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Saper Clifford B CB Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2002
Feeding provides substrate for energy metabolism, which is vital to the survival of every living animal and therefore is subject to intense regulation by brain homeostatic and hedonic systems. Over the last decade, our understanding of the circuits and molecules involved in this process has changed dramatically, in large part ...
Della-Zuana O - - 2002
AIM: Although melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is believed to be an important regulator of feeding behavior, both its acute and chronic effects on food intake as well as its interaction with other brain peptides involved in the control of appetite remain unclear. Therefore, the acute effects of MCH on food intake ...
Asakawa Akihiro - - 2002
Neuropeptides in the hypothalamus play a pivotal role in the regulation of energy balance. Agouti-related protein (AGRP), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) have been identified in the hypothalamus as orexigenic peptides. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of AGRP, orexin and MCH on oxygen consumption. Oxygen consumption was ...
Da Silva Monica S - - 2002
Space travelers experience a flight duration-dependent loss in weight and body mass while in a microgravity environment, despite the absence of increased energy expenditure. Anorexia in space can lead to in-flight caloric deficits of 1330 kcal per 70 kg astronaut per day in the presence of abundant food and has ...
Saracíbar G - - 2002
Nefazodone is an antidepressant drug that inhibits serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of nefazodone on food intake, body weight, adiposity and hypothalamic NPY immunostaining in rats. For this purpose, male Sprague-Dawley rats (3-month-old) were administered with nefazodone (20 mg/kg; i.p) ...
Ivanov Tina R - - 2002
The brain-gut peptide neuromedin U (NMU) has been identified recently as a physiological regulator of food intake. To further investigate the central role of NMU in energy homeostasis, we examined the distribution of NMU transcript and the effect of intracerebroventricular administration on several physiological parameters and on the pattern of ...
Rodgers R J - - 2002
Initial research on the functional significance of two novel hypothalamic neuropeptides, orexin-A and orexin-B, suggested an important role in appetite regulation. Since then, however, these peptides have also been shown to influence a wide range of other physiological and behavioural processes. In this paper, we review the now quite extensive ...
Schwartz Gary J - - 2002
Leptin is an adiposity hormone that modulates the activity of multiple hypothalamic signaling pathways involved in the control of food intake. The present experiments were designed to evaluate whether central administration of leptin or one of its downstream mediators, neuropeptide Y (NPY), could affect food intake by modulating the brain ...
Kodama Tohru - - 2002
Although orexin was found to promote food intake, recent reports proposed its involvement in the regulation of vigilance. To study the mechanism of how orexin affects arousal, we analyzed glutamate (GLU) release from the locus coeruleus (LC) in rats after systemic injection of orexin-A. Baseline levels of orexin-A in the ...
Batterham Rachel L - - 2002
Food intake is regulated by the hypothalamus, including the melanocortin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems in the arcuate nucleus. The NPY Y2 receptor (Y2R), a putative inhibitory presynaptic receptor, is highly expressed on NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which is accessible to peripheral hormones. Peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), a Y2R ...
Katner Simon N - - 2002
Evidence seems to indicate that the anxiolytic effects of centrally administered neuropeptide Y (NPY) are mediated by the central nucleus of the amygdala. Because findings seem to indicate that ethanol may be self-administered partially for its anxiolytic effects, it was hypothesized that NPY, microinjected into the central nucleus of the ...
Dahlhoff Elizabeth P - - 2002
Rocky intertidal invertebrates live in heterogeneous habitats characterized by steep gradients in wave activity, tidal flux, temperature, food quality and food availability. These environmental factors impact metabolic activity via changes in energy input and stress-induced alteration of energetic demands. For keystone species, small environmentally induced shifts in metabolic activity may ...
Schneider J E - - 2002
In the 'postgenome era', most research on the neuroendocrine control of energy homeostasis has focused on hormonal and neuropeptide control of food intake (i.e. the amount of food eaten) in rats and mice. The amount of food consumed is influenced by both the motivation to procure food and the consummatory ...
Murakami N - - 2002
Ghrelin, a 28-amino-acid peptide, has recently been isolated from the rat stomach as an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor. We have reported previously that central or peripheral administration of ghrelin stimulates food intake, and the secretion of GH and gastric acid in rats. In the present study, we ...
Clegg Deborah J - - 2002
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-A are orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitters produced primarily in the lateral hypothalamus. Because two other hypothalamic peptides, neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide, increase food intake by a mechanism that depends on activation of opioid receptors, we assessed whether MCH or orexin-A also elicits food intake via opioid ...
Sahu Abhiram - - 2002
Amongst various neuropeptidergic systems, neuropeptide Y (NPY), hypocretin-1 and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) producing neurons have been shown to play an important role in the regulation of food intake and body weight. All of these neuropeptides are orexigenic signals and recent evidence suggests the existence of morphological connections between these neuronal ...
Nandi Jyotirmoy - - 2002
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Catabolism conjures up an end-metabolic process in which muscle and fat tissue are broken down into their constituent parts to provide nutrients for the body, secondary to a noxious stimulus that prevents the organism from adequately nourishing itself. However, catabolism is a primary event, initiated in the ...
Bellinger Larry L - - 2002
This review article discusses the well-established role of the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMN) in feeding, drinking and body weight (BW) regulation. DMN lesions (L) in both weanling and mature rats of both sexes produce hypophagia, hypodipsia and reduced ponderal and linear growth in the presence of normal body composition. The ...
Seeley Randy J - - 2002
The widespread use of molecular biological tools has led to a pronounced increase in the number of signals that are now implicated in the controls of food intake and body weight. However, a complete understanding of the roles of these multiple signals requires that we assess how they interact with ...
Gualillo Oreste - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid acylated peptide that was recently identified as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin potently increases growth hormone release and food intake. The aim of this study was to clarify the physiological implications of ghrelin in the ...
Daniels A J - - 2002
Numerous reports have implicated theY5 receptor as the 'feeding' receptor mediating the orexigenic action of neuropeptide Y (NPY). This notion is supported by the correlation between the in vitro functional and binding activities of different peptide agonists and their potent stimulation of food intake in rodents. We have discovered a ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2002
Discovery of the leptin receptor and its downstream peptidergic pathways has reconfirmed the crucial role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Strategically located in the midst of the mammalian neuraxis, the hypothalamus receives at least three distinct types of relevant information via direct or ...
Zheng Huiyuan - - 2002
Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is coexpressed with neuropeptide Y (NPY) in a population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus and stimulates food intake for up to 7 days if injected intracerebroventricularly. The prolonged food intake stimulation does not seem to depend on continued competition at the melanocortin-4 ...
Rhind S M - - 2002
Domestic ruminants are used to exploit many vegetation resources that would otherwise be unproductive. For maximal effectiveness, there is a need to understand underlying mechanisms controlling animal performance, including seasonal variations in appetite and food intake. Potentially useful experimental approaches, recent findings and aspects for future study are discussed. Seasonal ...
Toufexis D J - - 2002
Continuous infusion of neuropeptide Y (NPY) disrupts cyclicity and delays the onset of puberty in female rats indicating that NPY can suppress reproduction. Central application of NPY also reliably increases food intake in rats. States with heavy demands on energy resources where reproduction is also inhibited, such as lactation, are ...
Mustonen Anne-Mari - - 2002
Short photoperiod induces physiological changes connected to the wintering of the tundra vole, Microtus oeconomus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of continuous melatonin treatment on selected hormones and enzyme activities associated with energy metabolism in the species. Liver, kidney, and muscle glycogen concentrations and ...
Wang Lixin - - 2002
Ghrelin, a peptide isolated from the rat stomach, is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone-secretagogue receptor and also known to have orexigenic effect. We examined the influence of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ghrelin on food intake and brain neuronal activity in freely fed mice. Ghrelin (3, 10 or 30 ...
Hansen M J - - 2002
The hypothalamus is a critical centre for the control of appetite. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) exert opposing effects on feeding and substantial neuroanatomical evidence exists to suggest these hypothalamic peptides may interact to alter feeding behaviour. We have examined central interactions between these two peptide systems ...
Kwok Ernest H. - - 2002
Obesity is an epidemic that has plagued industrialized nations for decades. However, before effective treatments can be implemented, the pathways and transmitters involved in appetite and food-seeking behavior must first be resolved. Food-seeking behavior involves the integration of three separate systems: appetite, wakefulness and an increase in sympathetic activity. The ...
Taheri Shahrad - - 2002
Apelin is the recently identified endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor, APJ. Preproapelin and APJ mRNA are found in hypothalamic regions known to be important in the regulation of food and water intake, and pituitary hormone release. The effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of pyroglutamylated apelin-13 on food and water ...
Székely Miklós - - 2002
Intracerebroventricular injections of 10-20-microg orexin-A induce food intake in rats for about 30 min, or enhance fasting-induced hyperphagia. In thermoregulatory studies, an amount of 2 microg of the peptide causes hypometabolism and hypothermia in the same period. The thermoregulatory reaction can be demonstrated at moderately cool environments, mainly after slight ...
Cai Xue J - - 2002
Neurons expressing prepro-orexin, the precursor of orexin-A and -B, are found in the lateral hypothalamic area, a region classically implicated in driving feeding. Orexin-A induces feeding transiently when injected centrally, and food intake can be decreased when orexin action is disrupted by immunoneutralization of orexin-A, or by pharmacological blockade of ...
Russell S H - - 2002
Orexin A, synthesised in the posterolateral hypothalamus, has widespread distribution including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is rich in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) neurones. Nerve fibres in the PVN synapse on neurones that send polysynaptic projections to brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is important in thermogenesis. A number of observations suggests ...
Pralong François P - - 2002
The orexigenic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a central role in the hypothalamic control of food intake and energy balance. NPY also exerts an inhibition of the gonadotrope axis that could be important in the response to poor metabolic conditions. In contrast, leptin provides an anorexigenic signal to centrally control ...
Kuo Dong-Yih - - 2002
This study investigated whether co-administration of dopamine D1 and D2 agonists might additively inhibit the feeding effect and whether this effect was mediated by the action on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY). The D1 agonist SKF 38393 (SKF) and D2 agonists apomorphine (APO) or quinpirole (QNP) were administered, alone or in ...
Williamson P S - - 2002
Zinc deprivation results in decreased and cyclic food intake in rats. We determined the response of zinc-deprived rats to neuropeptide Y (NPY). In a preliminary experiment, rats were fed a low (-Zn; <1 mg/kg) or adequate zinc diet (+Zn; 100 mg/kg) for 4 days. NPY (5 or 10 microg) was ...
Woodside Barbara - - 2002
In lactating rats, food restriction potentiates the already high levels of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY). To investigate the role that high levels of NPY might play in the prolongation of lactational infertility that typically accompanies a food restricted lactation we investigated the effects of chronic central infusions of NPY in ...
Köves Katalin - - 2002
The presence of PACAP and VIP was demonstrated in all the four levels of the photoneuroendocrine system (PNES) with the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC), radioimmunoassay (RIA), anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques, and cell immunoblot assay (CIBA). Both peptides play a physiological role in the PNES. According to our results both ...
Lutterschmidt Deborah I - - 2002
Daily and seasonal variations in hormone levels influence the complex interactions between behavior and physiology. Ectothermic animals possess the unique ability behaviorally to adjust body temperature (T(b)) to control physiological rate processes. Thus, a hormone may indirectly influence a physiological rate by directly influencing the behaviors that adjust or control ...
Katner S N - - 2002
RATIONALE: Several studies have provided indirect evidence that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may play a role in the regulation of ethanol consumption. However, the direct effects of central NPY administration on ethanol drinking are unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of NPY on ethanol, sucrose, and food consumption as well ...
Lawrence Catherine B - - 2002
Ghrelin was recently identified as the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue (GHS) receptor. Like the synthetic GHSs [e.g. GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6)], ghrelin stimulates feeding and increases body weight in rats. The aim of this study was to identify brain regions that are activated by GHSs and determine whether the ...
Amanai K - - 2001
Secreted Hedgehog (Hh) proteins control many aspects of growth and patterning in animal development. The mechanism by which the Hh signal is sent and transduced is still not well understood. We describe a genetic screen aimed at identifying positive regulators in the hh pathway. We recovered multiple new alleles of ...
Wren A M - - 2001
Ghrelin is a recently identified endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It is synthesized predominantly in the stomach and found in the circulation of healthy humans. Ghrelin has been shown to promote increased food intake, weight gain and adiposity in rodents. The effect of ghrelin on appetite and ...
Morton G J - - 2001
Kennedy hypothesized nearly 50 y ago that negative feedback regulation of body fat stores involves hormones that circulate in proportion to adiposity and enter the brain, where they exert inhibitory effects on food intake and energy balance. Recent studies implicate leptin and insulin as 'adiposity signals' to the brain that ...
Wang J - - 2001
Orexin-A and -B are hypothalamic neuropeptides that have been implicated in stimulating food intake and maintaining arousal. Because food intake is closely related to the control of energy homeostasis, we examined the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of orexins on O2 consumption (VO2), an index of energy expenditure, body temperature, skin ...
Wren A M - - 2001
Ghrelin, a circulating growth hormone-releasing peptide derived from the stomach, stimulates food intake. The lowest systemically effective orexigenic dose of ghrelin was investigated and the resulting plasma ghrelin concentration was compared with that during fasting. The lowest dose of ghrelin that produced a significant stimulation of feeding after intraperitoneal injection ...
Broberger C - - 2001
It has been recognized for some time that a number of different neuropeptides exert powerful effects on food intake. During the last few years, the neurocircuitry within which these peptides operate has also begun to be elucidated. Peptidergic feeding-regulatory neurones are found both in the hypothalamus and the brainstem, where ...
Kamegai J - - 2001
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), was originally purified from the rat stomach. Like the synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs), ghrelin specifically releases growth hormone (GH) after intravenous administration. Also consistent with the central actions of GHSs, ghrelin-immunoreactive cells were shown to be located in ...
Currie P J - - 2001
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) acts on the central nervous system to alter energy balance and influence both food intake and sympathetically-mediated thermogenesis. CRH is also reported to inhibit food intake in several models of hyperphagia including neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced eating. The recently identified CRH-related peptide, urocortin (UCN), also binds with ...
Morimoto T - - 2001
Food intake is regulated by many endogenous substances, such as peptides and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Based on the clinical observation that some antidepressants and antipsychotics with antihistaminic activity stimulate food intake and increase body weight, histamine has been thought to be an anorectic agent. Several lines of ...
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