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Results 351 - 400 of 727
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Dougherty D M - - 1999
Previous research has indicated that laboratory aggression in men increases after temporarily reducing the synthesis and neurotransmission of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain using the plasma L-tryptophan (Trp) depletion technique. Further research indicates that male subjects selected for high trait hostility are particularly prone to increased aggression following plasma Trp ...
Cash W B - - 1999
We investigated the effects of exogenous corticosterone on the locomotor activity of captive red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans. An increase in plasma corticosterone often increases locomotor activity in mammals and birds, but there are no reported findings for turtles. In this study turtles implanted with corticosterone-filled Silastic((R)) implants showed ...
Moromisato D Y - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia may alter the neuroendocrine control of catabolic and anabolic states early in postnatal life by modulating the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) system. We wondered: a) to what extent hypoxia effects on the GH-IGF-I axis differed from those of food deprivation alone; and b) whether administration of exogenous ...
Bollo E - - 1999
With the aim of describing the effect of severe feed restriction on the liver histology, morphometrical analysis of liver sections of 10 alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) was performed. Five animals were found dead during the winter season 1995-96 and five were collected during the hunting season 1996. Hepatocyte nuclear size ...
Sohlström A - - 1999
The effects of oxytocin on fetal and placental growth and on maternal weight gain and accumulation of body fat were studied in ad libitum-fed and food-restricted (receiving 70% of the food intake of the ad libitum-fed group) pregnant rats. Further, a possible role of the IGF axis in mediating oxytocin-induced ...
David R M - - 1999
Methyl iso-butyl ketone (MiBK), a commercial solvent, was selected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for testing under the Multi-Substance Rule for the Testing of Neurotoxicity (US EPA, 1993) using schedule-controlled operant behavior (SCOB) to determine if subchronic exposure to MiBK vapor had the potential to alter behavior ...
Lawler D F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of restricted food intake on estrous cycle frequency, interestrus interval, and pseudopregnancy prevalence in dogs. ANIMALS: 28 female Labrador Retrievers. PROCEDURE: Dogs were paired by body weight when they were 6 weeks old and fed so that the limit-fed pair-mate received 75% of the amount of ...
Pascual JA - - 1999
Fonofos is a highly toxic insecticide to birds that, when used as a cereal seed treatment, has caused mortality of free-living feral pigeons (Columba livia). Pigeons kept individually under ad libitum feeding conditions in the laboratory do not suffer lethal poisoning because they develop a strong avoidance response to fonofos-treated ...
Fisher J O - - 1999
This study evaluated maternal restriction of children's access to snack foods as a predictor of children's intake of those foods when they were made freely available. In addition, child and parent eating-related "risk" factors were used to predict maternal reports of restricting access. Participants were 71, 3-to-5-year-old children (36 boys, ...
Fisher J O - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Restricting children's access to palatable foods may appeal to parents as a straightforward means of promoting moderate intakes of foods high in fat and sugar; however, restricting access to palatable foods may have unintended effects on children's eating. The efficacy of restricting children's access to palatable foods as a ...
Goldman B D - - 1999
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are fossorial, eusocial mammals that live in colonies averaging about 70 individuals. Metabolic regulation is of particular interest in this species because it is one of only two naturally occurring small mammals that are hairless. Further, relative to other small mammals, naked mole-rats exhibit low body ...
Pieper D R - - 1999
Removal of the olfactory bulbs of male golden hamsters results in a marked increase in tonic gonadotropin, prolactin and testosterone secretion which counteracts inhibitory effects of manipulations such as maintenance on short photoperiod, food restriction or treatment with gonadal steroids. The bulbectomy-induced increase in hormone secretion is interpreted to reflect ...
Morgan T E - - 1999
Food restriction of adult rodents increases lifespan, with commensurate attenuation of age-related pathological lesions in many organs, as well as attenuation of normal ageing changes that are distinct from gross lesions. Previous work showed that chronic food restriction attenuated age-associated astrocyte and microglial hyperactivity in the hippocampal hilus, as measured ...
Hocking P M - - 1999
1. The welfare of male and female male-line turkeys fed ad libitum or food-restricted was determined at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 36(38) and 46(48) weeks of age using behavioural and physiological indices of well-being. Traditional turkeys fed ad libitum were kept as a control treatment. Restricted male ...
Bjork J M JM Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas, Houston Medical School, 77030, - - 1999
Some studies have shown that sharp reduction of L-tryptophan (Trp) concentration in plasma results in increases in laboratory-measured aggression. Conversely, raising plasma Trp has blunted aggression. These effects are presumably due to impaired or enhanced serotonin synthesis and neurotransmission in the brain. In this study, the laboratory-measured aggressive behavior of ...
Ilbäck N G - - 1999
The present study was performed to investigate whether the lichen rock tripe (Lasallia pustulata) can be used as food during survival situations. The effects of 30% lichen supplementation given to female Balb/c mice were studied on growth rate, metabolism and immune functions. After 3 weeks on this diet, it was ...
Kostál L - - 1999
To investigate further a putative role of dopamine in control of food restriction-induced behavioural stereotypies, chickens were fed during rearing on either a daily restricted ration recommended by a breeding company, twice the recommended restricted ration, or ad libitum food. They were killed at 60 days of age and their ...
Zhou G D - - 1999
Type I I-compounds are bulky endogenous DNA modifications detectable by 32P postlabeling that exhibit age, species, tissue, genotype, gender, and diet dependence. Their formation appears unrelated to oxidative stress. In fact, several lines of indirect evidence suggest that many type I I-compounds may represent normal functional DNA modifications. For example, ...
Yen S S - - 1998
Reduction of metabolic fuel availability below the critical level by food restriction or increased expenditure is appropriately accompanied by activations of multiple neuroendocrine-metabolic changes resulting in anovulation and amenorrhea, an important device for endogenous hypothalamic contraception. This reproductive strategy in women is required because of the enormous nutritional demand for ...
Gonzales E - - 1998
1. This experiment was carried out to evaluate the productive and physiological consequences of a slight but long term food restriction of male broiler chickens from 2 commercial strains. 2. Cobb-500 and Ross chickens were submitted to a 20% food restriction from 8 to 21 d of age. Strain, food ...
Corwin R L - - 1998
Restricting access to high-fat foods is a common strategy utilized to promote health. This strategy may contribute to episodes of overconsumption, however, when the restricted foods subsequently become available. The present study utilized a rat feeding procedure to determine if restricting access to an optional source of dietary fat would ...
Brinkhof M W - - 1998
To investigate the control over drinking and feeding behavior by the light-entrainable circadian pacemaker, rats were maintained in a 12 h:12 h skeleton photoperiod for 36 days with both food and water restricted to the subjective day. During the restriction period most of the food and water intake was concentrated ...
Yuan Z - - 1998
The hypoglycemic effect of water-soluble polysaccharide(FA) from fruiting bodies of Auricularia auricula-judae Quel. was investigated on genetically diabetic mice (KK-Ay) from 10 to 14 weeks of age. Male mice were divided into 3 groups, the control group and FA-fed group having free access to the control diet or FA diet ...
Cabeza de Vaca S S Millhauser Laboratories, Department of Psychiatry, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, - - 1998
Chronic food restriction increases the systemic self-administration and locomotor-stimulating effect of abused drugs. However, it is not clear whether these behavioral changes reflect enhanced rewarding potency or a CNS-based modulatory process. The purpose of this study was to determine whether food restriction specifically increases the rewarding potency of drugs, as ...
Hendrickson D - - 1998
The context of famine in Turkana has changed in recent years as the role played by livestock raiding in contributing to famine has increased. External responses to famine in Turkana have largely been drought driven, for example, food assistance and livestock restocking programmers, which have failed to meet the real ...
Lepczyk C A - - 1998
We used nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus) under laboratory conditions to test for modulation of digestive efficiencies during periods of low and high food intake and tested the hypothesis that nestlings would exhibit compensatory changes in digestive efficiency following a period of food restriction. During the low intake period, nestlings ...
Rhind S M - - 1998
The effect of high (H) or low (L) levels of food intake, during the preceding 4 weeks, on ovarian follicle numbers and steroidogenic capacity were investigated in groups of 12 adult Scottish Blackface ewes. Ewes of the two treatments had similar levels of body condition at the time of study ...
Flo G - - 1998
In this study, we investigated the analogies between the physiological effects of simmondsin, a satiety-inducing glycoside extracted from jojoba seeds, and the gastro-intestinal satiation peptide, cholecystokinin. The effects of intraperitoneal injection of the biological active CCK-octapeptide on the pancreas, interscapular brown adipose tissue, growth performance and energy metabolism in normal-fed, ...
Benyi K - - 1998
1. Three hundred 4-week-old commercial Hibrow broiler chicks were fed ad libitum, 85% and 70% of ad libitum or ad libitum for 5 d per week with 3rd and 5th days of food withdrawal for 28 d to examine the effects of food restriction on liveweight, growth rate, food conversion ...
Funaba M M Department of Nutrition, School of Veterinary Medicine, Azabu University, Sagamihara, - - 1998
Five male cats were used to examine utilization of nitrogen and macro-minerals (calcium, phosphorus and magnesium) in response to food restriction and subsequent repletion. For the first week, each cat was daily given 135 g of dry cat food (baseline period), followed by a restriction period for 1 week; during ...
Challet E - - 1998
Phase-shifting effects of timed calorie restriction were investigated in mice during exposure to a 12:12-h light-dark cycle. Food-anticipatory activity (FAA), the output of a food-entrainable pacemaker, was expressed before the time of feeding whether mice received daily hypocaloric food (3.3 g of chow/day) or normocaloric food (5 g of chow/day) ...
Voltura M B - - 1998
We manipulated diet quality, food availability, and ambient temperature to investigate the role of these variables in fat deposition by growing prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) and fat use by adult voles. Exposure to either 5 degrees C or a high-fiber diet reduced fat deposition by growing voles and also reduced ...
Kotlus B S - - 1998
A short-term fluid-intake test is described which is directed at the study of individual variation in gustation in laboratory mice. To avoid position preferences associated with two-bottle tests, single graduated cylinders are used to present the solution. Intake of water and solutions is recorded for a 6-h period beginning 3 ...
Sohlström A - - 1998
The effect of fasting (17-18 h) versus food restriction (70% for 80 +/- 13 days) on the IGF-IGF binding protein (BP) axis in female guinea pigs was studied and related to body weight, weight gain and food conversion efficiency. Circulating IGF-I was reduced in the fasted (13%) and food-restricted (50%) ...
Shibata K - - 1998
The effect of food restriction on the conversion ratio of tryptophan to niacin was investigated, because it is known that the conversion ratio is influenced by nutritional factors. A 20% casein diet was fed to rats ad libitum (control), 1/2 the food of the control. 1/4 the food of the ...
Olkowski A A - - 1998
1. The first objective was to evaluate baseline heart rate (HR) responses in fast growing broilers fed ad libitum from 1 to 45d or subjected to a food restriction (85%, 70% and 55% of ad libitum from 7 to 21d) and a refeeding (22 to 45d) regimen in a normal ...
Phillips D J - - 1998
The effects on plasma follistatin concentrations of an inflammatory episode, induced by the intrathoracic injection of yeast, were examined in growing lambs; this model results in acute loss of appetite, food intake and liveweight and the activation of the acute-phase pathway for several weeks as adjudged by the production of ...
Carr K D - - 1998
Chronic food restriction produces a variety of adaptive changes in physiology and behavior aimed at the preservation of energy homeostasis. The brain opioid system may be involved in the adaptation to food restriction since regional levels of opioid peptides, precursor mRNA, and receptor binding have previously been observed. In the ...
Hart R W - - 1998
Placing lifespan in the context of the life history of an organism, Alex Comfort's work has stimulated the analysis of dietary restriction (DR) and its effects on lifespan in an evolutionary context. DR results in the curtailment of energy-intensive nonfood-gathering activities, increased efficiency of food utilization, an increase in food ...
Adam C L - - 1998
Ovariectomized, oestradiol-implanted Soay ewe lambs from 21 September (aged 21 weeks) had restricted (liveweight maintenance) (n = 4) or unrestricted food (n = 4); ovary-intact lambs had unrestricted food (n = 8). LH activation in ovariectomized lambs on restricted and unrestricted food and onset of ovulatory cycles in ovary-intact lambs ...
Stamper J L - - 1998
Daily torpor has never been reported for any rodent species during lactation. To test whether torpor and lactation are incompatible processes, we administered 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analog that interferes with cellular glycolysis, to Siberian hamsters during the 2nd wk postpartum. 2-DG (2,500 mg/kg of body mass) induced torpor in ...
Hagan M M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that experience with food restriction produces persistent binge eating. The Minnesota semistarvation experiment and studies of prisoners-of-war show that chronic food restriction produces dramatic changes in eating behavior (including binge eating) that endure decades after restriction has ceased. Bulimia nervosa patients who restrict also binge. ...
LeBlanc J J Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, - - 1997
A regulatory increase in energy expenditure, induced by excess intake of palatable food (cafeteria diet), is well documented. It has also been shown that excess feeding by gastric intubation, fails to enhance thermogenesis, suggesting that the palatability of the food could have a role in producing this regulatory response. A ...
VanNess J M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that reductions in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by food-intake restriction in aortic coarctation hypertension are the result of a reduction of the sympathetic support of the MAP. We also wanted to determine whether the baroreflex control of the heart rate, and alpha- and beta-adrenergic ...
Combes S - - 1997
The present study was conducted to determine the influence of food restriction on growth hormone receptor (GHR) in porcine skeletal muscle (longissimus dorsi and trapezius) and liver in relationship to plasma growth hormone binding protein (GHBP). At 76 d of age, pigs were allotted to one of three groups. In ...
Choshniak I - - 1997
The effects of nutritional regime on the colonic absorption of electrolytes, water, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were studied in three rodent species (voles, spiny mice, and laboratory mice) differing in their ecological background. The effects of different levels of SCFA, induced by restriction of food intake, on the capacity ...
Zorbas Y G - - 1997
The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of 47 mg zinc supplementation on deficiency of zinc in rats during 98 d of restriction of motor activity (hypokinesia), which appeared by higher plasma zinc concentration. One Hundred 13-week-old Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 360-390 g were used to perform ...
Gagnemo-Persson R - - 1997
Treatment with omeprazole, a long-acting proton pump inhibitor of acid secretion, induces hypergastrinemia. In chickens, omeprazole induces growth not only of the acid-producing mucosa (probably reflecting the trophic action of gastrin), but also of the parathyroid glands (hypertrophy + hyperplasia), while suppressing bone density and body weight gain without affecting ...
Harun M A - - 1997
1. The interaction between the effects of food restriction and cold stress on the development of body temperature, homeothermy index, metabolic rate and body weight were studied in Muscovy ducklings from hatching to 21 d of age. 2. The control group (ad libitum fed) and the food restricted group (fed ...
Abizaid A - - 1997
Previous studies have demonstrated that food restriction during lactation extends the length of lactational infertility in rats. In order to determine whether Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a role in the increased length of lactational infertility seen in food-restricted rats, NPY immunoreactivity in the arcuate nucleus of lactating rats that were ...
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