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Yamanaka A - - 2000
Orexins (orexin-A and -B) are recently identified neuropeptides, which are thought to be implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior. We used a NPY-Y1 receptor specific antagonist, BIBO3304, to examine whether NPY is involved in orexin-induced feeding behavior. Intracerebroventricular administration of orexin-A (10 nmol) induced food intake in rats (food ...
Angelucci Francesco - - 2000
Neuropeptides and neurotrophins play a number of roles in the central nervous system (CNS). Nerve growth factor (NGF), the first characterized member of the family of neurotrophins, influences the synthesis of some neuropeptides, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), a peptide amply expressed in the CNS, interacting with catecholamines and modifying behaviour. ...
Kask A - - 2000
An increasing number of appetite-regulating peptides are being discovered. The list of regulators inhibiting food intake is considerably longer than that of appetite stimulators. In many cases, the peptides inhibiting food intake facilitate fear reactions, whereas the majority of the agents reducing anxiety responses stimulate appetite. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript ...
Olszewski P K - - 2000
While the influence of orphanin FQ (OFQ) on the regulation of food intake has been substantiated, little is known about feeding-related brain regions that mediate OFQ-induced feeding. To further investigate this, we injected OFQ intracerebroventricularly and evaluated c-Fos immunoreactivity in brain areas thought to be involved in the regulation of ...
Kim M S - - 2000
The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) in the hypothalamus is thought to be important in physiological regulation of food intake. We investigated which hypothalamic areas known to express MC4R are involved in the regulation of feeding by using alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), an endogenous MC4R agonist, and agouti-related peptide (Agrp), an endogenous MC4R ...
Lawrence C B - - 1999
Our understanding of the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis has increased greatly since the discovery of leptin, the adipose cell derived protein. Recent studies have identified several new hypothalamic neuropeptides that affect food intake and energy balance. By studying these molecules and their neuronal systems, receptors and interactions, we are ...
Furuse M - - 1999
1. Recently, 2 novel neuropeptides were discovered, both derived from the same precursor by proteolytic processing, which bind and activate 2 closely related orphan G protein-coupled receptors, Named orexin-A and -B (Sakurai et al., 1998). Both stimulate food intake when administered centrally to rats. 2. Our aim was to elucidate ...
Yamate N - - 1999
The alpha-amylase in Drosophila melanogaster is a highly polymorphic enzyme, at both the allozyme level and the specific activity level. This enzyme changes its specific activity drastically depending on both food conditions and developmental stages, and it has been suggested that the ability to change its activity depending on the ...
Volkoff H - - 1999
The neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B, have been demonstrated to have a physiological role in the regulation of food intake in mammals. The effects of human orexin-A and orexin-B intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection on the feeding behavior of goldfish (Carassius auratus) were investigated. I.c.v. injection of orexin-A and orexin-B both caused a ...
Cai X J - - 1999
Orexins (hypocretins), novel peptides expressed in specific neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), stimulate feeding when injected intracerebroventricularly. We investigated their role in feeding in the rat by measuring hypothalamic prepro-orexin mRNA levels under contrasting conditions of increased hunger. Prepro-orexin mRNA levels increased significantly after 48 h of fasting ...
De Jong-Brink M - - 1999
It was investigated whether up-regulation of the NPY gene by the schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata in its snail host Lymnaea stagnalis redirects the host's energy flows. We cloned the cDNA encoding Lymnaea NPY (LyNPY), purified and sequenced the peptide, and used synthesized peptide for physiological and morphological studies. Increasing the LyNPY ...
York D A - - 1999
Food intake is regulated by a complex interaction of central and peripheral pathways. A range of neuropeptides affects feeding either through actions at the gastrointestinal/hepatic level or in the central nervous system. Circulating signals such as leptin and insulin modulate and interact with these neuropeptide systems to control energy balance. ...
Smith G P - - 1999
The progress in the identification of peripheral and brain peptides that affect food intake and body weight is discussed in the accompanying 11 reviews. The reviews, succinct and critical, are useful guides to a dispersed literature that began in 1957. As reflected through the prism of these reviews, the field ...
Larsen P J - - 1999
The orexigenic role of central neuropeptide Y (NPY) in nonhuman primates has been questioned. Therefore, we have studied the effect of central NPY on feeding in ad libitum-fed male rhesus macaques. NPY dose-dependently increased food intake, with the maximal effect obtained by 50 microg (960 min food intake +/- SEM, ...
Dube M G - - 1999
Orexin A and B, a recently identified pair of neuropeptides, are produced in perikarya located in the lateral and perifornical hypothalamus (LH and PFH). Immunoreactive fibers from these neurons innervate several nuclei in the hypothalamus. Orexin A and orexin B stimulate feeding when administered intracerebroventricularly to rats. To identify the ...
Mayhew J - - 1999
Imaging of neural activation has been used to produce maps of functional architecture and metabolic activity. There is some uncertainty associated with the sources underlying the intrinsic signals. It has been reported that following increased neural activity there was little increased oxygen consumption ( approximately 5%), although glucose consumption increased ...
Reddy A B - - 1999
The aim of these experiments was to investigate the relationship between hypothalamic expression of orexin (also called hypocretin), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA and seasonal cycles of body weight and food intake in the Siberian hamster. Adult males were transferred from long days of 16 h light and ...
Madden L J - - 1999
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent endogenous stimulator of food intake. In addition to stimulating increased food intake, when paired with a novel-flavored solution, NPY produces an aversion to that flavor. Hence, exogenous NPY elicits 2 seemingly opposing behaviors, increased feeding and the formation of a conditioned taste aversion. One ...
López-Patiño M A - - 1999
The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the possible role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the feeding regulation in fish. We examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) neuropeptide Y administration on food intake in satiated goldfish, at different time intervals postinjection (0-2, 2-8 and 0-8 ...
Kokot F - - 1999
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a polypeptide containing 36 amino acids. Circulating NPY originates predominantly from the sympatho-adrenomedullary nervous system. It has a vasoconstrictive and mitogenic effect on blood vessels and seems to be involved in blood pressure regulation and angiogenesis. NPY is a potent orexigenic agent and is presumed to ...
Flynn M C - - 1999
Neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY 3-36 and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) increase short-term (2-h) food intake to varying degrees when given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Various Y receptor subtypes are proposed to participate in Y receptor ligand-induced stimulation of food intake. Here, we used an antisense phosphothio-oligodeoxynucleotide sequence (-5 relative to the initiating ATG) ...
Ida T - - 1999
The effect of lateral cerebroventricular injection of the appetite-stimulating neuropeptide, orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), on the behavior of rats was investigated. An immediate increase in face washing activity was observed after injection of orexin A or orexin B, but not NPY. Orexin A had a more potent effect on ...
Edwards C M - - 1999
Orexin-A and orexin-B (the hypocretins) are recently described neuropeptides suggested to have a physiological role in the regulation of food intake in the rat. We compared the orexigenic effect of the orexins administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) with other known stimulants of food intake, one strong, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two weaker, ...
Vrang N - - 1999
We have recently shown that the hypothalamic neuropeptide CART (cocaine-amphetamine-regulated-transcript) is a leptin dependent endogenous satiety factor in the rat. In the present study we confirm and extend our previous observations by showing that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administered CART(42-89) dose-dependently inhibits 3-h food intake in food restricted rats with a lowest ...
Hall W S - - 1999
Changes in the cytoarchitecture of vocal control nuclei were investigated in nestling budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) from hatching to fledging (five to six weeks) in relation to changes in vocalizations produced by nestlings during this period. The nuclei investigated were the hypoglossal nucleus, dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular midbrain, central nucleus ...
Shimada M - - 1998
Feeding is influenced by hypothalamic neuropeptides that promote (orexigenic peptides) or inhibit feeding. Of these, neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexins/hypocretins in the lateral hypothalamus have received attention because their expression is increased during fasting and because they promote feeding when administered centrally. ...
Criscione L - - 1998
The new neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y5 receptor antagonist CGP 71683A displayed high affinity for the cloned rat NPY Y5 subtype, but > 1, 000-fold lower affinity for the cloned rat NPY Y1, Y2, and Y4 subtypes. In LMTK cells transfected with the human NPY Y5 receptor, CGP 71683A was without ...
Jang M - - 1998
Leptin is proposed to control food intake at least in part by regulating hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stimulator of food intake, and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), an inhibitor of food intake. Ob/ob mice are leptin-deficient and would thus be expected to exhibit alterations in hypothalamic NPY and CRH. We therefore ...
Brown K S - - 1998
Lateral cerebroventricular (LCVT) administration of the alpha-MSH agonist analog Nle4DPhe7alpha-MSH (NDP-MSH) inhibited food intake in food-deprived rats, but did not inhibit water intake in water-deprived rats. When NDP-MSH was administered into the fourth ventricle (4CVT), comparable suppressions of food intake were observed. LCVT and 4CVT administration of NDP-MSH also reduced ...
Youngstrom T G - - 1998
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) drive on white adipose tissue (WAT) was varied to test its effects on fat cell number (FCN) under conditions in which lipolysis would be minimized and therefore partially separable from SNS trophic effects. The inguinal subcutaneous WAT (IWAT) pad of Siberian hamsters was chosen because ...
Tritos N A - - 1998
A growing body of evidence indicates that a number of peptides expressed in the mammalian hypothalamus are involved in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Among these, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are potent appetite stimulants, whereas alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), neurotensin, and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1(7-36) amide ...
Sahu A - - 1998
Recent evidence suggests that leptin reduces food intake (FI) by acting at the hypothalamic level. Leptin decreases hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and galanin (GAL) gene expression in rats. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that leptin decreases FI by additionally modulating the ...
Tang-Christensen M - - 1998
A number of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor subtypes, including the recently cloned Y5 receptor, have been implicated in the stimulation of food intake. In the present study, Y5 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) were used to assess the potential involvement of the Y5 receptor in the regulation of spontaneous as well ...
Karydis I - - 1998
The hypothalamus, long known to play a determinant role in food intake and satiety, has recently been shown to exert this homeostatic function via peptidergic neuronal circuits. The major peptide that has been identified as orexigenic, namely neuropeptide Y (NPY), is suppressed by leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, in a potential ...
Woods S C - - 1998
The evidence that NPY is an endogenous neurotransmitter that modulates both sides of the energy equation is clear and compelling. While agreeing with this (and indeed contributing to the growing literature supporting the concept), we have found that the interpretation of the increased food intake stimulated by intraventricular (i.v.t.) NPY ...
Schaffhauser A O - - 1998
In the literature, conflicting data on the effect of NPY Y1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on food intake have been reported, describing either an increase or a decrease in feeding in antisense-treated animals. In the present studies antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted to the Y1 receptor (Y1 antisense ODNs) were used to re-investigate ...
Marín-Bivens C L - - 1998
Obese Zucker rats are hyperphagic, overweight, and infertile. It has been postulated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) overproduction may contribute to obesity and infertility in these animals. To test this hypothesis, ovariectomized, adult obese Zucker rats were implanted with cannulae in the third ventricle and subsequently injected with NPY antisera or ...
Morgan D G - - 1998
We have previously shown that intracerebroventricular BIBP 3226 inhibits NPY induced feeding in rats. However, this was associated with abnormal behaviour, likely to be due to interaction with Y1 receptors involved in mechanisms other than the control of food intake. In order to minimise such interactions we investigated the effects ...
Ribelayga C - - 1998
Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) catalyses the last step of all the 5-methoxyindoles synthesized in the pineal gland. The synthetic activity of this neuroendocrine structure is driven not only by noradrenaline but also by various neuropeptides. Recently we have established (1) that one of these neuropeptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY), stimulates specifically HIOMT activity ...
Kask A - - 1998
1. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the novel non-peptide neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP3226 (N2-(diphenylacetyl)-N-[(4-hydroxy-phenyl)methyl]-D-arginine amide) on spontaneous, fasting-induced and NPY-induced food intake in rats. In addition to consumption of regular chow, the effects of BIBP3226 on consumption of highly palatable sweetened mash were monitored in ...
Kask A - - 1998
Recent studies using melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) knockout mice and MC4R antagonists have shown that weakening of MC4R-ergic tone increases food intake and causes obesity. In this study, we used the newly discovered selective MC4R antagonist HS014 for increasing food intake in free-feeding rats and evaluated the effects of the NPY ...
Merali Z - - 1998
There is wide agreement that corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems within the brain are activated by stressful stimuli. There is also mounting evidence for the role of bombesin (BN)-like peptides in the mediation of the stress response. To date, however, the extent to which other stimuli increase the activity of these ...
Wolf G - - 1998
A family of neuropeptides from the hypothalamus, named orexins, was recently discovered and characterized. Orexins stimulate appetite and food consumption. Their genes are expressed bilaterally and symmetrically in the lateral hypothalamus, which was earlier determined to be the "feeding center" of the hypothalamus. In contrast, the so-called satiety center is ...
Kristensen P - - 1998
The mammalian hypothalamus strongly influences ingestive behaviour through several different signalling molecules and receptor systems. Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and neuropeptide Y. Food-deprived ...
Giraudo S Q - - 1998
It is well known that 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) blocks intracellular utilization of glucose and increases food intake. The aim of the present study was to determine whether administration of 2-DG alters gene expression of the orexigenic peptides, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and endogenous opioids, in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC). ...
Zittel T T - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide contained in intrinsic and extrinsic neurons of the gastrointestinal wall that has been shown to be released by noxious stimulation, to be involved in nociception, to inhibit gastrointestinal motility, and to partly mediate postoperative gastric ileus. We hypothesized that abdominal ...
Mercer J G - - 1998
Food deprivation in the laboratory rat decreases plasma leptin and insulin, elevates glucocorticoid concentration, and increases the activity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) system and feeding drive. In contrast, Syrian hamsters fail to modify feeding behaviour in response to various food scarcity paradigms. Two components of the neuroendocrine-hormonal response to ...
Jahng J W - - 1998
The anorexia (anx) mutation causes reduced food intake in preweanling mice, resulting in death from starvation within 3-4 weeks. In wild-type rodents, starvation induces increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels in the arcuate nucleus that promotes compensatory hyperphagia. Despite severely decreased body weight and food intake at 3-weeks age, anx/anx ...
Dryden S - - 1998
To evaluate the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a potent appetite stimulant, in controlling food intake and body weight, we investigated the use of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) to inhibit NPY gene expression in the hypothalamus. We compared the hypothalamic distribution of fluorescein-labelled ODNs administered intracerebroventricularly, and effects on food intake ...
Marín Bivens C L - - 1998
Although hypothalamic injections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) induce robust feeding, there is little information about the patterns of feeding elicited by this peptide. To reveal these patterns, NPY (0, 8, 24, 78, 235 pmol/10 nl) was injected into the perifornical hypothalamus (PFH) of satiated adult male rats and their subsequent ...
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