaviors, including learning ...
Yeh Chuan-Mei - - 2008
Lactococcus lactis is a food-grade microorganism of major commercial importance. Antifreeze protein is a potent cryogenic protection agent for the cryopreservation of food and pharmaceutical materials. In this study, extracellular expression of a novel recombinant type I antifreeze protein analogue (rAFP) in L. lactis was optimized. An efficient SlpA promoter ...
Giroud Sylvain - - 2009
Potential implications of gut hormones in body mass and torpor and behavioral pattern changes induced by an incremental (40 and 80%) calorie restriction (CR) in long-days (LD, summer) and short-days (SD, winter) were investigated in gray mouse lemurs. Only 80% food-deprived LD and SD animals showed a continuous mass loss ...
Prall Brian C - - 2008
The central mechanisms that mediate neuropeptide K (NPK) associated anorexia are poorly understood in any species, and information in this area of avian biology is totally lacking. Thus, the effects of intracerebroventricular NPK treatment were studied in Cobb-500 chicks (Gallus gallus). In Experiment 1, NPK caused decreased feed intake, but ...
Mietlicki Elizabeth G EG Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260, - - 2009
Ghrelin has been studied extensively in the context of food intake and energy homeostasis, but less is known about its role in other ingestive behaviors. The present studies investigated the effects of this orexigenic peptide on both food and water intake during dipsogenic conditions. Specifically, animals were exposed to one ...
Smith Kirsty L - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) codes for a hypothalamic neuropeptide, CART (55-102), which inhibits food intake. Intracerebroventricular injection of CART (55-102) reduces appetite, but also results in motor abnormalities. More recently, studies have demonstrated that administration of CART directly into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases food intake. To investigate ...
Ishii Shinya - - 2008
Thyroid hormone regulates food intake. We previously reported that rats with triiodothyronine (T3)-induced thyrotoxicosis display hyperphagia associated with suppressed circulating leptin levels, increased hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA and decreased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated when cellular energy is depleted. ...
De Waele Kathleen - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is secreted primarily by the stomach and circulates as both acylated and desacyl ghrelin. Acylated (but not desacyl) ghrelin stimulates appetite. Both concentrations are elevated in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), suggesting that ghrelin may contribute to hyperphagia and overweight in these subjects. We evaluated whether long-acting octreotide (Oct) decreases ...
Murray Charles D R - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The leaves of the khat plant (Catha edulis) are chewed for their pleasurable effects. Chewing releases cathinone which may decrease appetite through an unknown mechanism. Levels of the peptide ghrelin increase with hunger and decrease immediately post-prandially, while peptide YY is released following a meal. We hypothesised that the ...
Gotoh Hitoshi - - 2008
beta-Adducin is a cytoskeletal protein that interacts with the actin filaments to suppress actin polymerization and facilitate actin-spectrin binding. We have previously shown that beta-adducin is phosphorylated by Fyn at tyrosine489 in the rat brain and bound to its Src-homology 2 domain. In the present study, we examined the immunohistochemical ...
Contreras María del Mar Mdel - - 2008
Biologically active peptides are of particular interest in food science and nutrition because they have been shown to play different physiological roles, including antihypertensive, opioid, antimicrobial, and immunostimulating activities. Because these peptides are generated by protein hydrolysis or fermentation, they can represent only minor constituents in a highly complex matrix ...
Stratton Rebecca J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Previous investigations suggest continuous tube feeding (TF) schedules do not suppress appetite and food intake, but bolus TF has been little studied. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that 1) bolus TF does not suppress appetite and food intake and 2) there is no interrelation between food intake and appetite ...
Romijn Johannes A - - 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent studies on the regulation and the functions of the gut-brain axis. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual cues of food and food intake interact with the gut-brain axis at the level of the hypothalamus. However, the hypothalamic response to glucose intake is considerably altered in patients with ...
Kobayashi Yasuhiro - - 2008
Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine tissue CART mRNA distribution, and changes in ...
Poulin Anne-Marie - - 2008
Rats can anticipate a daily mealtime when they are maintained on restricted feeding schedules (RFS). Neural substrates of the food-entrainable oscillator (FEO) are not yet fully understood. The numerous lesions of a single brain region failed to abolish the behavioral anticipation of a daily meal, suggesting that the FEO may ...
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