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Hong Mee Sook - - 2009
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4), a STAT family member, mediates interleukin 12 (IL12) signal transduction. IL12 is known to be related to calorie-restricted status. In the central nervous system, IL12 also enhances the production of nitric oxide (NO), which regulates food intake. In this study, the expression ...
Johnson Alexander W - - 2009
The orexigenic neuropeptide ghrelin is an endogeneous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). This orexigen is expressed in both the periphery and in the central system, including portions of mesolimbic dopaminergic circuitry that play a role in affective behaviors. Here we examined pharmacological antagonism of GHS-R in motivational ...
Guesdon Benjamin - - 2010
Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) induce hyperphagia and body weight gain as a deleterious side effect. However, the mechanism whereby these drugs affect the neuronal pathways regulating energy balance has yet to be fully elucidated. The present study was conducted to investigate the respective and interaction effects of olanzapine and agonism ...
Uchoa Ernane Torres - - 2009
Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, as demonstrated by the decrease of food intake following adrenalectomy (ADX); however, the mechanisms leading to these effects are not well understood. Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to reduce food intake. We evaluated the effects of glucocorticoids on OT neuron activation and OT ...
Aoyagi Toshinori - - 2009
Food intake is regulated by various factors such as neuropeptide Y. Neuropeptide Y potently induces an increase in food intake, and simultaneously stimulates arginine-vasopressin (AVP) secretion in the brain. Recently, we reported that V(1A) vasopressin receptor-deficient (V(1A)R(-/-)) mice exhibited altered daily food intake accompanied with hyperglycemia and hyperleptinemia. Here, we ...
Roa J - - 2009
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that operates as sensor of cellular energy status and effector for its coupling to cell growth and proliferation. At the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, mTOR signaling has been recently proposed as transducer for leptin effects on energy homeostasis and food intake. ...
Kim Su-Jin - - 2009
Orexigenic neuropeptides NPY and AgRP play major roles in feeding and are closely related to obesity and diabetic metabolic syndrome. This study explored the inhibitory effect of rutecarpine on feeding and obesity in high-fat-diet-induced (C57BL/6) and leptin-deficient (ob/ob) obese mice. Both mice strains developed obesity, but the obesity was inhibited ...
Salom?? N - - 2009
In the present study, we explore the central nervous system mechanism underlying the chronic central effects of ghrelin with respect to increasing body weight and body fat. Specifically, using a recently developed ghrelin receptor antagonist, GHS-R1A (JMV2959), we investigate the role of GHS-R1A in mediating the effects of ghrelin on ...
LeSauter Joseph - - 2009
Increases in arousal and activity in anticipation of a meal, termed "food anticipatory activity" (FAA), depend on circadian food-entrainable oscillators (FEOs), whose locations and output signals have long been sought. It is known that ghrelin is secreted in anticipation of a regularly scheduled mealtime. We show here that ghrelin administration ...
Monteleone Palmiero - - 2010
In humans, the cephalic phase response to food ingestion consists mostly of vagal efferent activation, which promotes the secretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, including ghrelin. Since symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by increased vagal tone, we hypothesized an enhanced ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of vagal stimulation. ...
Suo Satoshi - - 2009
Animals assess food availability in their environment by sensory perception and respond to the absence of food by changing hormone and neurotransmitter signals. However, it is largely unknown how the absence of food is perceived at the level of functional neurocircuitry. In Caenorhabditis elegans, octopamine is released from the RIC ...
Blouet Clémence - - 2009
In response to nutrient stimuli, the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) drives multiple neuroendocrine and behavioral mechanisms to regulate energy balance. While central leucine reduces food intake and body weight, the specific neuroanatomical sites of leucine sensing, downstream neural substrates, and neurochemical effectors involved in this regulation remain largely unknown. Here we ...
García-Tornadú I - - 2009
In 5-month-old male and female dopamine receptor 2 (D2R) knockout mice food intake per animal was unaltered while food per g BW was increased. We wished to evaluate the effect of D2R disruption on different components of energy balance and food intake regulation. We determined hypothalamic orexin precursor (PPO) expression, ...
Schellekens Harriët - - 2010
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions not only in Western societies but also in the developing world. Current pharmacological treatments for obesity are either lacking in efficacy and/or are burdened with adverse side effects. Thus, novel strategies are required. A better understanding of the intricate molecular pathways controlling energy homeostasis may ...
Abizaid Alfonso - - 2009
A review is provided of current evidence supporting the actions of the stomach-derived peptide ghrelin on ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine cells to increase food intake and other appetitive behaviours. Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid peptide that was first identified as an endogenous ligand to growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R). ...
Salomé N - - 2009
Abstract Here we explore the CNS mechanism underlying ghrelin's chronic central effects to increase body weight and body fat. Specifically, using a recently developed GHS-R1A antagonist (JMV2959), we investigate the role of GHS-R1A in mediating ghrelin's effects on energy balance and on hypothalamic gene expression. As expected, in adult male ...
Cha Seung Hun - - 2009
Previous studies showed that centrally administered glucose and fructose exert different effects on food intake--glucose decreasing and fructose increasing food intake. Because of the uncertainty of whether fructose can cross the blood-brain-barrier, the question is raised; can dietary fructose directly enter the CNS? Evidence is presented that fructose administered by ...
Semjonous N M - - 2009
The hypothalamic control of energy balance is regulated by a complex network of neuropeptide-releasing neurons. Although the effect of these neuropeptides on individual aspects of energy homoeostasis has been studied, the coordinated response of these effects has not been comprehensively investigated. We have simultaneously monitored a number of metabolic parameters ...
Nurmio M - - 2010
Orexins (OX), OX-A and OX-B, were initially identified as hypothalamic neuropeptides primarily involved in the control of food intake and states of arousal. Thereafter, orexins have been substantiated as putative pleiotropic regulators of a wide diversity of biological systems, including different neuroendocrine axes. Among the latter, compelling experimental evidence has ...
Perić-Mataruga Vesna - - 2009
Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid peptide which has significant effects on animal appetite, thus influencing body mass. The aim of our study was to examine the effects of ghrelin on the feeding behavior and physiology 4th instar caterpillars of the pest insect, Lymantria dispar L. Treatment of 4th instar caterpillars ...
Keen-Rhinehart Erin - - 2009
The incidence of juvenile obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. In adults, central insulin administration decreases hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptides, food intake and body weight more effectively in males than females. Mechanisms regulating energy balance in juvenile animals are inherently different from those in adults due to differences in growth ...
Hiejima Hiroshi - - 2009
n-Decanoyl ghrelin (D-ghrelin), a member of ghrelin-derived peptides, is found in plasma and the stomach; however, there have so far been no studies describing its dynamics. A D-ghrelin-specific radioimmunoassay was established to examine the tissue distribution and the kinetics of D-ghrelin in mice. The effect of D-ghrelin on food intake ...
Van Dijck Annemie - - 2009
Obestatin is a ghrelin-associated peptide hormone with presumed anorexigenic and inhibitory effect on gastric propulsive motility activity. Recent literature, however, discloses much contestation over satiety and gastrointestinal motility-related functionalities of obestatin. In addition, antidipsinogenic effects in rodents by obestatin were recently reported. The present study was set up to bring ...
Shimizu Hiroyuki - - 2009
An anorexigenic peptide, nesfatin-1 was found in rat hypothalamus, and its expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus was reduced by starvation. Intracerebroventricular administration dose-dependently inhibited food intake for 6 h in male Wistar and leptin resistant, Zucker fatty rats. There may be a crosstalk between nesfatin-1 pathway and ...
Xu Geyang - - 2009
Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate food intake. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular fuel sensor critical for cellular energy homeostasis. Here we showed the reciprocal relationship of gastric mTOR signaling and ghrelin during changes in energy status. mTOR ...
Jaillard Tristan - - 2009
Insulin plays an important role in the hypothalamic control of energy balance, especially by reducing food intake. Emerging data point to a pivotal role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in energy homeostasis regulation, but their involvement in the anorexigenic effect of insulin is unknown. Furthermore, ROS signal derived from NADPH ...
St-Pierre David H - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin levels are decreased upon food intake, but the impact of specific diet-derived macronutrients on its regulation remains unclear. In addition, because of ghrelin's association with body weight regulation, it is important to understand the mechanisms regulating its levels in obese individuals. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of specific ...
Ross A W - - 2009
Hypothalamic genes involved in food intake and growth regulation were studied in F344 rats in response to photoperiod. Two sub-strains were identified: F344/NHsd (F344/N) and F344/NCrHsd (F344/NCr); sensitive and relatively insensitive to photoperiod respectively. In F344/N rats, marked, but opposite, changes in the genes for neuropeptide Y (NPY) (+97.5%) and ...
Depoortere Inge - - 2009
The increasing prevalence of obesity and the obesity-associated morbidities represent one of the major health problems of the western society. This has renewed interest in our understanding of factors that control appetite. The 28 amino acid peptide may represent one of the key players in the regulation of food intake ...
Kawahara Y - - 2009
Ghrelin induces orexigenic behavior by activation of growth hormone secretagogue 1 receptors (GHSRs) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) as well as hypothalamus, suggesting the involvement of mesolimbic dopamine system in the action of ghrelin. The present study aimed to identify neuronal mechanisms by which peripherally administered ghrelin regulates the ...
Salomé Nicolas - - 2009
Here we provide the first pharmacological exploration of the impact of acute central nervous system exposure to three recently developed ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) ligands on food intake and on the electrical activity of the target cells for ghrelin in the hypothalamus. Central (i.c.v) injection of GHS-R1A antagonists to rats suppressed ...
Yang Xuejuan - - 2009
Previous studies have shown that lesions of the posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) produce hyperphagia and obesity in female rats. To better understand the role of the PDA in the regulation of feeding behavior, the current study examined the effects of electrical stimulation of the PDA of female rats on food intake ...
Galvão Milene de Oliveira Lara Mde - - 2009
A large body of evidence has shown that prolonged paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) results in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, and in loss of body weight despite an apparent increase of food intake, reflecting increased energy expenditure. The flowerpot technique for PSD is an efficient paradigm for investigating the relationships among ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2009
The hypothalamus and brain stem in vertebrates play an important role in feeding regulation. Many kinds of neuropeptides have been implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in rodents. In addition to rodents, however, the goldfish has been widely used as an animal model to investigate the ...
Cottone Erika - - 2009
Based on pharmacological, behavioral, and neuroanatomical studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be pivotal in some neuroendocrine mechanisms, such as modulation of vertebrate reproduction, stress, and food intake. The present study aimed to investigate the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the control of the feeding response in the goldfish. ...
Cohen Merav M MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. - - 2009
Animals modify food-seeking behavior and metabolism according to perceived food availability. Here we show that, in the roundworm C. elegans, release of neuropeptides from interneurons that are directly postsynaptic to olfactory, gustatory, and thermosensory neurons coordinately regulates behavior and metabolism. Animals lacking these neuropeptides, encoded by the flp-18 gene, are ...
Shrestha Yogendra B - - 2009
Central and peripheral injections of fghrelin potently stimulates food intake via its receptor, GHSR1a expressed in the brain. In this study, we explored the role of GHSR1a in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) by reducing their gene expression using the RNA interference (RNAi). pSUPER plasmids inserted with sh ...
Lawrence Catherine B - - 2009
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide that is thought to play a role in the regulation of energy balance. However, the effects of GALP on food intake and body weight appear to be complex. In rats, central administration of GALP initially stimulates food intake, an effect that is followed by ...
Lorenzi Teresa - - 2009
Ghrelin, an acylated 28 amino acid gastric peptide, was isolated from the stomach as an endogenous ligand for growth hormone (GH) secretagogue receptor in 1999. Circulating ghrelin is mainly produced by specific cells in the stomach's oxyntic glands. Ghrelin potently stimulates GH release and food intake and exhibits diverse effects, ...
Matsuda Kouhei - - 2009
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), originally discovered in the teleost pituitary, is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of body color in fish. Although MCH is also present in the mammalian brain, it has no evident function in providing pigmentation. Instead, this peptide is now recognized to be one of the ...
Lane M Daniel - - 2009
In the brain malonyl-CoA serves the important function of monitoring and modulating energy balance. Because of its central role in the metabolism of higher animals, glucose acts as the principal indicator of global energy status. Specialized neuronal nuclei within the hypothalamus sense blood glucose and signal higher brain centers to ...
Simpson Katherine Anne - - 2009
Current estimates suggest that over 1 billion people are overweight and over 300 million people are obese. Weight gain is due to an imbalance between energy expenditure and dietary intake. This review discusses the hypothalamic control of appetite and highlights key developments in research that have furthered our understanding of ...
Ladyman Sharon R - - 2009
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is increased in the hypothalamus during lactation. To investigate the role of the NPY Y5 receptor during lactation, an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) targeted to the NPY Y5 receptor, an equivalent scrambled ODN or vehicle, was chronically infused into the 3rd ventricle of lactating rats from day 8 ...
Inhoff Tobias - - 2009
Desacyl ghrelin is produced in the gastric mucosa and plasma by deacylation of ghrelin. It occurs in considerably larger amounts than ghrelin in various regions in the organisms of rats and mice. It exerts biological activities in vitro as different as stimulating adipogenesis or inhibiting glucose output in hepatocytes. In ...
Dailey Megan J - - 2009
Food is acquired (obtained by foraging) and frequently stored (hoarded) across animal taxa, including humans, but the physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors are virtually unknown. We found that peptides that stimulate food intake in rats stimulate food foraging and/or hoarding more than intake in Siberian hamsters. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is ...
Goel Namni - - 2009
Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by evening hyperphagia and frequent awakenings accompanied by food intake. Patients with NES display a delayed circadian pattern of food intake but retain a normal sleep-wake cycle. These characteristics initiated the current study, in which the phase and amplitude of behavioral and neuroendocrine circadian ...
Mennigen Jan A - - 2009
Serotonin has been implicated in the regulation of feeding and growth in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms through which serotonin mediates its anorectic effects are only partially understood. In this study we measured food intake and difference in weight gain in sexually regressed female goldfish intraperitionally injected with fluoxetine, a selective ...
Lectez Benoît - - 2009
26RFa is a hypothalamic RFamide neuropeptide that was identified as the endogenous ligand of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR103, and that stimulates appetite in mice. Up until now, the mechanism of action of 26RFa in the hypothalamic control of food intake remains unknown. The high density of GPR103 in ...
Votruba Susanne B - - 2009
Ghrelin has a short-term orexigenic effect but may also be a marker of food intake over time. We previously found an inverse association between ghrelin concentrations and food intake. The objectives were to determine whether the fasting plasma ghrelin concentration is related to food intake and whether the previous day's ...
Anukulkitch Chantacha - - 2009
A study was undertaken in Corriedale ewes to test the lipostat theory using data obtained from a model of seasonal change in food intake and body composition. The theory predicts adipose-derived factors signal to the brain and vice versa, to maintain homeostasis. It is held that leptin acts on cells ...
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