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Results 451 - 500 of 788
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Leverentz Britta - - 2003
The fresh-cut produce industry has been the fastest-growing portion of the food retail market during the past 10 years, providing consumers with convenient and nutritious food. However, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables raise food safety concerns, because exposed tissue may be colonized more easily by pathogenic bacteria than intact produce. This ...
Martinez Iciar - - 2003
RAPD analysis with four primers was used to examine the genetic relationship among 432 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from clinical and veterinarian cases of listeriosis, dairy, vegetable, meat- and fish-based food items, environmental samples and samples collected from one transport terminal, one poultry-processing company and four Atlantic salmon-processing plants. ...
Rider Todd H - - 2003
We report the use of genetically engineered cells in a pathogen identification sensor. This sensor uses B lymphocytes that have been engineered to emit light within seconds of exposure to specific bacteria and viruses. We demonstrated rapid screening of relevant samples and identification of a variety of pathogens at very ...
Kim Byunghoon - - 2003
Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) photocatalysts have attracted great attention as a material for photocatalytic sterilization in the food and environmental industry. This research aimed to design a new photobioreactor and its application to sterilize selected food borne pathogenic bacteria, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Listeria monocytogenes. The photocatalytic reaction was ...
Imamura Shigeyoshi - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The routes of human infection with Helicobacter pylori remain unclear. In the present study, we examined cockroaches as possible vectors for transmission of H. pylori. METHODS: We used a common species of cockroach (Periplaneta fuliginosa). After a 3-day fast, cockroaches were placed on agar plates containing freshly grown H. ...
Sacchetti R - - 2003
A study was carried out to compare two selective plating media commonly used to detect Listeria monocytogenes in food samples (Palcam and Oxford agar) with two more recently formulated chromogenic media (ALOA and Rapid'L.mono). A comparison was also made between the identification systems API-Listeria and Monocytogenes ID Discs. The results ...
DePaola Angelo - - 2003
Potential virulence attributes, serotypes, and ribotypes were determined for 178 pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical, environmental, and food sources on the Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts of the United States and from clinical sources in Asia. The food and environmental isolates were generally from oysters, and they were defined ...
Hernández Marta - - 2003
In this paper, a method for the specific detection and quantification of potato and tomato DNA in food samples with the use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described. This method is adequate for use in food quality routine assays involving highly processed samples for which very ...
O'Sullivan Lisa - - 2003
Transconjugant lactococcal starters which produce both lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and lacticin 481 were generated via conjugation of large bacteriocin-encoding plasmids. A representative of one of the resultant strains proved more effective at killing Lactobacillus fermentum and inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes LO28H than either of the single bacteriocin-producing parental ...
Malorny Burkhard - - 2003
In vitro amplification of nucleic acids using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become, since its discovery in the 1980s, a powerful diagnostic tool for the analysis of microbial infections as well as for the analysis of microorganisms in food samples. However, despite its potential, PCR has neither gained wide ...
Roberts A J - - 2003
Listeriosis is a severe human and animal disease caused by two species of pathogenic bacteria from the genus Listeria, L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii. In humans, listeriosis is overwhelmingly a foodborne disease, yet much remains to be learned regarding the transmission dynamics of pathogenic Listeria from the environment, through food, ...
Zhao B - - 2003
This paper introduces the principle and design of an ultrasonic transducer system with auto-alignment mechanism. The proposed system is used for detecting foreign bodies (FBs) in beverage containers. Variation in reflection amplitude is analyzed as a function of the ultrasound beam incident angle to beverage container surface. It is concluded ...
Cook Nigel - - 2003
The isothermal amplification method nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), which amplifies RNA, has been reported as useful for the detection of microbial pathogens in food and environmental samples. Methods have been published for Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis in various foods and for Cryptosporidium parvum in ...
Chen Yuhuan - - 2003
Because of the public health significance of L. monocytogenes, U.S. regulatory agencies established a policy whereby ready-to-eat foods contaminated with the organism at a detectable level are deemed adulterated. This "zero tolerance" policy, however, makes no distinction between foods contaminated at high and low levels. We have reported elsewhere that ...
Rocourt J - - 2003
Quantitative microbiological risk assessment is a very new and unique scientific approach able to link, for the first time, data from food (in the farm-to-fork continuum) and the various data on human disease to provide a clear estimation of the impact of contaminated food on human public health. The Food ...
Hof H - - 2003
Listeriae are used as a tool by different specialities in biomedical research. There are now at least four major fields of interest in Listeria: (1). the role in medical microbiology: Listeria monocytogenes causes severe diseases of men and animals and is difficult to treat; (2). the role in food microbiology: ...
Beumer Rijkelt R - - 2003
The first isolation methods for the detection of Listeria spp. were generally based on the direct culture of samples on simple agar media, but isolation of the pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes was difficult. In time, new techniques were developed, based on a variety of selective and elective agents in isolation and ...
Gombas David E - - 2003
The purpose of this study was to develop data on the risk of listeriosis to support a science-based strategy for addressing Listeria monocytogenes in foods in the United States. Eight categories of ready-to-eat foods were collected over 14 to 23 months from retail markets at Maryland and northern California FoodNet ...
Fredriksson-Ahomaa Maria - - 2003
While Yersinia enterocolitica is an important pathogen, which can cause yersiniosis in humans and animals, its epidemiology remains obscure. The pig is the major reservoir of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica of bioserotype 4/O:3, the most common type found in humans. Y. enterocolitica is thought to be a significant food-borne pathogen, although ...
Silva Isabella M M - - 2003
Critical control points (CCPs) associated with Minas Frescal cheese (a Brazilian soft white cheese, eaten fresh) processing in two dairy factories were determined using flow diagrams and microbiological tests for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other species of Listeria. A total of 218 samples were collected along the production line ...
Sails Andrew D - - 2003
A real-time PCR assay was developed for the quantitative detection of Campylobacter jejuni in foods after enrichment culture. The specificity of the assay for C. jejuni was demonstrated with a diverse range of Campylobacter species, related organisms, and unrelated genera. The assay had a linear range of quantification over six ...
Nesbakken Truls - - 2003
The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. in the lymphoid tissues and intestinal tract in pigs and the risk for contamination during the compulsory meat inspection procedures and the procedures during slaughtering and dressing. Another objective of the investigation was ...
Szabo E A - - 2003
The important new concept of the food safety objective (FSO) offers a strategy to translate public health risk into a definable goal such as a specified maximum frequency or concentration of a hazardous agent in a food at the time of consumption that is deemed to provide an appropriate level ...
Bielecki Jacek - - 2003
Many different foodborne diseases have been described. For example, Shigella bacteria, hepatitis A virus and Norwalk virus were shown as a unwashed hands microorganisms, but pathogen Campylobacter and Escherichia coli were named as raw and undercooked meat and poultry or raw milk and untreated water born bacteria. However, two of ...
Manzano M - - 2003
AIMS: The aim of this work was to develop specific primers which are able to detect Bacillus cereus in a coffee concentrate sample. METHODS AND RESULTS: A pre-PCR step to clean the DNA, used for PCR, was developed to avoid PCR inhibition by Maillard products. The combination of centrifugation and ...
Cacciò Simone M - - 2003
The environmental route of transmission is important for many protozoan and helminth parasites, with water, soil and food being particularly significant. Both the potential for producing large numbers of transmissive stages and their environmental robustness pose persistent threats to public and veterinary health. The introduction of molecular techniques, in particular ...
Aznar R - - 2003
AIMS: To test, under comparable conditions, several parameters affecting sensitivity of PCR detection in order to establish a PCR procedure suitable for the routine detection of Listeria monocytogenes in food. METHODS AND RESULTS: Beef samples artificially inoculated were used to determine sensitivity of PCR detection under different parameters. As few ...
Richard C - - 2003
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of divercin V41 in inhibition and prevention of Listeria monocytogenes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carnobacterium divergens V41 deficient in bacteriocin production was isolated and characterized by enzyme-liked immunosorbent assay, multiplex polymerase chain reaction and bacteriocin diffusion test. Carnobacterium divergens V41 ...
Kourenti Christina - - 2003
Two methods, centrifugation and flocculation, were evaluated to determine their efficiencies of recovery of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts from contaminated water samples. Demineralized and tap water replicates were inoculated with high numbers of sporulated or unsporulated T. gondii oocysts (1 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(4) oocysts). The strain, age, and ...
Sleator R D - - 2003
AIMS: To establish the relative importance of the osmo- and cryoprotective compounds glycine betaine and carnitine, and their transporters, for listerial growth and survival, in foods and during infection. METHODS AND RESULTS: A set of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with single, double and triple mutations in the genes encoding the principal ...
Gianfranceschi Monica - - 2003
We report the findings of the study of 4185 food samples and 958 environmental samples collected in Italy in the period 1990-1999 and tested for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes. The strains isolated were biochemically and serologically characterised. We found a fairly high percentage of L. monocytogenes contamination in food ...
Cocolin Luca - - 2002
A new molecular approach for the detection and identification of Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in food is presented here. The method is based on the PCR amplification of a fragment of the iap gene from the five species belonging to the genus and on the analysis of the PCR ...
Cullison Mark A - - 2002
A mixture of magnetized carbonyl iron and insoluble zirconium hydroxide was investigated for its ability to concentrate various foodborne pathogens from 25-ml samples of reconstituted nonfat dry milk. Each sample was artificially contaminated with 10(3) to 10(6) CFU/25 ml of representative foodborne pathogens (Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and ...
el Sanhoty R - - 2002
The results of a survey study on food samples produced from genetically modified soybean and maize collected from the Egyptian market are presented. Forty samples of soybean and 40 samples of maize products have been gathered randomly from markets in Cairo and Giza. The genetic modification was detected by polymerase ...
Calvo Jorge H - - 2002
This research developed and evaluated a PCR procedure to detect beef in heated and unheated meat, sausages, and canned food, using a specific and sensitive method. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, we tested 45 cattle blood DNA samples (from different breeds) and obtained positive results. With ...
Kanuganti Sreenivas R - - 2002
In this study, we surveyed hogs (n = 300) as well as pork products (ground pork and raw chitterlings) for Listeria monocytogenes. Pig specimens collected before (tonsil swabs) and after slaughter (tonsils, lymph nodes, carcass swabs, and rectal contents) were examined for L. monocytogenes by enrichment with conventional enrichment broths ...
Istafanos Philip - - 2002
Two rapid screening methods [the TECRA Listeria Visual Immunoassay (LIS-VIS) kit, an AOAC-approved 48 h visual test, which detects Listeria through colorimetry, and BCM Listeria isolation and differentiation plating agar] were used to screen U.S. Food and Drug Administration-regulated commodities for the presence of Listeria spp. Seventy-four different food samples ...
Silk Todd M - - 2002
Detection of Listeria in food products is often limited by performance of enrichment media used to support growth of Listeria to detectable levels. In this study, growth curves were generated using healthy and heat-injured Listeria monocytogenes strain F5069 in three nonselective and five selective enrichment broths. Nonselective enrichment media included ...
Fung Daniel Y C - - 2002
A discussion is presented on the present status of rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Predictions are also presented for development in the following areas: viable cell counts; real-time monitoring of hygiene; polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and genetic tests in food laboratories; automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunotests; rapid dipstick ...
Augustin Jean-Christophe - - 2002
The proficiency testing program in food microbiology (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments; RAEMA), created in 1988, currently includes 440 participating laboratories. The program establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as quantitation of aerobic microorganisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, ...
Waak Elisabet - - 2002
The incidence of Listeria species in raw whole milk from farm bulk tanks and from raw milk in storage at a Swedish dairy plant was studied. Listeria monocytogenes was found in 1.0% and Listeria innocua was found in 2.3% of the 294 farm bulk tank (farm tank) milk specimens. One ...
Rijpens Nancy P - - 2002
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) shortens conventional microbiological methods for the detection of food pathogens either by replacing the conventional biochemical and serological identification or by its direct use on pre-enrichment media or food products. PCR allows fast and highly reliable identification of bacterial taxa, particularly phenotypically atypical bacterial strains. ...
Wiseman Gordon - - 2002
Consequential to the implementation of European Commission (EC) Regulation 1139/98, EC Regulation 49/2000, and EC Regulation 50/2000 has been the need to measure accurately the levels of the genetically modified (GM) species Roundup Ready Soya and Bt 176 Maize that are present in food. Analytical methods to detect and quantitate ...
Ahmed Farid E - - 2002
Legislation enacted worldwide to regulate the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops, foods and ingredients, necessitated the development of reliable and sensitive methods for GMO detection. In this article, protein- and DNA-based methods employing western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, lateral flow strips, Southern blots, qualitative-, quantitative-, real-time- and ...
Liu Jian - - 2002
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized a variety of assays in biotechnology. The ability to implement PCR in disposable and reliable microfluidic chips will facilitate its use in applications such as rapid medical diagnostics, food control testing, and biological weapons detection. We fabricated a microfluidic chip with integrated heaters and ...
Bolton F J - - 2002
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on a solution hybridization format with colorimetric end-point detection (PCR ELISA) was investigated for the specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in food samples following enrichment culture. One hundred fifteen samples of raw meat and offal (poultry, porcine, ovine, and bovine), ...
Marois Corinne - - 2002
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect Mycoplasma gallisepticum in samples collected from the environment of experimentally or naturally infected poultry. Culture was also used in the experimental infections. Of 160 samples of food, drinking water, feathers, droppings or dust collected during experimental infection, 103 were positive using ...
Tompkin R B - - 2002
The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance to food processors in controlling Listeria monocytogenes in food-processing environments. Of particular concern are outbreaks of a few to several hundred scattered cases involving an unusually virulent strain that has become established in the food-processing environment and contaminates multiple lots of ...
Wiedmann Martin - - 2002
Conventional, phenotypic, and DNA-based subtyping methods allow differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes beyond the species and subspecies level. Bacterial subtyping methods not only improve our ability to detect and track human listeriosis outbreaks, but also provide tools to track sources of L. monocytogenes contamination throughout the food system. The use of ...
Luchansky John B - - 2002
This study compared three methods for the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from commercially prepared and vacuum-packaged frankfurters that were inoculated with a five-strain mixture of this pathogen at averages of 22 and 20,133 CFU per package over three trials. The presence and levels of the pathogen were determined by (i) ...
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