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Xu Yan-Ling - - 2004
The use of orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as targets to identify new transmitters has led over the last decade to the discovery of 12 novel neuropeptide families. Each one of these new neuropeptides has opened its own field of research, has brought new insights in distinct pathophysiological conditions and ...
Denis R G P - - 2004
Rats normally eat about 85% of their food at night. Lactation increases food intake 3- to 4-fold, but the diurnal pattern of food intake persists. The mechanisms responsible for the diurnal and lactation-induced changes in food intake are still unresolved, hence we have further investigated the possible roles of serum ...
Moran Timothy H - - 2005
Peptide YY3-36 [PYY(3-36)], a gastrointestinal peptide that is released into the circulation in response to ingesting a meal, has recently been suggested to play a role in controlling food intake. PYY(3-36) has been reported to inhibit food intake following peripheral administration in rodents and in human subjects. To more fully ...
Lee Kyu-Sun - - 2004
Neuropeptides regulate a wide range of animal behavior including food consumption, circadian rhythms, and anxiety. Recently, Drosophila neuropeptide F, which is the homolog of the vertebrate neuropeptide Y, was cloned, and the function of Drosophila neuropeptide F in feeding behaviors was well characterized. However, the function of the structurally related ...
Archer Z A - - 2004
Sheep exhibit photoperiod-driven seasonal changes in appetite and body weight so that nutritional status increases in long days (LD) and decreases in short days (SD); additionally, they are reproductively active in SD and inactive in LD. We addressed the hypothesis that appetite-regulatory genes in the hypothalamus respond differently to changes ...
Nieminen Petteri - - 2004
Ghrelin is a novel orexigenic peptide hormone. In humans and rodents, it increases food intake and its levels are reduced in obesity but increased in fasting. It is an antagonistic signal to leptin informing the central nervous system about negative energy balance. The tundra vole (Microtus oeconomus) is an interesting ...
Karl Tim - - 2004
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is pivotal in the coordinated regulation of food intake, growth, and reproduction, ensuring that procreation and growth occur only when food is abundant and allowing for energy conservation when food is scant. Although emotional and behavioral responses from the higher brain are known to be involved in ...
Kong Wing May - - 2004
Increased food intake is characteristic of hyperthyroidism, although this is presumed to compensate for a state of negative energy balance. However, here we show that the thyroid hormone T(3) directly stimulates feeding at the level of the hypothalamus. Peripheral administration of T(3) doubled food intake in ad libitum-fed rats over ...
Ge Hongfei - - 2004
Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (Angptl4) is the second member of the angiopoietin-like family of proteins previously shown to increase plasma triglyceride (TG) levels in vivo. We recently reported that Angptl4 is a variable-sized oligomer formed by intermolecular disulfide bonds and undergoes regulated proteolytic processing upon secretion. We now show that adenoviral ...
Adams Sean H - - 2004
The gut-derived hormones peptide YY[3-36] (PYY[3-36]) and ghrelin are believed to influence similar hypothalamic circuits, albeit with opposing actions on energy balance. Thus, we carried out a series of studies to evaluate the interaction of these hormones on short-term food intake responses in mice. Intraperitoneal PYY[3-36] injection reduced short-term food ...
Ma Yuzhong - - 2004
Kava kava (Piper methysticum), an herbal remedy, is widely used for the treatment of mild to moderate cases of anxiety. The therapeutic activity is presumably achieved through multiple constituents called kavalactones. Recently, kava extracts were shown to induce CYP3A4 and activate human pregnane X receptor (PXR). This study was undertaken ...
Fekete Csaba - - 2004
Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is thought to be one of the neuropeptides mediating the effects of leptin on appetite and satiety. The central administration of AGRP not only stimulates food intake, but also inhibits the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) axis, closely replicating the central hypothyroid state induced by fasting. AGRP binds as ...
Gerstein Dana E - - 2004
It seems that many people, including dietetics professionals and other nutrition experts, are unclear about some of the fundamental yet complex concepts behind the influence of dietary macronutrients (ie, protein, carbohydrate, and fat) on appetite regulation. Recent research has begun to unravel some of the more complicated physiological processes of ...
Sugino T - - 2004
Ghrelin, a novel acylated peptide, is the endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor. Ghrelin is produced mainly in the oxyntic glands of the stomach, but also produced in the intestines, kidneys, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Circulating ghrelin levels have been shown to rise before a meal and fall ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2004
In a restrictive food environment, the homeostatic control system regulates body weight and adiposity with remarkable precision. However, this regulation appears to break down in many genetically predisposed individuals under conditions prevailing in the modern era characterized by a sedentary lifestyle and easy availability of large portions of palatable and ...
Tang-Christensen Mads - - 2004
Ghrelin was recently identified as an endogenous ligand of the GH secretagogue receptor. The novel peptide hormone is produced by gastric A-like cells, and circulating levels rise before feeding, suggestive of ghrelin as an endogenous hunger factor. ghrelin stimulates food intake and promotes adiposity after peripheral or central administration, likely ...
Aguilar Ruth - - 2004
The feeding pattern of the adult female of Blattella germanica peaks in the middle of the vitellogenic cycle. Following the hypothesis that a factor inhibiting gut peristalsis also inhibits food intake and is involved in the regulation of feeding, we searched for the most powerful myoinhibitory peptide in brain extracts ...
Kim Min-Seon - - 2004
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a fuel sensor in the cell and is activated when cellular energy is depleted. Here we report that alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), a cofactor of mitochondrial enzymes, decreases hypothalamic AMPK activity and causes profound weight loss in rodents by reducing food intake and enhancing energy ...
Shrestha Yogendra B - - 2004
Ghrelin is a 28 amino-acid peptide that has been shown to induce positive energy balance when administered both peripherally and centrally. This effect appears to occur by increasing food intake and by reducing fat utilization. Ghrelin injected into the PVN increases food intake dose-dependently. The NPY receptor has been implicated ...
Pirone Andrea - - 2004
The localization of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive elements was investigated in the mesencephalon and rhombencephalon of carp, Cyprinus carpio, by using antisera raised against porcine NPY and the immunoperoxidase technique. Concurrently, to identify the distribution of NPY-immunoreactivity, we developed an atlas of the studied areas based on Nissl-stained sections. The NPY-immunoreactive ...
Wortley Katherine E - - 2004
Ghrelin is a recently identified growth hormone (GH) secretogogue whose administration not only induces GH release but also stimulates food intake, increases adiposity, and reduces fat utilization in mice. The effect on food intake appears to be independent of GH release and instead due to direct activation of orexigenic neurons ...
Jones Juli E - - 2004
Of the various environmental factors influencing reproduction, food availability plays a particularly significant role, and an insufficient supply of oxidizable metabolic fuels inhibits reproduction in female mammals. When ovariectomized, steroid-primed hamsters are food deprived for 48 h, estrous behavior is suppressed. However, the specific neuroendocrine alterations that mediate the suppression ...
Lucidi P - - 2004
ABSTRACT. Several data show that meal intake and nutritional status regulate circulating ghrelin concentrations in humans. Ghrelin mainly circulates in two different forms: octanoyl and des-octanoyl ghrelin. Most circulating ghrelin is des-octanoyl ghrelin which is considered inactive because it lacks endocrine activity. However, recent evidence suggests that des-octanoyl ghrelin exerts ...
Marchesini Giulio - - 2004
Ghrelin is related to feeding behavior and nutrition in several physiological and pathological conditions. We tested the hypothesis that the anorexia and the decreased food intake of advanced liver failure might be associated with hyperghrelinemia. Fasting ghrelin was measured in 43 cirrhotic patients, food intake was self-assessed using the Corli ...
Halford Jason C G - - 2004
The discovery of the adiposity signal leptin a decade ago revolutionised our understanding of the hypothalamic mechanisms underpinning the central control of ingestive behaviour. Subsequently, the structure and function of various hypothalamic peptide systems (Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Orexins, Melanocortins, Cocaine and Amphetamine Regulating Transcript (CART), Galanin/Galanin Like Peptides (GALP) and ...
Minokoshi Yasuhiko - - 2004
Obesity is an epidemic in Western society, and causes rapidly accelerating rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), functions as a 'fuel gauge' to monitor cellular energy status. We investigated the potential role of AMPK in the hypothalamus in the ...
Schusdziarra Volker - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Central feeding regulation involves both anorectic and orexigenic pathways. This study examined whether targeting both systems could enhance feeding inhibition induced by anorectic neuropeptides. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Experiments were carried out in 24-hour fasted rats. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections were accomplished through stereotaxically implanted cannulae aimed at the lateral ...
Janssen J A M J L - - 2004
Catabolism is a metabolic process in which muscle and fat cell tissues are broken down in their constituent parts to provide nutrients and energy for the body. Whilst undoubtedly a potent stimulator of GH secretion in pharmacological doses, at present no clear physiological role for ghrelin in the regulation of ...
Wu James T - - 2004
Ghrelin is a novel gastric hormone recognized in 1999 as a mediator of growth hormone release. Since growth hormone is anabolic, an important function of ghrelin may be to coordinate energy needs with the growth process. Newly discovered biologic roles of ghrelin imply that it may have other important physiological ...
Drazen Deborah L - - 2004
Removal of glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy (ADX) reduces food intake and body weight in rodents and prevents excessive weight gain in many genetic and dietary models of obesity. Glucocorticoids play a key role to promote positive energy balance in normal and pathological conditions, at least in part, by altering the sensitivity ...
Kim Eun-Kyoung - - 2004
Energy homeostasis and feeding are regulated by the central nervous system. C75, a fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor, causes weight loss and anorexia, implying a novel central nervous system pathway(s) for sensing energy balance. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a sensor of peripheral energy balance, is phosphorylated and activated when energy ...
Halatchev Ilia G - - 2004
Peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), a peptide released postprandially by the gut, has been demonstrated to inhibit food intake. Little is known about the mechanism by which PYY(3-36) inhibits food intake, although the peptide has been shown to increase hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in vivo and to activate POMC neurons in an ...
Dakin Catherine L - - 2004
Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a circulating gut hormone released post prandially from cells of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Given intracerebroventricularly to rats, it inhibits food intake and promotes weight loss. Here we report that peripheral (ip) administration of OXM dose-dependently inhibited both fast-induced and dark-phase food intake without delaying gastric emptying. Peripheral ...
Kalra Satya P - - 2004
Although a dynamic link between the two innate drives, appetite for food and the urge to reproduce, in vertebrate evolution has been known for a long time, a distinct neurochemical pathway mediating this integration has only recently been appreciated. Study of the precise anatomy of the neural track began in ...
Crespi E J - - 2004
In mammals, hypothalamic control of food intake involves counterregulation of appetite by an orexigenic peptides such as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and orexigenic peptides such as neuropeptide Y (NPY). Glucocorticoids also stimulate food intake by inhibiting CRF while facilitating NPY actions. To gain a better understanding of the diversity and evolution ...
Tachibana Tetsuya - - 2004
Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is one of the inhibitory factors in feeding regulation of mammals. However, no information is available for avian species. The present study was done to clarify the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of PrRP on feeding in chicks. Firstly, we found that ICV injection of PrRP (94-1500 ...
Andersson Ulrika U Medical Research Council Clinical Sciences Centre, Cellular Stress Group and Endocrine Unit, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 ONN, United - - 2004
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a protein kinase cascade that acts as an intracellular energy sensor maintaining the energy balance within the cell. The finding that leptin and adiponectin activate AMPK to alter metabolic pathways in muscle and liver provides direct evidence for this role in ...
Carlini Valeria P - - 2004
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone produced and secreted from the stomach. Hypothalamic injection of the peptide increases food intake but it is not known if the peptide affects other brain regions. We measured several behavioral parameters such as anxiety (elevated plus maze), memory retention (step down test), and food intake ...
Seeley Randy J - - 2004
Animals have developed highly adaptive and redundant mechanisms to maintain energy balance by matching caloric intake to caloric expenditure. Recent evidence has pointed to a variety of peripheral signals that inform specific central nervous system (CNS) circuits about the status of peripheral energy stores as critical to the maintenance of ...
Rosse Richard B - - 2004
The authors speculate that the human primate evolved psychosis generating brain mechanisms in the service of certain feeding behaviors (i.e., appetite, foraging) during the course of evolution. Furthermore, these "psychosis generating brain mechanisms" may have grown directly out of brain mechanisms servicing appetite, of which neuropeptide Y (NPY) played an ...
Hu Ke-Jin - - 2004
We have cloned the cDNA and genomic DNA of an active intronless cathepsin L from Metapenaeus ensis. The encoded enzyme has the shortest prosequence among cathepsin L subgroup. It was predominantly expressed in hepatopancreas with an expression level of at least 10 times higher than in any other tissues. It ...
Kim Ee-Hwa - - 2004
Ma huang, the dried plant stem of ephedra intermedia Schrenk et C.A., contains an ephedrine-type alkaloid and has been used for weight loss. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a 36-amino acid peptide, is concentrated in the hypothalamus and stimulates feeding desire. In this study, the effect of ma huang on the expressions ...
Agnati L F - - 2004
The present paper enlightens a new point of view on brain homeostasis and communication, namely how the brain takes advantage of different chemical-physical phenomena such as pressure waves, and temperature and concentration gradients to allow the homeostasis of the brain internal milieu as well as some forms of intercellular communications ...
Ukkola O - - 2004
Appetite is controlled by a complicated system with hunger and satiety signals interacting in complex pathways both peripherally and centrally. Insulin, leptin and ghrelin are key hormonal regulators of food intake. Ghrelin enhances appetite while leptin is a satiety signal. A novel peripheral regulator of food intake, peptide YY(3-36), is ...
Wagner Christine G - - 2004
Knowledge of specific neurotransmitters as well as the pathways and mechanisms regulating appetite in ruminants that continually graze, such as sheep, is incomplete. Although fundamentally agouti-related protein (AGRP) has a similar function across species to increase food intake, the regulation of AGRP may vary across grazing and intermittent feeders. To ...
Petersson Susanna - - 2003
The megencephaly mouse, mceph/mceph, displays dramatically increased brain volume and hypertrophic brain cells. Despite overall enlargement, the mceph/mceph brain appears structurally normal, without oedema, hydrocephaly or leukodystrophy, and with only minor astrocytosis. Furthermore, it presents striking disturbances in expression of trophic and neuromodulating factors within the hippocampus and cortex. Using ...
Adami Gian Franco - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a hormone that increases food intake in rodents and in humans. After gastric bypass surgery, a marked decrease in circulating ghrelin levels has been observed, and it was suggested that this may contribute to the weight-reducing effect of gastric bypass. In this study, the changes in circulating ...
Hanada Takeshi - - 2003
Neuromedin U (NMU), a hypothalamic peptide, has been known to be involved in feeding behavior as a catabolic signaling molecule. However, little is known about the participation of NMU in the neuronal network. One NMU receptor, NMU2R, is abundantly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, where corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is ...
Gonzales Christine - - 2004
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a central role in the control of food intake, energy balance, and modulation of neuroendocrine functions. In particular, an increase in NPY expression participates in the inhibition of the reproductive activity under poor nutritional conditions. The present study was designed to evaluate further the involvement ...
Strader A D - - 2003
Ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) exhibit marked increases in food consumption and decreases in body weight when they are provisioning their young. This study examined changes in hypothalamic immunostaining for agouti-related peptide (AGRP), an endogenous melanocortin receptor antagonist and appetite stimulant, during the ring dove breeding cycle. Because prolactin is orexigenic ...
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