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Wren A M - - 2001
Ghrelin, a circulating growth hormone-releasing peptide derived from the stomach, stimulates food intake. The lowest systemically effective orexigenic dose of ghrelin was investigated and the resulting plasma ghrelin concentration was compared with that during fasting. The lowest dose of ghrelin that produced a significant stimulation of feeding after intraperitoneal injection ...
Broberger C - - 2001
It has been recognized for some time that a number of different neuropeptides exert powerful effects on food intake. During the last few years, the neurocircuitry within which these peptides operate has also begun to be elucidated. Peptidergic feeding-regulatory neurones are found both in the hypothalamus and the brainstem, where ...
Kamegai J - - 2001
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), was originally purified from the rat stomach. Like the synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs), ghrelin specifically releases growth hormone (GH) after intravenous administration. Also consistent with the central actions of GHSs, ghrelin-immunoreactive cells were shown to be located in ...
Currie P J - - 2001
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) acts on the central nervous system to alter energy balance and influence both food intake and sympathetically-mediated thermogenesis. CRH is also reported to inhibit food intake in several models of hyperphagia including neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced eating. The recently identified CRH-related peptide, urocortin (UCN), also binds with ...
Morimoto T - - 2001
Food intake is regulated by many endogenous substances, such as peptides and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Based on the clinical observation that some antidepressants and antipsychotics with antihistaminic activity stimulate food intake and increase body weight, histamine has been thought to be an anorectic agent. Several lines of ...
Pawłowski J - - 2001
The study was conducted: (i) to evaluate the effects of three substituted benzamides on feeding behaviour in rats with free access to food and in those with access to food limited either to the light or to the dark phase of the diurnal cycle; and (ii) to determine whether the ...
Morley J E - - 2001
There is a physiological decline in food intake with aging. The reasons for the decline in food intake are multifactorial and involve both peripheral and central mechanisms. Altered hedonic qualities of food occur due to alterations in taste and, more particularly, smell with aging. A decline in adaptive relaxation of ...
Volkoff H - - 2001
The neuropeptides orexin A (OXA), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL) have been shown to play a role in the regulation of food intake in mammals. They also significantly stimulate feeding in goldfish. In order to assess the interactions between these peptides in the control of feeding in goldfish, we ...
Sunter D - - 2001
The orexins are neuropeptides originally reported to be involved in the stimulation of food intake. However, analysis of orexin immunoreactive fibres have revealed the densest innervation in brain sites involved in arousal and sleep-wake control, notably the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, an area that also expresses orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) messenger ...
El Ouezzani S - - 2001
Using in situ hybridization, the mRNA levels encoding neuropeptide Y (NPY) was investigated in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of jerboas under three different states of energy balance. (1) normally feeding animals, (2) hibernating animals and finally (3) animals food deprived for 5 days. The hibernating and food deprived jerboas exhibited ...
Narnaware Y K - - 2001
In mammals, NPY is a key factor in the regulation of feeding behavior. In the present study, the effects of refeeding for 1-3 h in 72-75-h food deprived (FD) goldfish on the levels of NPY mRNA in telencephalon-preoptic (TEL-POA), hypothalamus (HYP) and optic tectum-thalamus (OT-THAL) were examined, using Northern blot ...
Sartin J L - - 2001
Orexin is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates feeding behavior in rats. Orexin-B has recently been cloned in pigs and was shown to stimulate food intake after intramuscular injection. This study was designed to determine whether intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intravenous injections of orexin could regulate appetite in sheep. Suffolk wethers were ...
Shen P - - 2001
The conserved neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling pathway has been strongly implicated in the stimulation of food uptake in vertebrates as well as in the regulation of food conditioned foraging behaviors of Caenorhabditis elegans. Using in situ RNA hybridization and immunocytochemistry, we report the neuronal network of Drosophila neuropeptide F (dNPF), ...
Strader A D - - 2001
Although neuropeptide-Y (NPY) has been widely reported to be a potent stimulator of feeding activity and regulator of energy homeostasis, most of the supportive evidence for such effects has been gathered in mammalian species. This study characterized the orexigenic potency of NPY in an avian species, the ring dove, and ...
Furuse M - - 2001
Growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) is known to stimulate feeding of rats. Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing acylated peptide, was recently isolated from rat stomach. It also stimulates the release of GH from the anterior pituitary through the GH secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and feeding in the rat. We have ...
Cai X J - - 2001
Orexins are hypothalamic peptides implicated in the regulation of ingestive and other behaviours. Here we investigated prepro-orexin expression and hypothalamic orexin-A and -B levels in lactating rats, which display marked hyperphagia, with or without food restriction for 2 days or treatment with bromocriptine, which inhibits milk production and thus reduces ...
Jensen J - - 2001
The current view of the control of food intake involves a central feeding system in the hypothalamus receiving input from peripheral systems. The presence of food in the gut stimulates the release of several regulatory peptides that control gut motility and secretion. Some of these peptides also act as feedback ...
Michel K E - - 2001
One of the most frequent motivations for seeking veterinary attention for a cat is when the owner recognises a loss of normal appetite in his pet. The medical term for a lack of appetite for food is 'anorexia', and it may be partial or complete. While anorexia is a common ...
Hagan M M - - 2001
Several lines of evidence substantiate the important role of the central nervous system melanocortin 3- and 4-receptor (MC3/4-R) system in the control of food intake and energy balance. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP), an endogenous antagonist of these receptors, produces a robust and unique pattern of increased food intake that lasts up ...
Burrin D G - - 2001
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a 33-amino acid peptide derived from the tissue-specific, post-translational processing of the proglucagon gene expressed in the intestinal enteroendocrine L-cell. The primary stimulus for GLP-2 secretion is nutrient intake, and involves direct luminal stimulation of the L-cell as well as indirect enteroendocrine and neural mechanisms. ...
de Jong-Brink M - - 2001
As in Lymnaea stagnalis NPY plays a key role in regulating energy flows but has no effect on food intake, two important questions arise: 1) How is the amount of food consumed related to energy storage? 2) Can we give a molecular explanation for this alteration in function of NPY ...
Rioux K P - - 2001
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a key factor in the neurochemical control of food intake, and obstructive cholestasis can be associated with disturbances in food intake. Our aim in this study was to determine whether obstructive cholestasis in the rat is associated with defective central responsiveness to NPY. Cholestasis was induced ...
Morris M J - - 2001
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent feeding stimulant acting at the level of the hypothalamus. Amylin, a peptide co-released with insulin from pancreatic beta cells, inhibits feeding following peripheral or central administration. However, the mechanism by which amylin exerts its anorectic effect is controversial. This study investigated the acute effect ...
Asakawa A - - 2001
BACKGROUND & AIMS: : Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was recently identified in the rat stomach. We examined the effects of the gastric peptide ghrelin on energy balance in association with leptin and vagal nerve activity. METHODS: : Food intake, oxygen consumption, gastric emptying, and hypothalamic ...
Sugiura T - - 2001
Rat brain, frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after decapitation, contains a substantial amount of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (0.34 nmol/g tissue), an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand. The level of 2-arachidonoylglycerol in the brain was rapidly augmented after decapitation, the peak being noted 30 s after decapitation (1.54 nmol/g tissue). Noticeably, there are two ...
Watts A G - - 2001
Drinking and eating are critically important motivated behaviors whose expression is usually tightly linked; under conditions of spontaneous intake, disruption of one usually disturbs the other. This characteristic is exemplified by dehydration-induced anorexia in which increasing plasma osmolality leads to a centrally generated reduction in food intake, which is then ...
Cutler D J - - 2001
The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), a key site involved in the central control of feeding and energy homeostasis, contains populations of neurons that produce the orexin peptides or nitric oxide, two chemical factors that increase food intake. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the possibility that rat LHA ...
Wirth M M - - 2001
alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) appears to play a tonic inhibitory role in feeding and energy storage. MTII, a specific synthetic MC3-R/MC4-R agonist, has similar effects on feeding in rats. The current studies demonstrate that PVN administration of alpha-MSH or MTII decreases nocturnal and NPY-stimulated food intake without causing aversive effects. Co-administration ...
Stephany R W - - 2001
The use of hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in farm animals can increase the production of veal and beef significantly up to 15%. However, in the different parts of the world the regulation regarding the use of such hormones differs sharply. In the European Union there exists a total ban ...
Fernstrom J D - - 2001
This article has attempted to point out some of the relationships between 5-HT and catecholamine (NE, DA) neurons in brain and the control of appetite and food intake. At least two bodies of evidence support this connection. The first is pharmacologic, and demonstrates that drugs that stimulate transmission across 5-HT ...
Della Zuana O O Metabolic Diseases, Institut de Recherches Servier, Suresnes, - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to test the continuing validity of the hypothesis that neuropeptide Y (NPY) produced in the brain controls food intake through an interaction with the NPY Y(5) receptor subtype. The hypothesis was tested using CGP 71683A a potent and highly selective non-peptide antagonist of the ...
Dun N J - - 2000
Orexin A and B, also known as hypocretin 1 and 2, are two recently isolated hypothalamic peptides. As orexin-containing neurons are strategically located in the lateral hypothalamus, which has long been suspected to play an important role in feeding behaviors, initial studies were focused on the involvement of orexins in ...
Jang M - - 2000
Leptin may rapidly inhibit food intake by altering the secretion of hypothalamic neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stimulator of food intake, and/or corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), an inhibitor of food intake. We measured concentrations of NPY and CRH in specific hypothalamic regions [i.e., arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ...
Ida T - - 2000
Orexin (hypocretin) is a peptide that has been found to stimulate food intake in rats. However, we have recently demonstrated that orexin stimulates the release of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRF) which has been known to decrease the food intake. Therefore, we examined the mechanism of effect of orexin on food ...
Nakazato M - - 2000
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a brain-gut peptide whose peripheral activities are well-understood but whose central actions have yet to be clarified. The recent identification of two NMU receptors in rat brain has provided a springboard for further investigation into its role in the central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular administration of NMU ...
de Pedro N - - 2000
The present study evaluated the effects of both intraperitoneal (i.p. ) and intracerebroventricular administration of selective Y(1) [(Leu(31), Pro(34))-NPY] and Y(2) [(Pro(13), Tyr(36))-NPY (13-36)] receptor agonists on food intake in satiated goldfish. Food intake (FI) was significantly increased by central administration of the Y(1) agonist (1 microg), but not by ...
Narnaware Y K - - 2000
In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent orexigenic factor. In the present study, third brain ventricle (intracerebroventricular) injection of goldfish NPY (gNPY) caused a dose-dependent increase in food intake in goldfish, and intracerebroventricular administration of NPY Y1-receptor antagonist BIBP-3226 decreased food intake; the actions of gNPY were blocked by ...
Bell M E - - 2000
The mediobasal hypothalamus regulates functions necessary for survival, including body energy balance and adaptation to stress. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the contribution of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) in controlling these two functions by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Circular, horizontal cuts (1.0 mm radius) were placed immediately ...
Wirth M M - - 2000
Agouti-related protein (Agrp) is an endogenous melanocortin-4 receptor antagonist implicated in the regulation of food intake. Effects of Agrp on feeding under varying conditions were investigated. Agrp (10 to 100 pmol) was injected into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of satiated (a.m. and p.m. injections) and food-deprived rats, or was co-administered ...
Gruber S H - - 2000
The main goal of this study was to investigate effects of typical (haloperidol) and atypical (risperidone) antipsychotic drugs on brain regional neuropeptide Y (NPY)-like immunoreactivity (-LI) tissue concentrations and on release of NPY-LI in freely moving rats. An additional aim was to explore the effect of d-amphetamine on NPY-LI release ...
Lin X - - 2000
In mammals, the orexigenic and anorexigenic neuronal systems are morphologically and functionally connected, forming an interconnected network in the hypothalamus to govern food intake and body weight. However, there are relatively few studies on the brain control of feeding behavior in fish. Recent studies using mammalian neuropeptides or fish homologs ...
Brown C M - - 2000
There is a high coexistence of substance abuse in humans with eating disorders. One theory offered to account for this fact is that a common biochemical substrate may exist that mediates both processes. Brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one neurochemical system that might contribute to these separate, yet related, problems. ...
Kauhanen J - - 2000
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in the hypothalamic regulation of food intake and energy balance. According to recent findings in animals, NPY also seems to be a potent regulator of alcohol consumption. We used the recently identified Leu(7) to Pro(7) polymorphism in the signal peptide part of NPY ...
Orlando S - - 2000
The type II IL-1 receptor (IL-1RII) is a non-signalling molecule which acts as a decoy target for IL-1. Various signals (e.g. chemoattractants and phorbol ester) induce metalloprotease-mediated rapid shedding of the IL-1RII. The present study was designed to compare the susceptibility to shedding of the decoy IL-1RII vs the signalling ...
Lawrence C B - - 2000
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a peptide ligand for the human orphan G-protein-coupled receptor hGR3/GPR10 and causes the secretion of prolactin from anterior pituitary cells. However, the lack of immunoreactive staining for PrRP in the external layer of the median eminence seems to rule out this peptide as a classical hypophysiotropic ...
Bannon A W - - 2000
An extensive behavioral characterization was conducted with mice lacking the gene for neuropeptide Y (NPY) including response to 24 and 48 h fast and challenge with small molecule antagonists of NPY receptors implicated in mediating the feeding effects of NPY (i.e., Y1 and Y5). In addition, wildtype (WT) and NPY ...
Li M D - - 2000
Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between cigarette smoking and body weight. In rodents, a negative correlation between nicotine and body weight has been reported, but this observation was largely derived from studies where relatively high doses of nicotine ( approximately 12 mg/kg/day) were used. In the current study, ...
Ammar A A - - 2000
Many studies have indicated that neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates and leptin inhibits food intake. In line with this, intracerebroventricular injection of NPY (10 microg) stimulated and leptin (10 microg) inhibited intake of a sucrose solution when female rats were required to obtain the solution from a bottle. However, NPY inhibited ...
Dube M G - - 2000
Hypothalamic neuropeptides play critical roles in the regulation of feeding behavior and body weight (BW). Disruption of signaling in the ventromedial nucleus by microinjection of the neurotoxin, colchicine (COL), produces transient hyperphagia with corresponding BW gain lasting for 4 days. Because the melanocortin system exerts an inhibitory control on food ...
Matsudaa K - - 2000
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide and a member of the secretin/glucagon superfamily of peptides that include vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. PACAP is not only present in the central nervous system but also in peripheral organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract, gonads and adrenal glands, and plays various roles ...
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