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Results 201 - 250 of 726
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Kitaysky Alexander S - - 2005
In several seabirds, nutritional state of a nest-bound chick is negatively correlated with the activity of its hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Increased corticosterone (cort) secretion has been shown to facilitate changes in behavior that allow hungry chicks to obtain more food from parents. However, if parents are not willing/able to buffer ...
Piper Matthew D W MD Department of Biology, University College London, Darwin Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, - - 2005
Reduction of food intake without malnourishment extends life span in many different organisms. The majority of work in this field has been performed in rodents where it has been shown that both restricting access to the entire diet and restricting individual dietary components can cause life-span extension. Thus, for insights ...
Belda Xavier - - 2005
Partial food restriction (FR) protocols have been used not only to study behavioral and physiological consequences of decrease food intake, but as a necessary treatment of the animals in some operant learning tasks. It is well-established in rodents that restricting food availability to a few hours in the morning causes ...
Ehrhardt N - - 2005
The golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) is an omnivorous desert rodent that does not store food, but can store large amounts of body fat. Thus, it provides a good animal model to study physiological and behavioural adaptations to changes in food availability. The aim of this study was to investigate ...
Nguyen Nguyen Hong - - 2005
Two lines of Large White pigs of common genetic origin were divergently selected over four years for high and low growth rate during a 6 week post-weaning test period in which all pigs were fed the same total amount of food (80% of estimated ad libitum intake). Genetic parameters and ...
Abramsson-Zetterberg Lilianne - - 2005
Semicarbazide, mainly produced for research purposes, has been known for various reasons within foods. It occurs as one of the break-down products of nitrofurans, a group of widely used veterinary drugs, and as a break-down product of azodicarbonamide used as a flour treatment agent to improve baking properties. Furthermore, it ...
Tucker Michelle Z - - 2005
To determine the effects of brief food restriction on fatty acid (FA) metabolism in old muscle, hind limbs of 24-month F344/BN rats fed either ad libitum (AL) or 60% food restricted (FR) for 28 days were perfused under hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic conditions. Basal glucose and insulin levels were significantly lower (p<.05) in ...
Carey James R JR Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. - - 2005
Lifespan in individually housed medflies (virgins of both sexes) and daily reproduction for females were studied following one of 12 dietary restriction (DR) treatments in which the availability of high-quality food (yeast-sugar mixture) for each fly was based on a Markov chain feeding scheme--a stochastic dietary regime which specifies that ...
Boulamery-Velly A - - 2005
The effects of food on biological rhythms may influence the findings of chronopharmacological studies. The present study evaluated the influence of a restricted food access during the rest (light) span of nocturnally active Wistar rats on the 24 h time organization of biological functions in terms of the circadian rhythms ...
Séguy M - - 2005
Microcebus murinus, a small nocturnal Malagasy primate, exhibits adaptive energy-saving strategies such as daily hypothermia and gregarious patterns during diurnal rest. To determine whether ambient temperature (T(a)), food restriction and nest sharing can modify the daily body temperature (T(b)) rhythm, T(b) was recorded by telemetry during winter in six males ...
de Groot Marleen H M - - 2004
If food is presented for a limited duration once every 24 h, rats will gradually develop increased activity in the hours preceding mealtime, even if this is during a time of day when they are normally inactive. This food-anticipatory activity (FAA) is mediated by the entrainment of an endogenous self-sustaining ...
Pan Yan - - 2004
Chronic food restriction augments the rewarding effect of centrally administered psychostimulant drugs and this effect may involve a previously documented upregulation of D-1 dopamine receptor-mediated MAP kinase signaling in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate-putamen (CPu). Psychostimulants are known to induce striatal glutamate release, and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) ...
Mew John R C - - 2004
Over the last 100 years, many theories have attempted to explain the cause of malocclusion. Most have stated that it is inherited, but, more recently, greater emphasis has been placed on the influence of the environment, especially the activity and the posture of the oral soft tissues. Unfortunately, it is ...
Asadi-Pooya Ali Akbar - - 2004
PURPOSE: Almost 1000 years ago, Avicenna, the great Iranian scientist, recommended that patients with epilepsy should avoid some foods. In the present study we attempted to identify beliefs and experiences of families with epileptic children with respect to the need for specific dietary restrictions in these patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional ...
Mieda Michihiro - - 2004
Temporal restriction of feeding can entrain circadian behavioral and physiological rhythms in mammals. Considering the critical functions of the hypothalamic orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides in promoting wakefulness and locomotor activity, we examined the role of orexin neurons in the adaptation to restricted feeding. In orexin neuron-ablated transgenic mice, the food-entrained rhythmicity ...
Andrade José P - - 2004
In mammals, the main circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and its most potent synchronizer is the daily variation of the intensity of light. However, other nonphotic cues, such as timed food restriction, can induce changes in the circadian rhythms, leading also to the appearance of a ...
Nakajima Kenji - - 2004
The effects of riboflavin on the formation of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine (DMRL) were examined using the growing cells of a riboflavin, adenine deficient-mutant, Bacillus subtilis. The administration of low concentrations (50-500 ng/mL) of riboflavin to the basal medium significantly inhibited the formation of DMRL without any change in growth. Especially, the supplementation ...
Hulbert A J - - 2004
Following eclosion, adult Calliphora stygia were individually housed (at 22 degrees C and 73% RH) in 125 ml plastic vials and provided with ad libitum access to either 0.125 or 0.2M sucrose as a food source and daily food consumption measured throughout their adult life. All blowflies were weighed daily ...
Widman David R - - 2004
Time-place learning is the ability to distinguish between resources that vary in location at different times of day. Only one previous report has demonstrated successful time-place learning without using food as reward. In this experiment, satiated rats failed to form time-place discriminations in a Morris water maze while food deprived ...
Liang Hong - - 2004
We studied the effect of intrauterine food restriction (FR) on the immune function, endocrine status and attractiveness of scents of male rat-like hamsters, Cricetulus triton. Work was conducted on field-caught parents from the North China plain and their laboratory-born progeny. Restricted pregnant dams were fed 70% of the mean daily ...
Muthukumar Alagarraju - - 2004
Costimulatory and adhesion molecules are known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Since fish oil and calorie restriction have been reported to attenuate the development of disease in lupus prone (NZBxNZW)F1 mice, the objective of this study was to assess the expression of these ...
Holtkamp Kristian - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Excessive exercise is present in 40%-80% of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Hyperactivity often plays a role in developing and maintaining AN and represents an obstacle to weight gain in refeeding. Interconnections among caloric restriction, psychopathology, and physical activity in humans with AN are poorly investigated. METHODS: Physical activity and ...
Cooper T Michael - - 2004
Caloric restriction (CR) has been found to extend the life spans of a wide variety of species, transcending phylogenetic boundaries. The objective of this study was to test the generality of this phenomenon, using the male housefly as an insect model in which food intake can be quantified precisely. Sucrose ...
Lamming Dudley W - - 2004
Barring genetic manipulation, the diet known as calorie restriction (CR) is currently the only way to slow down ageing in mammals. The fact that CR works on most species, even microorganisms, implies a conserved underlying mechanism. Recent findings in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae indicate that CR extends lifespan because it ...
Goehde Susanne C - - 2004
PURPOSE: To examine the magnetic resonance (MR) properties of different foods and their effect on the colonic stool signal to potentially support fecal tagging strategies for dark lumen MR colonography (MRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1 relaxation times of 120 different foods (partially diluted with sufficient water) were determined by use ...
Tanaka Tomomi - - 2004
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary restriction on ovarian, endocrine (ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse) and metabolic (glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA)) profiles in goats treated with a progesterone-releasing controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR-G) device. Cycling goats were offered either a maintenance ...
Isawa Manami - - 2004
Polysialic acid (PSA) and human natural killer (HNK)-1 carbohydrate epitopes are expressed mainly in developing neurons but also in restricted areas, even in adulthood. In the present study, we demonstrated the expression of PSA and HNK-1 epitopes in adult primary vestibular afferent neurons. In addition, we confirmed the presence of ...
Hiraiwa Tetsuya - - 2004
The necessity of iodine restriction before radioiodine uptake (RAIU) testing for differentiation of thyrotoxicosis is controversial. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of iodine restriction on the RAIU value, and the necessity of iodine restriction in differentiating between Graves' disease (GD) and silent thyroiditis (ST). We investigated ...
Inoue Koki - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Eating-disorder patients exhibit not only abnormal eating attitudes but also pathologic anxiety-like behaviors. The specific nature of the relationship between dieting and anxiety-like behavior is unknown. METHODS: To investigate the adaptational changes that resulted from chronic restricted scheduled feeding (2-hour access per day for 2 weeks) and subsequent free ...
Paul Matthew J - - 2004
Timing of daily torpor was assessed in suprachiasmatic nucleus-ablated (SCNx) and sham-ablated Siberian hamsters fed restricted amounts of food each day either in the light or dark phase of a 14:10 light-dark cycle. Eighty-five percent of sham-ablated and 45% of SCNx hamsters displayed a preferred hour for torpor onset. In ...
Koochmeshgi Jalal - - 2004
We have proposed that normal food intake is geared toward optimizing the internal milieu for reproduction, despite some components of this milieu being detrimental to health. In dietary restriction, the animal is prevented from eating enough to attain or maintain reproductive capacity and this particular milieu does not materialize. Life ...
Passadore M D - - 2004
AIMS: Age can alter energy balance by decreasing the resting metabolic rate. Food restriction can also change energy balance by decreasing energy expenditure as a mechanism of energy conservation. We investigated the influence of food restriction on the energy balance of rats at different ages. METHODS: Wistar EPM-1 female rats ...
Abizaid Alfonso - - 2004
In rats, food restriction during lactation extends lactational infertility, an effect that is in part due to attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to the positive feedback effects of estradiol (E2). In cycling rats, rising endogenous E2 levels not only induce a surge in LH release, but also increase the expression ...
Taffe Michael A - - 2004
Early experimental psychologists made broad use of knowledge that is undoubtedly as old as animal domestication, i.e., that the power of appetitive reinforcement is enhanced by restricting the subjects' access to food. This has led to the nearly universal practice of restricting common laboratory rodent and avian subjects to 85% ...
Parsons Myra - - 2004
This article has, so far, explored the phenomenon of aspiration associated with obstetric general anaesthesia (see Part 1). Part 2 examines the literature pertaining to the history of dietary regimes for labour and the physiological and psychological effect of restricting or allowing food and fluids during labour. The increasing trend ...
Cabeza de Vaca Soledad S Department of Psychiatry (Millhauser Laboratories), New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA. - - 2004
Prior research indicates that psychostimulant-induced sensitization is not expressed in lateral hypothalamic electrical self-stimulation (LHSS)-based measures of drug reward, although the augmenting effect of chronic food restriction is. Neuroadaptations within the brain dopamine system have been identified in both psychostimulant-sensitized and food-restricted animals. Consequently, a variant of the LHSS paradigm ...
Ahmed Muna M M - - 2004
Nine desert goats were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design in which they were subjected to (a) ad libitum water and food (control), (b) ad libitum food and water restricted to about 40% of the control, and (c) ad libitum water and restricted food (same amount as ...
Pirow R - - 2004
The dual function of appendage movement (food acquisition, ventilation) proved to be the key to explaining the peculiar oxyregulatory repertoire of the planktonic filter feeder Daphnia magna. Short-term hypoxic exposure experiments with normoxia-acclimated animals under varying food concentrations revealed a dichotomous response pattern with a compensatory tachycardia under food-free conditions ...
Dumas Jean-François - - 2004
To examine the effect of 50% food restriction over a period of 3 days on mitochondrial energy metabolism, liver mitochondria were isolated from ad libitum and food-restricted rats. Mitochondrial enzyme activities and oxygen consumption were assessed spectrophotometrically and polarographically. With regard to body weight loss (-5%), food restriction decreased the ...
Orsini Cristina - - 2004
Temporary food restriction affects strain differences for behavioral phenotypes in the inbred strains of mice C57BL/6 (C57) and DBA/2 (DBA). Since food restriction is a routine procedure to motivate learning, we evaluated its influence on differences for spatial and non-spatial discrimination between these strains of mice by using two non-associative ...
Teillet L - - 2004
The effect of food restriction on survival of lean animals was investigated using WAG/Rij rats. In this strain, body weight of males and females fed ad libitum reached a plateau of 350 g and 220 g, respectively, at the age of 10 months. Their spontaneous food intake was 15 g ...
Arai Keiko - - 2004
In adipocytes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma activates adipocyte differentiation and glucocorticoid (GC) stimulates the expression of PPAR-gamma mRNA. The local tissue concentrations of GC, in turn, are modulated by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1). To clarify the change of energy metabolism in condition of reduced energy intake, we investigated whether ...
Haberny S L - - 2004
Results of behavioral and c-fos immunohistochemical studies have suggested that chronic food restriction and maintenance of animals at 75-80% of free-feeding body weight may increase d-1 dopamine (DA) receptor function. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether D-1 DA receptor binding and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling ...
Karasov William H - - 2004
During northward migration, blackcaps that arrive to refuel at stopover sites in Israel's Negev Desert have reduced masses of organs that are important in food digestion and assimilation. We tested several predictions from the general hypothesis that smaller organs of digestion (small intestine and pancreas) and nutrient assimilation (liver) bring ...
Catalina Fernando - - 2003
Dietary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibits the proliferation of syngeneic bone marrow cells (BMC) infused into lethally irradiated mice. Potential mechanisms for suppression of hematopoiesis were evaluated and the findings were as follows: (i) depletion of NK, T, B or macrophage cells failed to reverse suppression by DHEA; (ii) stem cell stimulation ...
Bilbo Staci D - - 2004
Environmental conditions influence the onset and severity of illness and infection and may compromise survival. Energetically challenging conditions during winter may directly induce death through hypothermia, starvation, or shock. The ability to forecast and prepare for the arrival of challenging conditions associated with winter (e.g. low temperatures, decreased food) likely ...
Bae Helen H - - 2003
Siberian hamsters as young as 16 and 28 d displayed torpor in response to treatment with 2,500 mg/kg 2-deoxy-D-glucose and reduced food availability, respectively. In addition, most food-restricted hamsters displayed increased locomotor activity and elevated body temperatures in the 3 h immediately preceding daily food delivery. This anticipatory activity disappeared ...
Uher Rudolf - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The course of anorexia nervosa varies from rapid recovery to a chronic debilitating illness. This study aimed to identify functional neural correlates associated with differential outcomes. METHODS: Brain reactions to food and emotional visual stimuli were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging in nine women who had long-term recovery ...
Abizaid A - - 2003
Food restriction prolongs lactational infertility in rats. Here, we investigated whether an attenuated response to the positive-feedback effects of oestrogen on luteinizing hormone release contributed to this effect. The ability of oestrogen to induce surges in luteinizing hormone in ad libitum fed and food-restricted dams at different times of lactation ...
Dixon Deann P - - 2003
Activity-based anorexia occurs in rats maintained on a restricted-feeding schedule while given free access to running wheels. These conditions induce high levels of wheel running and rapid weight loss. Although this procedure was developed as an animal model of anorexia nervosa, it has been studied primarily in male rats. Our ...
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