Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 855
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Wagner Christine G - - 2004
Knowledge of specific neurotransmitters as well as the pathways and mechanisms regulating appetite in ruminants that continually graze, such as sheep, is incomplete. Although fundamentally agouti-related protein (AGRP) has a similar function across species to increase food intake, the regulation of AGRP may vary across grazing and intermittent feeders. To ...
Petersson Susanna - - 2003
The megencephaly mouse, mceph/mceph, displays dramatically increased brain volume and hypertrophic brain cells. Despite overall enlargement, the mceph/mceph brain appears structurally normal, without oedema, hydrocephaly or leukodystrophy, and with only minor astrocytosis. Furthermore, it presents striking disturbances in expression of trophic and neuromodulating factors within the hippocampus and cortex. Using ...
Adami Gian Franco - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a hormone that increases food intake in rodents and in humans. After gastric bypass surgery, a marked decrease in circulating ghrelin levels has been observed, and it was suggested that this may contribute to the weight-reducing effect of gastric bypass. In this study, the changes in circulating ...
Hanada Takeshi - - 2003
Neuromedin U (NMU), a hypothalamic peptide, has been known to be involved in feeding behavior as a catabolic signaling molecule. However, little is known about the participation of NMU in the neuronal network. One NMU receptor, NMU2R, is abundantly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, where corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is ...
Gonzales Christine - - 2004
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a central role in the control of food intake, energy balance, and modulation of neuroendocrine functions. In particular, an increase in NPY expression participates in the inhibition of the reproductive activity under poor nutritional conditions. The present study was designed to evaluate further the involvement ...
Strader A D - - 2003
Ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) exhibit marked increases in food consumption and decreases in body weight when they are provisioning their young. This study examined changes in hypothalamic immunostaining for agouti-related peptide (AGRP), an endogenous melanocortin receptor antagonist and appetite stimulant, during the ring dove breeding cycle. Because prolactin is orexigenic ...
Monteleone P - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin and leptin are endogenous peripheral proteins involved in the regulation of eating behaviour. In particular, ghrelin stimulates hunger and promotes food ingestion, whereas leptin increases satiety and reduces food consumption. Therefore, alterations in the physiology of these peptides may play a role in the pathogenesis of eating disorders ...
Hu Zhiyuan - - 2003
Previous studies showed that i.p. administration of C75, a potent inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), blocked fasting-induced up-regulation of orexigenic neuropeptides and down-regulation of anorexigenic neuropeptides in the hypothalami of mice. As a result, food intake and body weight were drastically reduced. Here we provide evidence supporting the hypothesis ...
Lindblom Jonas - - 2003
Supratherapeutical doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) have dramatic effects on metabolism in humans, and also inhibit feeding and reduce the rate of body weight gain in rats. In order to test the hypothesis that the AAS metabolic syndrome is accompanied by alterations in the central melanocortin system, we evaluated ...
Williams Diana L - - 2003
Plasma ghrelin levels are responsive to short- and long-term nutrient fluctuation, rapidly decreasing with food consumption and increasing with food deprivation or weight loss. We hypothesized a vagal contribution to both responses. Nutrient-related ghrelin suppression may be mediated by gastrointestinal load-related vagal afferent activity, or depend upon vagal efferent input ...
Yasuda Tohru - - 2003
To clarify the functional roles of ghrelin in regulating energy balance, we investigated the effects of a central infusion of ghrelin on food intake and the activity of the sympathetic nerve innervating brown adipose tissue (BAT), the site regulating energy expenditure in rodents. A bolus infusion of ghrelin at a ...
Levens Nigel R - - 2003
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is present in the hypothalamus, where it is believed to play a key role in the control of food intake. Evidence for this assertion has come from studies demonstrating that acute administration of NPY into the hypothalamus or into the brain ventricles leads to increased food intake. ...
Cohen Mark A - - 2003
Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is released from the gut postprandially, in proportion to energy intake, and circulating levels of OXM are elevated in several conditions associated with anorexia. Central injection of OXM reduces food intake and weight gain in rodents, suggesting that OXM signals food ingestion to hypothalamic appetite-regulating circuits. We investigated ...
Cerdá-Reverter José Miguel - - 2003
Posttranscriptional processing of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) yields melanocortin peptides, which are involved in the regulation of energy balance in mammals. The sequence preservation of the main brain melanocortin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), suggests a conserved function throughout vertebrate evolution. We studied the involvement of the central melanocortin system in the control of ...
van Dijk Gertjan - - 2003
In this study the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) in the daily regulation of feeding, drinking, locomotor activity, and nestbox occupation was investigated. These behaviors were recorded during and after bilateral infusion of NPY into the PVN of rats during the early ...
Faulconbridge Lucy F - - 2003
The role of ghrelin in feeding control has been addressed from a largely hypothalamic perspective, with little attention directed at ingestive consequences of stimulation of the peptide's receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), in the caudal brainstem. Here, we demonstrate a hyperphagic response to stimulation of GHS-R in the ...
Lawrence Catherine B CB School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, United - - 2003
Like galanin, the 60-amino-acid peptide, galanin-like peptide (GALP), has orexigenic actions, demonstrated by an acute increase in feeding after central injection in rodents. However, in contrast to galanin, GALP causes a prolonged rise in core body temperature and a reduction in body weight over 24 h. In an attempt to ...
Hervieu Guillaume - - 2003
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic neuropeptide, which centrally regulates food intake and stress. MCH induces food intake in rodents and, more generally, acts as an anabolic signal in energy regulation. In addition, MCH seems to be activatory on the stress axis. Two receptors for MCH in humans have very ...
Kong Wing May - - 2003
We have recently shown that injection of the hypothalamic peptide cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) into discrete hypothalamic nuclei stimulates food intake. This stimulation was particularly marked in the arcuate nucleus. Here we show that twice daily intra-arcuate injection of 0.2 nmole CART peptide for 7 days was associated ...
Kela Johanna - - 2003
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a cyclic neuropeptide, predominantly expressed in hypothalamus, and recognized as a key regulator in feeding behaviour and energy balance. In this study, we examined the behavioural effects of intracerebroventricularly administered MCH on food intake, anxiety, exploratory behaviour and body core temperature in rats. MCH (0.15-10.0 microg, ...
Bi Sheng - - 2003
Although acute food deprivation and chronic food restriction both result in body weight loss, they produce different metabolic states. To evaluate how these two treatments affect hypothalamic peptide systems involved in energy homeostasis, we compared patterns of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), proopiomelanocotin (POMC), and leptin receptor gene ...
Anderson Greg M - - 2003
Thyroid hormones are permissive for various species to enter seasonal anestrus. In the ewe they act centrally to permit the onset of potent estradiol-negative feedback responsible for anestrus, but the specific sites of action are unknown. Therefore, we tested whether T(4) replacement via chronic microimplants in any of five brain ...
Levenson Cathy W - - 2003
The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in feeding behavior and zinc deficiency-induced anorexia has been controversial because hypothalamic NPY levels are elevated in both zinc deficiency and food restriction. A recent report shows that while NPY is released from terminals in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus of food-restricted animals, ...
Yamanaka Akihiro - - 2003
Mammals respond to reduced food availability by becoming more wakeful and active, yet the central pathways regulating arousal and instinctual motor programs (such as food seeking) according to homeostatic need are not well understood. We demonstrate that hypothalamic orexin neurons monitor indicators of energy balance and mediate adaptive augmentation of ...
Olszewski Pawel K - - 2003
The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN) appears to integrate orexigenic properties of a novel peptide, ghrelin. Thus, we examined central mechanisms underlying feeding generated by intra-PVN ghrelin. We established that 0.03 nmol of PVN-injected ghrelin was the lowest dose increasing food consumption and it induced c-Fos immunoreactivity (a marker of neuronal ...
Reizes Ofer - - 2003
Syndecan-3, expressed in the developing nervous system and adult brain, alters feeding behavior through its interaction with the CNS melanocortin system, which provides critical tonic inhibition of both food intake and body adipose stores. A variety of both in vitro and transgenic data supports the hypothesis that syndecan-3 modulates melanocortin ...
Gaskin F Spencer - - 2003
Ghrelin is a newly discovered gastric peptide, which has orexigenic effects. Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor and stimulates growth hormone and gastrointestinal motility. We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role as a mediator of feeding induced by a variety ...
Rinaman Linda - - 2003
The hypothalamus is critically involved in energy homeostasis and is an appropriate focus for research investigating the central neural underpinnings of obesity, anorexia and normal food intake. However, little is known regarding pathways and mechanisms that convey relevant hypothalamic signals to the brainstem circuits that ultimately control ingestive behavior. This ...
Cerdá-Reverter José Miguel - - 2003
We report cloning, pharmacological characterization, tissue distribution, detailed brain mapping, and role in control of food intake of melanocortin 4 receptor in goldfish (gMC4R). The gMC4R protein has 68% identity with the human ortholog and is conserved in important functional domains. Pharmacological profiling showed similar affinities and potency order to ...
Batterham Rachell L - - 2003
The gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) belongs to the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) family along with PP and neuropeptide Y (NPY). These peptides mediate their effects through the NPY receptors of which there are several subtypes (Y1, Y2, Y4, and Y5). The L cells of the gastrointestinal tract are the major ...
Volkoff Helene - - 2003
To assess the role of leptin on food intake regulation in goldfish, we examined the effects of central (intracerebroventricular, ICV) and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) injections of recombinant murine leptin on feeding behavior. Centrally (100 ng/g) and peripherally (300 ng/g) injected leptin both caused a significant decrease in food intake, compared ...
Binaschi Anna - - 2003
The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is implicated in many biological functions, including nociception, locomotor activity, stress and anxiety, drinking and food-intake. N/OFQ has also been reported to play a facilitatory role in acute kainate-induced seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate its involvement in a chronic model ...
Hallschmid M - - 2003
Previous studies have shown that the regulation of hunger and satiety is accompanied by coordinate changes in cortical excitability. Starved subjects show a transient negative shift in the scalp-recorded cortical direct current (DC-)potential in the beginning of eating, indicating increased cortical excitability. With increasing satiety, the DC negativity becomes soon ...
Ishizaki Kouji - - 2003
The two neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems innervating the hypothalamic paraventrivular nucleus were examined regarding their roles in the prefeeding corticosterone peak developed under restricted daily feeding (RF). Protein and mRNA levels of NPY were measured in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) in rats ...
Hill Jennifer W - - 2003
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a key role in both food intake and GnRH secretion. Food deprivation elevates hypothalamic NPY activity and suppresses LH and gonadal steroid secretion. Similarly, lactation up-regulates NPY expression as food consumption increases and estrous cycles cease. These observations suggest that NPY coordinates reproductive suppression in response ...
Nedvídková Jara - - 2003
Studies have shown that ghrelin plays a major role in energy homeostasis and modulation of feeding behavior. However, little is known about the influence of food consumption on plasma ghrelin levels in humans. Therefore, we investigated responses of plasma ghrelin to food intake, meal volume and meal nutritional value in ...
Bagnasco Michela - - 2003
Ghrelin, a circulating growth-hormone releasing peptide derived from stomach, stimulates food intake through neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus (ARC). We examined the effect of ghrelin microinjected into the ARC and the influence of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) pretreatment with a GHRH or NPY receptor antagonist on ...
Varma Amit - - 2003
We investigated the effect of repetitive postnatal (2-7 days) intracerebroventricular administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on food intake and body weight gain in the 3- to 120-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. NPY caused a 32% transient increase in body weight gain with elevated circulating insulin concentrations within 24 h. This early intervention ...
Reichelt K L - - 2003
Opioid peptides derived from food proteins (exorphins) have been found in urine of autistic patients. Based on the work of several groups, we try to show that exorphins and serotonin uptake stimulating factors may explain many of the signs and symptoms seen in autistic disorders. The individual symptoms ought to ...
Sheriff Sulaiman - - 2003
Following central administration, neuropeptides that decrease the level of cAMP induce feeding. Conversely, cAMP activating neuropeptides tend to elicit satiety. When the inhibitory effect of neuropeptide Y (NPY) on the hypothalamic cAMP production was blocked by pertussis toxin, the potent orexigenic effect of NPY was lost. These findings suggest that ...
Seth Asha - - 2003
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a novel hypothalamic peptide synthesised in neurons in the arcuate nucleus which project to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). GALP has recently been identified as an orexigenic peptide. In this study we aimed to further characterise the hypothalamic action of this peptide in energy homeostasis. Firstly, we ...
Bailer Ursula F - - 2003
Neuropeptides play an important role in the regulation of feeding behavior and obesity. The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve a complicated interplay between peripheral systems (including gustatory stimulation, gastrointestinal peptide secretion, and vagal afferent nerve responses) and central nervous system (CNS) neuropeptides and/or monoamines. These neuronal systems include neuropeptides ...
Clegg Deborah J - - 2003
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) has a critical role in the control of feeding and drinking. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitter produced primarily in the LH, and agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptidergic neurotransmitter produced exclusively in the arcuate (ARC), an area that innervates the LH. We ...
Pedrazzini T - - 2003
The peptidic neuropeptide Y (NPY) has received great attention because it has been implicated in the regulation of several organ systems. In particular, NPY is involved in the regulatory loops that control food intake in the hypothalamus and appears also to be important for regulating the activity of neuroendocrine axes ...
Monda M - - 2003
This experiment tested the effect of the sympathetic and thermogenic activation induced by orexin A on eating behavior. The food intake, firing rate (FR) of the sympathetic nerves to interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), IBAT and abdominal temperatures (T(IBAT) and T(ab)), and heart rate (HR) were monitored in 24 h-fasting ...
Ide Yasuhito - - 2003
We isolated a mouse cDNA encoding APEX2 protein and demonstrated that APEX2 binds to PCNA. The level of Apex2 mRNA was high in the thymus, bone marrow, spleen, and kidney in adult mice. Apex2 consists of six exons and is flanked on the 3' end by Alas2 on X chromosome ...
Crowley William R - - 2003
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) systems are upregulated during lactation in rats. Because NPY is central to the hypothalamic control of energy balance, the present studies tested the hypothesis that NPY contributes to the marked hyperphagia during lactation. A 4-day infusion of [D-tyr (27,36), D-thr (32)] NPY (27-36) (D-NPY(27-36)), a peptide ...
Zheng Huiyuan - - 2002
CART-peptide (CARTp) has been shown to suppress food intake, particularly when injected into the 4th ventricle of rats, and the presence of CART in nodose ganglia suggested a role in satiation. Based on retrograde tracing from the DVC combined with CART immunohistochemistry and supranodose vagotomy, we found that CART immunoreactivity ...
Hillebrand J J G - - 2002
Energy homeostasis is controlled by a complex neuroendocrine system consisting of peripheral signals like leptin and central signals, in particular, neuropeptides. Several neuropeptides with anorexigenic (POMC, CART, and CRH) as well as orexigenic (NPY, AgRP, and MCH) actions are involved in this complex (partly redundant) controlling system. Starvation as well ...
Hosoda Hiroshi - - 2002
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is synthesized principally in the stomach and is released in response to acute and chronic changes in nutritional state. In addition to having a powerful effect on the secretion of growth hormone, ghrelin stimulates food intake and transduces signals to ...
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