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Bouali S M - - 1995
Our previous in vivo structure-activity studies suggested that the putative receptors mediating the effects of NPY and NPY2-36 on food intake and body temperature are pharmacologically different [17]. In the present study, we examined and compared dose-related effects of NPY and NPY2-36 on ad lib food intake and rectal temperature ...
Li B H - - 1994
Administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) results in the release of a number of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones and stimulation of feeding and suppression of sexual behavior. In this study, we sought to identify cellular sites of NPY action by evaluating perikaryal Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI), a marker of cellular ...
Beck B - - 1994
A central dysregulation of several neuropeptides could be at the origin of the marked hyperphagia of the obese Zucker rat, a well-known animal model used for the study of obesity. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), which stimulates food intake and increases early in life in obese rats, plays a major role in ...
Yamamoto M - - 1994
Some gangliosides in the nervous system are developmentally down-regulated, but many other gangliosides continue to be expressed in the adult nervous system. We have previously demonstrated that the 9-O-acetylated gangliosides recognized by a monoclonal antibody, P-path, confer unique compartmentation among Purkinje cell groups in the normal adult cerebellum. We have ...
O'Shea R D - - 1994
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) may interact to regulate food intake. This study investigated the effects of the 5-HT reuptake blocker and secretagogue D-fenfluramine (D-FEN) on preproNPY mRNA abundance in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) of free-feeding and food-deprived (FD) rats in two treatment regimens. ARC preproNPY mRNA ...
Tanaka Y - - 1994
The role of ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) in feeding behavior induced by central administration of porcine neuropeptide Y (NPY) in fasted female rats was investigated focusing on the effect of the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of NPY on food intake in rats with VMN lesions after 24 h of food deprivation. ...
Bonavera J J - - 1994
There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that estrogen suppresses food intake and body weight gain by an action in the hypothalamus. However, the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator mediating the anorectic effects of estrogen are unknown. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY) is the most potent orexigenic signal known, and NPY-producing neurons in the hypothalamus ...
Dube M G - - 1994
Neuropeptide Y is the most potent orexigenic signal known. To test the hypothesis that NPY is a physiological messenger molecule for normal food intake in rats, we studied the effects of passive immunization against endogenous NPY on cumulative daily food intake in non-fasted spontaneously feeding rats. The results show that ...
Lynch W C - - 1994
Centrally injected neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent stimulant of ingestive behavior capable of augmenting both food and fluid intake in fully satiated animals. To gain further insight into NPY's mechanism of action, we recorded patterns of licking behavior in rats drinking sweetened condensed milk solutions immediately after lateral ventricular ...
Steinman J L - - 1994
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an extremely potent orexigenic agent. These studies demonstrate that the effect of NPY on food and water intake are seen after infusion into either the third (3V) or fourth (4V) ventricle and that this is a specific effect, as it was not seen with the deaminated ...
Bouali S M - - 1994
The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible central actions of a N-terminal fragment of NPY, NPY(1-30), on five measures typically influenced by the native peptide: decreased spontaneous activity, enhancement of muscle tone (increased grasping response), catalepsy, hypothermia, and stimulation of food intake. The peptides were administered ...
Feifel D - - 1994
The present paper provides an overview of findings that implicate growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS), the two peptides that regulate growth hormone secretion, in the central regulation of feeding. Evidence is presented that GHRH and SS increase food intake, in the rat, via a common centrally mediated mechanism ...
Jewett D C - - 1993
Rats were trained to discriminate between an intracerebroventricular injection of 1.15 nmol of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and a sham injection. Rats rapidly learned to press the appropriate lever during training. NPY's discriminative stimulus effects were compared to those of saline, and 1.15-3.45 nmol [Leu31,Pro34]NPY, a Y1 receptor agonist and NPY ...
Zhang T - - 1993
The purpose of these experiments was to investigate the neural control of peptide YY (PYY) secretion. The effects of various pharmacological manipulations and vagotomy on peptide YY (PYY) secretion was examined in dogs. Atropine, hexamethonium and atropine plus hexamethonium treatment blocked food-induced release of PYY significantly. Integrated release of PYY ...
McShane T M - - 1993
Chronic food restriction decreases secretion of LH as a result of inhibitory influences on secretion of LHRH. We have previously reported that neuropeptide-Y (NPY) may directly or indirectly mediate this inhibitory effect on LHRH secretion. In the study reported here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term food restriction suppresses tonic ...
Kalra S P - - 1993
In this article I have examined various aspects of the complex spatio-temporal patterning of peptidergic signaling that lead to synchronized development of neural events for the preovulatory LHRH discharge on proestrus. Undoubtedly, the integration of these events is orchestrated by both ovarian steroids, E2 and P. Evidence accumulated in recent ...
Menzaghi F - - 1993
Previous work has shown that administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) into the lateral ventricle antagonizes the orexigenic effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY), and central injection of CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF(9-41) enhanced NPY-induced food intake in satiated rats. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of selective ...
Lambert P D - - 1993
A marked increase in food intake is observed in the rat after central injection of neuropeptide-Y (NPY), dynorphin, or noradrenaline (NA). Levels of both NPY and dynorphin are increased in the hypothalamus of food-deprived rats. The aim of this study was to explore the role of NPY, dynorphin, and NA ...
Senthilkumaran B - - 1993
In Heteropneustes fossilis, significant annual variations in serotonin (5-HT) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) were found in the hypothalamus both at 12 and 24 hr with high values of content and turnover index (TI) during gonadal recrudescence, and low values during gonadal quiescence. The 5-HT content reached high levels during April-July ...
Heilig M - - 1993
Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may be a potent endogenous anxiolytic. The anatomic structures mediating this action of the peptide remain unknown. Furthermore, in addition to its anxiolytic-like effects, intracerebroventricular administration of NPY induces food intake through hypothalamic mechanisms, making the anxiolytic-like action of ...
Heinrichs S C - - 1993
Central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) exerts a potent orexigenic effect in rats, whereas injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) suppresses food intake. Anatomical evidence of NPY-containing terminals located in close proximity to CRF-containing neurons and terminals of the hypothalamus and amygdala suggests possible interactions of these neuropeptide systems in food-intake ...
Wong M L - - 1993
Hypothalamic neuropeptides are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of eating disorders. In an animal model with chronic abnormalities of energy expenditure, appetitive behavior, and body weight, without acute food restriction, we found alterations in peripheral levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone, but no alterations in the expression of neuropeptides ...
Stricker-Krongrad A - - 1993
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) strongly stimulates food intake when it is injected in the central nervous system and especially in the hypothalamus. The major site of NPY synthesis in the hypothalamus is the arcuate nucleus which projects to the paraventricular nucleus. These two nuclei form the arcuate-paraventricular axis, a local circuit ...
McCarthy H D - - 1993
Regional hypothalamic concentrations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), respectively a stimulant and an inhibitor of feeding behavior, were investigated in hypothalamic nuclei in rats carrying the Yoshida sarcoma. Tumor-bearing rats (n = 10), non-tumor-bearing controls (n = 10), and food-restricted rats (n = 10), which did not ...
Bray G A - - 1993
Food intake can be increased or decreased after either central or peripheral administration of peptides. Galanin, neuropeptide Y, opioid peptides, growth hormone releasing hormone and desacetyl-MSH increase food intake whereas insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, anorectin, corticotropin releasing hormone, neurotensin, bombesin, enterostatin, cyclo-his-pro and thyrotropin-releasing hormone reduce food intake. A number of ...
Lewis D E - - 1993
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent central appetite stimulant whose concentrations rise markedly in hypothalamic appetite-regulating regions in food-deprived rats. To determine whether increased energy expenditure also affects hypothalamic NPY, we studied the effects of intense physical exercise in rats (n = 10) running voluntarily on a large-diameter exercise wheel. ...
Olson B R - - 1993
Expression of the proto-oncogene protein c-Fos was evaluated immunocytochemically in individual brain cells as a marker of treatment-related neuronal activation following pharmacological and physiological treatments that are known to alter food intake and gastric motility in rats. c-Fos expression in response to each treatment was analyzed in the brainstem dorsal ...
Shibasaki T - - 1993
The effect of immunoneutralization of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) on food intake was examined to clarify the involvement of NPY in the control mechanism of feeding behavior. Injection of anti-NPY gamma-globulin into the bilateral hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei of 24-h food-deprived rats significantly inhibited food intake for 1 h after the ...
Boswell T - - 1993
Neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin may play a role in regulating the pronounced seasonal changes in food intake shown by golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus saturatus). We used in situ hybridization histochemistry to localize the expression of NPY and galanin mRNA in the hypothalamus of normally feeding animals. ...
Morley J E - - 1992
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is a peptide that is present in the hypothalamus and other areas of the rat brain. This study demonstrates that PACAP reduces food intake after intracerebroventricular injection in food-deprived mice. Behavioral analysis suggests that this decrease in food intake is, in part, compensated for ...
Galbraith R A - - 1992
The mechanism whereby neurally or peripherally administered cobalt-protoporphyrin (CoPP) leads to transient hypophagia and prolonged weight reduction in normal and genetically obese animals is unknown. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a known endogenous stimulator of feeding behavior and is elevated in the hypothalamus of food-deprived rats. Accordingly, we examined the interaction ...
Sahu A - - 1992
Recent evidence suggests that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important signal in the neural circuitry that controls feeding behavior. Previously we observed that in rats entrained to 4 h daily scheduled feeding regimen (SFR), NPY content and release in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was elevated but decreased rapidly in association ...
Silver B V - - 1992
Damage to the hypothalamic region is known to affect a wide range of homeostatic and adaptive functions, including water and food regulation, temperature control, hormone secretion and behavior. Deficient thirst is a serious consequence of hypothalamic injury, since water losses are not replaced by drinking. The effectiveness of behavioral procedures ...
Sipols A J - - 1992
Neuropeptides have been implicated in the short-term regulation of food intake and the long-term control of body weight. Previous studies have shown that central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY), the most abundant of these peptides in the brain, produces robust increases of food intake. We now report that NPY, at ...
Brief D J - - 1992
We examined the effect of acute third intraventricular (IVT) injections of either saline or NPY (0.95, 3.0, 9.5, or 30.0 micrograms in 1 microliter) on the 1-, 4-, and 22-hour postinjection food and water intake of female obese (fa/fa), heterozygous lean (Fa/fa), and homozygous lean (Fa/Fa) Zucker rats. None of ...
Glowa J R - - 1992
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41-residue hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been shown to have potent behavioral effects in animals and has been implicated in clinical disorders in man. This review focuses on those aspects of the behavioral effects of CRH related to food-associated behaviors. The effects of CRH on ...
Kyrkouli S E - - 1992
Evidence suggests that the peptides galanin (GAL) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) interact with the amine norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to stimulate feeding behavior. To directly investigate the nature of these interactions, extracellular levels of PVN NE were monitored in freely-moving rats using the microdialysis/HPLC technique. Following ...
Tainio H - - 1992
The neuropeptidergic innervation of the normal and obstructed human pyeloureteral junction was investigated using immunohistochemical techniques. A dense innervation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the intrinsic obstruction type was demonstrated. NPY and VIP formed networks in the muscular layer. NPY was also found in perivascular ...
Bray G A - - 1992
Food intake can be increased or decreased after either central or peripheral administration of peptides. Galanin, neuropeptide Y, opioid peptides, growth-hormone-releasing hormone, and desacetyl-melanocyte stimulating hormone increase food intake whereas insulin, glucagon, cholecystokinin, anorectin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, neurotensin, bombesin, cyclo-his-pro, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone reduce food intake. Many of these peptides have ...
Teyke T - - 1991
Firing of the cerebral-pedal regulator neuron, C-PR, evokes a constellation of responses which are characteristic of the food-induced arousal state that occurs following exposure of Aplysia to seaweed. To provide further evidence that C-PR plays a role in generating the food-induced arousal state, extracellular recordings from the cerebral-pedal connective, which ...
Kalra S P - - 1991
Feeding in mammals is a periodic behavior; however, knowledge of how the brain signals an intermittent eating pattern is scanty. Recent indirect evidence indicates that one of the signals encoded in the structure of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is to stimulate robust feeding. Therefore, two series of experiments were undertaken to ...
Flood J F - - 1991
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), administered intracerebroventricularly, is a potent orexigenic agent. To determine if NPY-induced eating represented an increase in motivation to eat (e.g., hunger) rather than pathological or stimulus-bound eating, we determined its effect on eating in three paradigms, including lever press, appetitive passive avoidance and quinine-adulterated milk. NPY-injected mice ...
Wullimann M F - - 1991
This study was done to elucidate the ancestral (plesiomorphic) condition for visual pathways to the hypothalamus in teleost fishes. Three patterns of pretectal organization can be discerned morphologically and histochemically in teleosts. Their taxonomic distribution suggests that the intermediately complex pattern (seen in most teleost groups) is ancestral to both ...
Jewett D C - - 1991
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), an endogenous peptide which strongly induces food intake, is demonstrated to have discriminative stimulus properties when administered intracerebroventricularly. Rats rapidly learned to press the appropriate lever during training. NPY discrimination was dose-dependent. NPY's discriminative stimulus properties were compared to those of two doses of Peptide YY (PYY) ...
Inui A - - 1991
Norepinephrine and four families of neuropeptides, namely, neuropeptide Y (NPY), opioid peptides, galanin, and growth hormone-releasing factor (GRH), have been shown to stimulate feeding after central administration. Because these studies were mainly done on laboratory rats, the present study was designed to ascertain the central stimulators of feeding in dogs. ...
Leibowitz S F - - 1991
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), acting through various medial hypothalamic nuclei, is found to have potent effects on a variety of endocrine, physiological and behavioral systems that modulate energy balance. This peptide affects the release of various hormones, such as corticosterone, insulin, aldosterone and vasopressin, which modulate energy metabolism, as well as ...
Kalra S P - - 1991
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent natural orexigenic signal in the rat. In this study, we have compared the effects of several COOH-terminal fragments of NPY and NPY receptor agonists on cumulative food intake in male rats. Rats were implanted with permanent cannulae either into the third cerebroventricle or paraventricular ...
Trub M - - 1991
In anesthetized rats, mechanical stimulations, the direction and intensity of which could be modified, were applied to the superior incisive while single neurone activities were recorded within the VHM region by means of extracellular glass microelectrodes. The great sensitivity of periodontal receptors to the direction and the intensity of the ...
Schick R R - - 1991
Central administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) induces food intake in freely feeding animals and this effect is mediated by hypothalamic sites. Little is known, however, about the effect of NPY on food intake and site of action in food-deprived animals. To examine this further, 24-h fasted rats received injections of ...
Paez X - - 1991
Hyperphagic-like intake of food was determined in the unrestrained rat during the sustained elevation over time of neuropeptide Y (NPY) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and surrounding hypothalamic regions. A single guide tube was implanted stereotaxically in each of 22 rats for localized, intermittent perfusions of a CSF vehicle, nondeprotected ...
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