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Watts Alan G - - 2010
The anorexia that accompanies the drinking of hypertonic saline (DE-anorexia) is a critical adaptive behavioral mechanism that helps protect the integrity of fluid compartments during extended periods of cellular dehydration. Feeding is rapidly reinstated once drinking water is made available again. The relative simplicity and reproducibility of these behaviors makes ...
Castellano J M - - 2010
Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function, was suggested as potential target for transmitting immune-mediated repression of the ...
Jethwa P H - - 2010
Many vertebrates express profound annual cycles of body fattening, although it is not clear whether these represent differential activity of the central pathways known to mediate homeostatic control of food intake and energy expenditure, or whether the recent discovery of a major role for pars tuberalis-ependymal signalling points towards novel ...
Lee Jong-Ho - - 2010
This study was conducted to define molecular mechanisms by which food deprivation increases phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK1/2) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats. pERK1/2 immunoreactivity (-ir) is markedly increased in the paraventricular nucleus by 48h of food deprivation. Treatment with RU486, glucocorticoid antagonists, during food deprivation did ...
Akerberg Helena - - 2010
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) belongs to the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides and is released from pancreatic F cells postprandially. PP functions as a peptide hormone and has been associated with decreased food intake in humans and rodents. Our study describes the effects of PP on feeding behavior in dogs, ...
Cason Angie M AM Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Basic Science Building 403, 173 Ashley Avenue, MSC 510, Charleston, SC 29425, - - 2010
Orexins (also named hypocretins) are recently discovered neuropeptides made exclusively in the hypothalamus. Recent studies have shown that orexin cells located specifically in lateral hypothalamus (LH) are involved in motivated behavior for drugs of abuse as well as natural rewards. Administration of orexin has been shown to stimulate food consumption, ...
Comp?re V - - 2010
In the central nervous system of mammals, the gene encoding diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI) is exclusively expressed in glial cells. Previous studies have shown that central administration of a DBI processing product, the octadecaneuropeptide ODN, causes a marked inhibition of food consumption in rodents. Paradoxically, however, the effect of food restriction ...
Stolarczyk Emilie - - 2010
The sugar transporter GLUT2, present in several tissues of the gut-brain axis, has been reported to be involved in the control of food intake. GLUT2 is a sugar transporter sustaining energy production in the cell, but it can also function as a receptor for extracellular glucose. A glucose-signaling pathway is ...
Gardiner James V - - 2010
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Ghrelin is the only peripheral hormone known to increase food intake. It is released from the stomach and is thought to function as a signal of energy deficit and a meal initiator. We generated transgenic mice in which levels of bioactive ghrelin are increased in the stomach ...
Yakabi Koji - - 2010
Circulating ghrelin concentration regulates appetite behavior, but no study thus far has focused on the role of central ghrelin in anorexia after chemotherapy. To clarify the action mechanisms of rikkunshito (RKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, on cisplatin-induced anorexia, we attempted to elucidate its effect on hypothalamic ghrelin receptor expression in ...
Dailey Megan J - - 2010
The mechanisms underlying the control of food intake are considerably better understood than those underlying the appetitive ingestive behaviors of foraging and hoarding of food, despite the prevalence of the latter across species including humans. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related protein (AgRP), two orexigenic neuropeptides known to stimulate food intake ...
Smith Pauline M - - 2010
The SFO, a circumventricular organ (CVO) that lacks the normal blood-brain barrier, is an important site in central autonomic regulation. A role for the SFO in sensing circulating satiety signals has been suggested by electrophysiological studies demonstrating that the anorexigenic satiety signals, leptin and amylin, as well as the orexigenic ...
Yamamoto Kazuyoshi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone with pleiotropic functions including stimulation of growth hormone secretion and appetite, and its levels decrease after esophagectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exogenous ghrelin administration can meliorate the postoperative decrease of oral food intake and body weight, which are serious ...
De Vriese Carine - - 2010
The endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, ghrelin, is a 28-amino-acid peptide acylated with an octanoyl group at the serine in position 3. Most of the circulating ghrelin results from its synthesis and secretion by the X/A-like endocrine cells from the stomach and proximal small intestine. Besides its ...
Adachi Shinichi - - 2010
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Body weight (BW) loss and reduction of blood ghrelin level are commonly observed after total gastrectomy (TG). A prospective study was designed to elucidate whether exogenous ghrelin administration prevents postoperative BW loss by improving appetite and oral food intake in patients with gastric cancer after undergoing TG. ...
Garc?a-Luna C - - 2010
Food-restricted animals present metabolic adaptations that facilitate food-seeking behavior and decelerate energy utilization by reducing the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis function. Stress by dehydration induces an anorexic behavior in rats, loss of weight and reduced food intake when compared to ad libitum fed animals, however these alterations are accompanied by HPT ...
Szekely Miklos - - 2010
Energy balance of the body is determined mainly by the function of various hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei, according to a complex interaction between the regulation of body temperature (actual metabolic rate vs. heat loss) and regulation of body weight (metabolic rate vs. food intake). The direct effect of central anabolic ...
Al-Arabi Ateegh - - 2010
NPY has been reported to co-exist within catecholaminergic neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. The functional significance in noradrenergic neurons has been related to the vasomotor effects of NPY which complement and interact with NE which is known to have central and peripheral effects on resting metabolic rate ...
Garcia-Tornadú Isabel - - 2010
Dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) participation in prolactin regulation is well documented, but the role of D2Rs in the control of other hormones involved in growth, food intake and glucose metabolism has not been extensively studied. The study of D2R knockout mice (Drd2(-/-)) puts forward new insights into the role of ...
Sasaki Tsutomu - - 2010
The hypothalamus is the center of controlling food intake and energy expenditure by integrating information on energy status, i.e. adiposity and nutrient signals. Especially, two types of neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons and orexigenic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons, play vital roles in regulating ...
Li Jun - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of ghrelin, an important appetite regulatory factor related to obesity, in the stomach of Suncus murinus, and attempted to elucidate the ghrelin-mediated regulatory effect in this animal. METHODS: The stomachs of Suncus murinus were divided into 5 sections, cardia, fundus, greater curvature, lesser curvature, and ...
Koliaki Chrysi - - 2010
Ghrelin is a powerful orexigenic gut hormone with growth hormone releasing activity. It plays a pivotal role for long-term energy balance and short-term food intake. It is also recognized as a potent signal for meal initiation. Ghrelin levels rise sharply before feeding onset, and are strongly suppressed by food ingestion. ...
Macia Laurence - - 2010
Body weight is controlled through peripheral (white adipose tissue) and central (mainly hypothalamus) mechanisms. We have recently obtained evidence that overexpression of interleukin (IL)-7, a critical cytokine involved in lymphopoiesis, can protect against the development of diet-induced obesity in mice. Here we assessed whether IL-7 mediated its effects by modulating ...
Willis Holly J - - 2010
People who eat more fiber often have a lower body weight than people who eat less fiber. The mechanism for this relationship has been explained, in part, by increased satiety, which may occur as a result of changes in appetite-suppressing gut hormone levels, and decreases in food intake at subsequent ...
Barazzoni Rocco - - 2010
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance occur in chronic kidney disease. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone previously shown to enhance muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities and AKT-mediated insulin signaling independent of food intake in healthy rats. Here we determined the impact of ghrelin treatment on anorexia, skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidative ...
Stofkova Andrea - - 2010
We studied the effect of food restriction, overfeeding, and normofeeding on cachexia, inflammatory and metabolic parameters, and insulin sensitivity in chronic adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats. Food restriction during AA increased circulating ghrelin, corticosterone, decreased leptin, and ameliorated arthrogram score and systemic inflammation compared to normofeeding. Overfeeding worsened arthrogram score ...
Tung Yi-Chun Loraine YC University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Treatment Centre, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, United - - 2010
Sequence variants in the first intron of FTO are strongly associated with human obesity and human carriers of the risk alleles show evidence for increased appetite and food intake. Mice globally lacking Fto display a complex phenotype characterised by both increased energy expenditure and increased food intake. The site of ...
Suzuki Keisuke K Section of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, London, - - 2010
The World Health Organisation has estimated that by 2015 approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million obese. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular events, stroke and cancer. The hypothalamus is a crucial region for integrating signals from central and peripheral pathways ...
Hollis Jacob H - - 2010
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often used to mimic acute infection and induces hypophagia, the selective partitioning of fat for energy, and fever. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine expressed in the brain which attenuates LPS-induced hypophagia; however the potential sites of interaction within the brain have not been investigated. Hypothalamic orexin ...
Grossberg Aaron J - - 2010
The proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is induced in disease states and is known to inhibit food intake when administered centrally. However, the neural pathways underlying this effect are not well understood. We demonstrate that LIF acutely inhibits food intake by directly activating pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate ...
Sucajtys-Szulc Elzbieta - - 2010
Several lines of evidence suggest that malonyl-CoA in the hypothalamus plays an important role in monitoring and modulating body energy balance. In fasted state the level of malonyl-CoA concentration significantly decreases. Simultaneously, orexigenic neuropeptides (NPY - neuropeptide Y, AgRP - agouti-related peptide) genes are expressed at high level, whereas anorexigenic ...
Healy Jessica E - - 2010
Ghrelin is a recently discovered hormone which has profound effects on food intake and lipogenesis in mammals. In all mammals studied thus far, plasma ghrelin concentrations are increased before a meal and decrease immediately following a meal; ghrelin levels increase with fasting. The golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis (also known ...
Flemstr?m G - - 2010
Studies of gastrointestinal physiology in humans and intact animals are usually conducted after overnight fast. We compared the effects of orexin-A, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), melatonin, serotonin, uroguanylin, ghrelin and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) on duodenal bicarbonate secretion in fed and overnight fasted animals. This review is a summary of our ...
Stengel Andreas - - 2009
Nutritional status influences hormone secretion from specialized enteroendocrine cells within the gut mucosa. These hormones regulate food intake by mediating information to central neurocircuitries in the brainstem and forebrain (eg, hypothalamic nuclei). Intestinal enteroendocrine cells were believed to be the main source of gut peptides regulating food intake. However, recent ...
Stengel Andreas - - 2010
Numerous peptides released from endocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa were established early on to be involved in the physiological regulation of food intake with a prominent role in termination of food ingestion when nutrients pass along the intestinal tract. Recently, peptides released from X/A-like endocrine cells of the gastric ...
Nogueiras Ruben - - 2010
Resistin has been identified as a hormone secreted by adipocytes that is under hormonal and nutritional control. This hormone has been suggested to be the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In rodents, resistin is mainly located and secreted from adipocytes, even though its expression was also found in ...
Gardiner James V JV Department of Investigative Medicine, Imperial College London, London, - - 2010
Prokineticin 2 (PK2) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide expressed in central nervous system areas known to be involved in food intake. We therefore hypothesized that PK2 plays a role in energy homeostasis. We investigated the effect of nutritional status on hypothalamic PK2 expression and effects of PK2 on the regulation of ...
Schulz Carla - - 2010
ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) are both consecutively processed from proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which is synthesized in hypothalamic arcuate neurons innervating the paraventricular nuclei (PVN). POMC secretion/synthesis is regulated by energy availability. ACTH and alpha-MSH bind with equal affinity to melanocortin-4 receptors and elicit similar effects on signal transduction in-vitro. Endogenous ...
Mafra Denise - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: Both leptin and ghrelin (in the forms of acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin) are involved in food intake, and appear to be dysregulated in chronic kidney disease. This study describes plasma leptin, acyl, and des-acyl ghrelin concentrations in relation to protein intake and body mass index (BMI) in hemodialysis ...
Takeda Hiroshi - - 2010
Aging is associated with decreased food intake, a phenomenon termed the anorexia of aging. In this study, we sought to clarify changes in peripheral and central appetite-related factors in aged mice. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of rikkunshito, a traditional Japanese medicine, on age-related anorexia. C57BL/6J mice that were 6 ...
Furuta Miyako - - 2010
Orexin A/hypocretin-1 inhibits pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in female rats. In this study, we investigated whether this inhibition was tied to the fasting state, as suggested by our previous study. We first examined whether orexin A inhibited pulsatile LH secretion when food was available ad libitumduring blood sampling. Next, ...
Jönsson Elisabeth - - 2010
Ghrelin stimulates pituitary growth hormone (GH) release, and has a key role in the regulation of food intake and adiposity in vertebrates. To investigate the central effect of native rainbow trout ghrelin (rtghrelin) on food intake in rainbow trout, as well as its possible mode of action, four groups of ...
Mahaut St?phanie - - 2010
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptides (PPs) belong to the same peptide family called the Y or NPY family. Central and peripheral injections of these peptides are implicated in the regulation of food intake at the level of the hypothalamus (central effects; increased food intake) and dorsal ...
Dietrich Marcelo O - - 2009
Food intake is a major physiological function in animals and must be entrained to the circadian oscillations in food availability. In the last two decades a growing number of reports have shed light on the hormonal, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of food intake. Brain areas located ...
Narayanan Nandakumar S - - 2010
Recent evidence has emerged demonstrating that metabolic hormones such as ghrelin and leptin can act on ventral tegmental area (VTA) midbrain dopamine neurons to influence feeding. The VTA is the origin of mesolimbic dopamine neurons that project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) to influence behavior. While blockade of dopamine via ...
Ribeiro Ana C AC Laboratory of Neurobiology and Behavior, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. - - 2009
The mechanisms by which animals adapt to an ever-changing environment have long fascinated scientists. Different forces, conveying information regarding various aspects of the internal and external environment, interact with each other to modulate behavioral arousal. These forces can act in concert or, at times, in opposite directions. These signals eventually ...
Piccinetti Chiara Carla - - 2010
The endocannabinoid system is a major regulator of food intake in many animal species. Studies conducted so far have mostly focused on mammals, and, therefore, in this study, the role of the endocannabinoid system in food intake in the sea bream Sparus aurata was investigated. The effect of different doses ...
Ohinata Kousaku - - 2009
We have recently found that prostaglandin (PG) D(2) stimulates food intake via DP(1) receptor. Here we show that complement C5a stimulates food intake by activating the orexigenic PGD(2) system. C5a (30-100 pmol/mouse), after intracerebroventricular administration, stimulated food intake in non-food-deprived mice. The orexigenic activity of C5a was blocked by co-administration ...
Silveyra P - - 2010
Appropriate nutritional and vigilance states are needed for reproduction. In previous works, we described the influence of the hormonal milieu of proestrus on the orexinergic system and we found that orexin receptor 1 expression in the hypothalamus, but not other neural areas, and the adenohypophysis was under the influence of ...
Gonzalez Ronald - - 2010
Peptide YY (PYY) is a 36 amino acid multifunctional gut-brain hormone in mammals. PYY has recently raised great interest as it was shown to reduce food intake and body weight of mammals. While PYY and its receptors have been sequenced from many non-mammalian vertebrates, its functional role, especially in the ...
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