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Results 301 - 350 of 711
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Schenker S - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have suggested that food deprivation may contribute to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by shunting drug detoxification from the conjugative to the potentially toxic oxidative pathways. METHODS: This study assessed this concept in a prospective study of food restriction of 500 calories/day over 5 days and also of 1000 calories/day ...
Carr K D KD Millhauser Laboratories, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2001
Previous studies indicate that chronic food restriction augments the rewarding and motor-activating effects of diverse drugs of abuse. The drugs that have so far proved susceptible to the augmenting effect of food restriction all increase synaptic concentrations of dopamine (DA). It is not known whether behavioral effects of selective, direct ...
Santos-Pinto F N - - 2001
Food restriction, even when expressed per unit of metabolic mass, leads to energy conservation as seen by decreased oxygen consumption. The objective of the present study was to verify whether the energy conservation mechanism reduces energy expenditure for as long as food restriction lasts or whether a return to basal ...
Forestell C A - - 2001
Level of food restriction was manipulated in mice to assess its importance for the acquisition and expression of a conditioned odor discrimination. In training, animals were exposed to odors (either rose or lemon) presented on a piece of filter paper in a pot covered in bedding. For half of the ...
Henry B A - - 2001
Leptin can act as a satiety factor and exert neuroendocrine effects, but most studies have been performed in fasted animals. We aimed to determine the effect of chronic under-nutrition on the response to a 3-day intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin with regard to food intake and the secretion of pituitary hormones. ...
Temple J L - - 2000
Undernutrition has well-established effects on female reproduction. Here we describe the effects of food restriction on aspects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in the female musk shrew. We determined that acute re-feeding reverses deficits brought on by food restriction. Two days of food restriction led to an increase in proGnRH ...
Totzke U - - 2000
To investigate the proximate influence of a changing food availability on the seasonal fattening of migratory birds, garden warblers (Sylvia borin) following postnuptial moult were food restricted once a week. Body mass, food intake, plasma hormone and metabolite levels were measured and compared to birds which always had ad libitum ...
Díaz-Muñoz M - - 2000
Restricted feeding schedules entrain behavioral and physiological circadian rhythms, which depend on a food-entrainable oscillator (FEO). The mechanism of the FEO might depend on digestive and endocrine processes regulating energy balance. The present study characterizes the dynamics of circulating corticosterone, insulin, and glucagon and regulatory parameters of liver metabolism in ...
Wilz M - - 2000
Three major forms of dormancy in mammals have been classified: hibernation in endotherms is characterised by reduced metabolic rate (MR) and body temperature (Tb) near ambient temperature (Ta) over prolonged times in the winter. Estivation is a similar form of dormancy in a dry and hot environment during summertime. Daily ...
Toth L A - - 2000
Food and water restriction protocols are common in animal research, yet they often elicit discussion and controversy among institutional animal care and use committee members who review them. Determining a single standard by which all restriction protocols can be evaluated or performed may not be realistic. However, information about the ...
Fisher J O - - 2000
This study was conducted to determine whether parents' restriction of young girls' access to palatable foods promotes the consumption of those foods while evoking negative self-evaluation. Girls' intake of 10 snack foods was measured immediately following a standard lunch, in a setting with free access to palatable snack foods. Girls' ...
Dell'Omo G - - 2000
Free-living female laboratory mice, adapted to outdoor life in large pens providing a naturalistic environment, were tested for their ability to modify their foraging habits to controlled food supply. An automatic feeder box delivered a small portion of the daily quantity of seeds to each individual mouse. Eight such boxes ...
Carr K D KD Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA. - - 2000
Chronic food restriction augments the self-administration and locomotor stimulating effects of opiates, psychostimulants and NMDA antagonists. The extent to which these effects can be attributed to changes in drug pharmacokinetics and bioavailability versus sensitivity of the neuronal circuits that mediate the affected behavioral functions, has not been established. Recent studies ...
Takahashi S - - 2000
The effects of the restriction of food and water intakes on gastrointestinal absorption, distribution to organs and excretion of 131I were investigated in C3H/He mice. The animals were divided into four groups and administered orally 37 kBq carrier-free Na 131I in 0.25 ml normal saline. One group of animals was ...
Buchanan S - - 2000
1. An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that severe food restriction throughout the onset of lay or delaying photostimulation by 5 weeks would decrease the number of ovarian hierarchical follicles in male-line turkeys. It was proposed that a decrease in the number of hierarchical follicles would lower plasma ...
Pulawa L K - - 2000
In preparation for hibernation, golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) must deposit sufficient amounts of lipid during the summer to survive winter hibernation. We conducted an experiment from May 1998 to February 1999 to examine the effects of caloric restriction on the body composition (lipid and fat-free mass) and hibernation of ...
Carr K D - - 2000
The noncompetitive NMDA antagonist, MK-801, produces stimulant and rewarding effects that are mediated by a combination of dopamine-dependent and -independent mechanisms. It was recently demonstrated that, similar to amphetamine, the rewarding and locomotor effects of intraventricular (i.c.v.) MK-801 are potentiated by chronic food restriction. Because food restriction also increases c-Fos ...
Sims C G - - 2000
In birds, additional adrenocortical secretion in response to stressors often redirects an individual's ongoing activities toward immediate life-saving activities, usually by facilitating an increase in food searching and food intake needed to meet periods of increased energy demand. We asked whether young birds, who are entirely dependent on parents for ...
Teillet L - - 2000
ABSTRACT.: Tissue content of advanced glycation end products (AGE) increases with age and contributes to the changes in structure and function of the renal and cardiovascular systems. The effect of chronic food restriction on this AGE accumulation was investigated in lean WAG/Rij rats. A 30% food restriction performed from 10 ...
Okamoto T - - 2000
Oxidative stress is involved in the development of anorexia. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of anorexia in oxygen radical-induced hepatitis. A low dose of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg of a 1:1 solution with olive oil) was orally administered to rats with and without food restriction. In ...
Bae H H - - 2000
Siberian hamsters undergo torpor during the short days of winter and in response to glucoprivation or food restriction. We tested whether the area postrema and the adjacent nucleus of the solitary tract (hereafter the AP), which monitor metabolic fuel availability, also control the onset of torpor. Siberian hamsters that had ...
Govaerts T - - 2000
1. An experiment was conducted with male broiler chickens to investigate the effect of different early food restriction programmes on proportional weights and allometric growth coefficients of carcase parts and on pulsatile growth hormone secretion. 2. At 4 d of age the animals were restricted to 80% or 90% of ...
Lippens M - - 2000
1. An experiment was conducted with broiler chickens to determine the effects of different early food restrictions, strain (Ross 508 and Hybro G) and sex on performance, mortality carcase composition and meat characteristics. 2. Birds were restricted to 80% or 90% of ad libitum intake for 4 d (80%-4 d-group ...
Sohlström A - - 2000
The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the effects of maternal undernutrition during pregnancy on adult offspring with regard to growth, body composition and plasma levels of glucose, insulin and corticosterone, and (2) to investigate whether oxytocin treatment early in life could ameliorate the adverse effects of food ...
Gous R M - - 2000
1. Lohmann Brown pullets, in one trial, and Hyline Brown pullets in another, were reared from day 2 on short daylengths, and from week 8 in trial 1 (week 16 in trial 2) on food restriction. These restrictions were lifted at various times during the rearing period as a means ...
Konarzewski M - - 2000
We measured food intake, digestive efficiency, body mass increments, resting metabolic rate (RMR), carcass fat content, size and histological structure of the gut, and the rate of intestinal brush border uptake of l-proline in song thrush (Turdus philomelos) nestlings subjected to food shortage or food surplus under laboratory conditions. We ...
Løkkeborg S - - 2000
The activity rhythm and use of space in the food-searching behaviour of ling (Molva molva L.) were studied by means of a stationary positioning system. The system consisted of a fixed array of three hydrophones, which monitored the position of each individual being tracked once every three minutes. Five ling ...
Karasov W H - - 2000
During northward migration, blackcaps arrive at stopover sites in Israel's Negev Desert with reduced masses of organs that are important in food digestion and assimilation. Blackcaps that stay to refuel (largely on fruits) do not gain mass rapidly until after 3 d at the stopover site. We hypothesized that (1) ...
Carr K D KD Millhauser Laboratories, Department of Psychiatry, New York University, School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY, USA. - - 2000
7 days beyond cessation of insulin treatment) elevation of threshold in ad libitum fed rats and, more transiently, reversed the threshold-lowering effect of food restriction. Acute insulin treatment (3 mU, 15 min prior) also elevated threshold in food-restricted rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that insulin modulates sensitivity ...
Carr K D - - 2000
Chronic food restriction enhances behavioral responsiveness to amphetamine and other abused drugs. Because this effect is evident when drugs are administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) as well as systemically, it would seem to reflect increased sensitivity of a neural substrate rather than a change in drug disposition. In the present study, c-Fos ...
Young K A - - 2000
Short day lengths or reduced food availability are salient cues for small mammals that breed seasonally. Photoperiod-mediated gonadal regression in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) is a slow, orderly process that involves testicular apoptosis. Testicular regression in response to restricted caloric intake is relatively rapid, and it is generally reversed quickly ...
Liao T L - - 2000
A sufficient condition related to the existence of a unique equilibrium point and its global asymptotic stability for cellular network networks with delay (DCNNs) is derived. It is shown that the condition relies on the feedback matrices and is independent of the delay parameter. Furthermore, this condition is less restrictive ...
Nizami S Q - - 1999
BACKGROUND: A nutritious diet is important for recovery during illnesses. Dietary advice by physicians and consumption of food by the patients are often based upon their hot and cold concepts and beliefs about various foods rather than on scientific basis. OBJECTIVES: To look at the food-advising behaviour of physicians during ...
Lowinger K - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The deliberate restriction of fluids to control weight is even more dangerous than food restriction since it results in several serious medical complications. However, there has been scant attention given to the anorexia nervosa patient's manipulation of fluids. It is our clinical impression that fluid restriction in this illness ...
Dougherty D M - - 1999
Previous research has indicated that laboratory aggression in men increases after temporarily reducing the synthesis and neurotransmission of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain using the plasma L-tryptophan (Trp) depletion technique. Further research indicates that male subjects selected for high trait hostility are particularly prone to increased aggression following plasma Trp ...
Cash W B - - 1999
We investigated the effects of exogenous corticosterone on the locomotor activity of captive red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta elegans. An increase in plasma corticosterone often increases locomotor activity in mammals and birds, but there are no reported findings for turtles. In this study turtles implanted with corticosterone-filled Silastic((R)) implants showed ...
Moromisato D Y - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxia may alter the neuroendocrine control of catabolic and anabolic states early in postnatal life by modulating the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I (GH-IGF-I) system. We wondered: a) to what extent hypoxia effects on the GH-IGF-I axis differed from those of food deprivation alone; and b) whether administration of exogenous ...
Bollo E - - 1999
With the aim of describing the effect of severe feed restriction on the liver histology, morphometrical analysis of liver sections of 10 alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) was performed. Five animals were found dead during the winter season 1995-96 and five were collected during the hunting season 1996. Hepatocyte nuclear size ...
Sohlström A - - 1999
The effects of oxytocin on fetal and placental growth and on maternal weight gain and accumulation of body fat were studied in ad libitum-fed and food-restricted (receiving 70% of the food intake of the ad libitum-fed group) pregnant rats. Further, a possible role of the IGF axis in mediating oxytocin-induced ...
David R M - - 1999
Methyl iso-butyl ketone (MiBK), a commercial solvent, was selected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for testing under the Multi-Substance Rule for the Testing of Neurotoxicity (US EPA, 1993) using schedule-controlled operant behavior (SCOB) to determine if subchronic exposure to MiBK vapor had the potential to alter behavior ...
Lawler D F - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of restricted food intake on estrous cycle frequency, interestrus interval, and pseudopregnancy prevalence in dogs. ANIMALS: 28 female Labrador Retrievers. PROCEDURE: Dogs were paired by body weight when they were 6 weeks old and fed so that the limit-fed pair-mate received 75% of the amount of ...
Pascual JA - - 1999
Fonofos is a highly toxic insecticide to birds that, when used as a cereal seed treatment, has caused mortality of free-living feral pigeons (Columba livia). Pigeons kept individually under ad libitum feeding conditions in the laboratory do not suffer lethal poisoning because they develop a strong avoidance response to fonofos-treated ...
Fisher J O - - 1999
This study evaluated maternal restriction of children's access to snack foods as a predictor of children's intake of those foods when they were made freely available. In addition, child and parent eating-related "risk" factors were used to predict maternal reports of restricting access. Participants were 71, 3-to-5-year-old children (36 boys, ...
Fisher J O - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Restricting children's access to palatable foods may appeal to parents as a straightforward means of promoting moderate intakes of foods high in fat and sugar; however, restricting access to palatable foods may have unintended effects on children's eating. The efficacy of restricting children's access to palatable foods as a ...
Goldman B D - - 1999
Naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are fossorial, eusocial mammals that live in colonies averaging about 70 individuals. Metabolic regulation is of particular interest in this species because it is one of only two naturally occurring small mammals that are hairless. Further, relative to other small mammals, naked mole-rats exhibit low body ...
Pieper D R - - 1999
Removal of the olfactory bulbs of male golden hamsters results in a marked increase in tonic gonadotropin, prolactin and testosterone secretion which counteracts inhibitory effects of manipulations such as maintenance on short photoperiod, food restriction or treatment with gonadal steroids. The bulbectomy-induced increase in hormone secretion is interpreted to reflect ...
Morgan T E - - 1999
Food restriction of adult rodents increases lifespan, with commensurate attenuation of age-related pathological lesions in many organs, as well as attenuation of normal ageing changes that are distinct from gross lesions. Previous work showed that chronic food restriction attenuated age-associated astrocyte and microglial hyperactivity in the hippocampal hilus, as measured ...
Hocking P M - - 1999
1. The welfare of male and female male-line turkeys fed ad libitum or food-restricted was determined at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 36(38) and 46(48) weeks of age using behavioural and physiological indices of well-being. Traditional turkeys fed ad libitum were kept as a control treatment. Restricted male ...
Bjork J M JM Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas, Houston Medical School, 77030, - - 1999
Some studies have shown that sharp reduction of L-tryptophan (Trp) concentration in plasma results in increases in laboratory-measured aggression. Conversely, raising plasma Trp has blunted aggression. These effects are presumably due to impaired or enhanced serotonin synthesis and neurotransmission in the brain. In this study, the laboratory-measured aggressive behavior of ...
Ilbäck N G - - 1999
The present study was performed to investigate whether the lichen rock tripe (Lasallia pustulata) can be used as food during survival situations. The effects of 30% lichen supplementation given to female Balb/c mice were studied on growth rate, metabolism and immune functions. After 3 weeks on this diet, it was ...
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