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Wager-Srdar S A - - 1987
Cholecystokinin (CCK) suppresses food intake in a number of animal models, but appears to be less effective in females [5,23]. We studied the effect of CCK on food intake in female rats on each day of the estrous cycle. In addition, we evaluated the effect of sex hormones on food ...
Bartness T J - - 1986
Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorous sungorous) decrease their food intake when exposed to short ("winter-like") photoperiods. The cause of this naturally-occurring hypophagia is unknown, but it may be due to a heightened sensitivity to the factors that normally terminate food intake in long photoperiods, such as the putative satiety peptides. The ...
Morley J E - - 1986
In the studies reported here we demonstrate that bombesin decreases food intake in wolf (Canis lupus) pups without altering glucose or insulin levels. A high dose of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK, 5 micrograms/kg) decreased food intake. CCK produced a transient increase in insulin, without altering glucose. Glucagon (0.5 mg/kg) failed to decrease ...
Mori T - - 1986
The effects of infusions for approximately 1 wk of the synthetic COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) and its derivatives, pyroglutamyl-CCK-8 (pGlu-CCK-8) and glutaryl-CCK-8 (Glt-CCK-8), into the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus of male Wistar rats on their feeding behavior under 12:12 light-dark cycle were examined. Infusion of CCK-8 (0.8 ...
Weekley B - - 1986
Because cholecystokinin octapeptide and angiotensin II are directly involved in intestinal food and water absorption, the effect of these two compounds on intestinal motor responses of hibernating and alert 13-lined ground squirrels was investigated. Both cholecystokinin octapeptide and angiotensin II caused a greater increase in the composite motility of intestinal ...
Tordoff M G - - 1986
We examined the contribution of experimental factors to the hepatic control of food intake. Rats with either hepatic portal or jugular catheters were infused four times with glucose (4.5 mg/min) and equitonic saline (2 ml/2 h). During the infusions their food contained nonnutritive chocolate or chicken flavor, depending on the ...
Cox J E - - 1986
Previous experiments demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) for impairing runway performance by food-deprived rats. These results were consistent with the proposal that CCK-8 does not reduce food intake by inhibiting appetitive motivation but instead acts late in the meal to prematurely trigger satiety. For further ...
Ritter R C - - 1986
Cholecystokinin (CCK), a peptide found in both gastrointestinal endocrine cells and neurons, suppresses food intake and reduces locomotor behavior when injected systemically. Both the locomotor and ingestive effects of CCK are abolished by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Pretreatment of adult rats with capsaicin attenuates the reduced locomotor activity and reduced food intake ...
Verbalis J G - - 1986
Administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) to rats caused a dose-dependent increase in plasma levels of the neurohypophyseal hormone oxytocin (OT). The OT secretion was comparable to that found in response to nausea-producing chemical agents that cause learned taste aversions. The effect of CCK on OT secretion was blunted after gastric vagotomy, ...
Hansen S - - 1986
The mother rat is hyperphagic, aggressive toward other adults, and less fearful than non-maternal rats. The present experiments were conducted to examine whether GABAergic (gamma-aminobutyric acid) mechanisms in the ventromedial hypothalamus and amygdala participate in the control of these behavioral changes. Unilateral infusions of the GABA receptor blocker bicuculline (60 ...
Stein L J - - 1986
Baboons were infused intravenously for 5 min with the octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) after either a 16.5- or 3.5-h fast. After a 3.5-h fast, food intake was significantly suppressed over the ensuing 30 min by 2 micrograms/kg of CCK-8 (-156 +/- 34 kcal compared with control days, P less than ...
Gibbs J - - 1986
Rats were surgically prepared to allow perfusions of anatomically limited portions of the gastrointestinal (GI) surface during test meals. The results demonstrated that at least one potent satiety signal was generated when ingested food accumulated in the stomach and did not enter the small intestine. This gastric satiety signal did ...
Ritter S - - 1986
Subdiabetogenic doses of alloxan injected into the hepatic portal vein of rats abolished glucagon-induced inhibition of feeding (glucagon satiety) both in daytime tests using a palatable food and in nighttime tests using their standard pelleted diet. In contrast, inhibition of food intake by cholecystokinin and epinephrine and stimulation of feeding ...
Lacy M P - - 1986
A series of experiments was performed to examine the role of the duodenum in food intake regulation in the fowl. In each of the experiments, birds were surgically fitted with intraduodenal cannulae. In Experiments 1 to 6, Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) or Rock Cornish cockerels were infused with isosmotic ...
Beckman A L - - 1986
The intracerebral pattern of diffusion of 3H-morphine was studied autoradiographically following continuous infusion (4, 9, and 18 hr; 1 microliter/hr) into the lateral ventricle during hibernation and euthermia (i.e., not hibernating) in ground squirrels (Citellus lateralis). Morphine diffusion into the parenchyma during both states was extensive, resulting in increased autoradiographic ...
Schneider L H - - 1986
Proglumide, a selective antagonist of exogenous cholecystokinin in vitro, also inhibits the reduction of food intake induced by the systemic administration of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) in food deprived rats. On the basis of an increase in the size of a brief test meal which followed an oral preload and treatment ...
Kubota K - - 1986
Three benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and flurazepam, were demonstrated to reverse the suppressed food intake in mice in response to cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8). CCK8 (200 ng) was administered intracisternally, and the benzodiazepines intraperitoneally at doses of 0.1 to 1 mg/kg. The three benzodiazepines slightly depressed the feeding by themselves, but significantly ...
Baile C A - - 1986
Of the many factors that influence food intake, there is strong evidence that opioid and CCK peptides, which stimulate feeding and elicit satiety, respectively, are important components that may act in concert to regulate energy balance. Cholecystokinin peptides have been isolated in both the brain and gastrointestinal tract, and changes ...
Bernstein I L - - 1986
The development of learned aversions to the available diet has been shown to contribute to the anorexia and weight loss which accompany the growth of certain tumors, including the Leydig LTW(m) tumor. Estradiol infusions were found to closely mimic the effects on food intake and food preference seen after Leydig ...
Ervin G N - - 1986
The strengths of taste aversion induced by sulphated cholecystokinin 26-33 (CCK-8; 1,2,4 and 8 micrograms/kg IP) and lithium chloride (LiCl; 7.5, 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg IP) were determined in order to assess the relative aversiveness of the two compounds. All doses of LiCl induced strong aversion, but only the ...
Ettinger R H - - 1986
Rats ate less food than normal on cyclic-ratio schedules following cholecystokinin and lithium chloride injections. Nevertheless, they defended this lower eating rate in the same way as under control conditions. The pattern of effects produced by cholecystokinin and lithium chloride resembled those following diet adulteration with citric acid and sucrose ...
Lacy M P - - 1986
Five experiments were conducted to determine the effect of hepatic and jugular infusions of amino acid and lipid solutions on short-term food intake of cockerels. Neither jugular nor hepatic infusions of amino acids had any effect on food intake of Single-Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) cockerels. Lipid infusions had no effect ...
Yin T H - - 1986
Effects of intraportal influsion of glucagon in vehicle concurrent to feeding on meal pattern were studied in rats with reference to the changes of glycogen content in the liver. The feeding of the animal was monitored by an eatometer in the test chamber. The removal of a Noyes peller, 45 ...
Welch I - - 1985
The effect of ileal infusion of a lipid emulsion, containing 50% corn oil and 3% albumen, on food intake and satiety was measured in paired experiments carried out in 6 healthy volunteers. Subjects ate for shorter periods of time during ileal infusions of fat emulsion compared with control infusions of ...
Koopmans H S - - 1985
Experiments in rats with crossed intestines have shown that signals arising in a 30 cm segment of upper small intestine do not affect the short-term control of food intake. The combined stimulus of neural and hormonal signals arising in the crossed intestinal segment and of absorbed food do not inhibit ...
Shillabeer G - - 1985
Cholecystokinin, secreted when ingested food enters the duodenum, may act as a satiety factor. Injection of proglumide, a specific antagonist of cholecystokinin, induced an increase in food intake. The satiety effect of administered cholecystokinin is abolished by bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. If endogenous and exogenous cholecystokinin act via the same mechanism, ...
Scallet A C - - 1985
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and met-enkephalin (MEK) related peptides have been shown to alter feeding behavior subsequent to their injection into the peripheral circulation or directly into the brains of several species. To evaluate the potential role of endogenous brain pools of these peptides in feeding, groups of sheep were sacrificed either ...
Miceli M O - - 1985
A series of experiments was undertaken to examine the role of the vagus nerve in body weight regulation and the control of ingestive behavior in Syrian hamsters. Body weight, food and water intake, and feeding responsiveness to the putative satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) were studied in hamsters with total subdiaphragmatic ...
Taylor I L - - 1985
Cholecystokinin, bombesin and pancreatic polypeptide are all reported to induce satiety in rodents. To test the hypothesis that cholecystokinin and bombesin induce satiety through release of pancreatic polypeptide, we compared the satiety inducing properties of each peptide in rats trained to eat a liquid diet (Magnacal). Studies were repeated after ...
Ritter R C - - 1985
Capsaicin, the pungent principal in red pepper, has been shown to damage small-diameter peptide-containing sensory neurons. Suppression of feeding by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK OP) was attenuated after systemic pretreatment with capsaicin. Capsaicin pretreatment did not attenuate suppression of food intake by intragastric preloads. Pretreatment of rats with microgram quantities of ...
Lacy M P - - 1985
Although food intake regulation by the central nervous system in the fowl has received considerable attention, studies examining peripheral regulatory mechanisms are relatively few. The objective of these experiments was to determine the role of the liver in short-term regulation of feeding. Small volumes of isotonic glucose were infused into ...
Akner G - - 1985
Intramuscular ceruletide or placebo was given in a randomized double-blind crossover design to 12 non-obese and 12 obese individuals, 30 min before a palatable lunch meal. No significant effects were found on the amount of food intake or the hunger ratings in any group. Although rapid CCK or ceruletide infusions ...
McLaughlin C L - - 1985
While exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) decreases food intake in many species, it has not been demonstrated conclusively that CCK is necessary for satiety to occur. In these experiments the role of CCK in eliciting satiety was further investigated by using endogenously produced and exogenously administered antibodies to CCK which ...
Stacher G - - 1985
Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to produce satiety not only in a variety of animal species but in man as well. In healthy humans, CCK reduces appetite and activation arising from the preparation of a meal, inhibits intake of liquid food in both non-obese and obese subjects, and decreases the ...
Faris P L - - 1985
Intraperitoneal administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) potently attenuated opiate analgesia produced by footshock. CCK also inhibited opiate footshock analgesia when delivered intrathecally to the lumbosacral spinal cord, a critical site of opiate action in mediating this form of analgesia. However, opiate-independent footshock analgesia was not attenuated by CCK. Morphine analgesia was ...
Zetler G - - 1985
The decapeptide from the frog Hyla caerulea, caerulein (caerulein diethylammonium hydrate, ceruletide, CER) is chemically closely related to the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8). Like CCK-8, CER and some of its analogues produce many behavioural effects in mammals: inhibition of intake of food and water; antinociception; sedation; catalepsy; ptosis, antistereotypic, ...
Savory C J - - 1984
The effects of bilateral vagotomy at the level of the proventriculus, in immature female fowls (VAG), on body weight, feeding activity parameters, rate of food passage, digestibility, and satiety effects of bombesin (BBS) and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8), were compared with those in sham-operated controls (SHAM). SHAM birds gained weight at ...
Crawley J N - - 1984
The mechanism by which peripherally administered cholecystokinin (CCK) reduces feeding and exploration involves a sensory feedback pathway from the gastrointestinal regions, via the vagus nerve through the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). Bilateral dorsal midbrain transections rostral to the NTS abolish the ability of CCK to reduce food consumption, decrease exploratory ...
Baile C A - - 1984
Roles of brain and intestinal peptides in the control of food intake may vary among species for specific peptides depending on the degree of complexity of the gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin (CCK) in the brain and intestine is the most widely studied of the peptides involved in the control of feeding. ...
Tsai S H - - 1984
Administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) (0.2 - 0.6 micrograms in a volume of 2 microliter) into the lateral cerebral ventricle caused a decrease in intake of food but a relative increase in intake of water (or water-to-food ratio) in rats. To determine whether the anorexic actions of CCK were mediated through ...
Martyn P A - - 1984
Frequently, patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) report hunger during the parenteral infusion, yet experience early satiety once PN is tapered off. Post-PN satiety can interfere with the ability to consume enough nutrients to maintain body weight and nutritional status. Factors such as caloric quantity of infusate, gastric motility changes, and ...
Smith G P - - 1984
Ceruletide (caerulein), a decapeptide extracted from the skin of the frog, Hyla caerulea, is very similar in structure to the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8). Although ceruletide and CCK-8 act through similar or identical receptors to produce the same visceral effects, previous studies in the rat suggested that peripherally administered ...
Cox J E - - 1984
We compared changes in runway performance by rats for sucrose reward following injections of the synthetic C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) with those seen after variations in food deprivation and injections of lithium chloride. No effects on running for either 10% or 30% sucrose were found following 0.5 to 4.0 ...
Kádár T - - 1984
Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) in doses of 5 or 10 micrograms/kg was injected intraperitoneally to 24 hr food-deprived rats before a 30 min feeding period, and the dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) contents of the hypothalamus, mesencephalon, amygdala, hippocampus and striatum were measured thereafter. The experimental procedure (deprivation + ...
Thompson D A - - 1984
Noradrenergic central and peripheral nervous system mechanisms for the control of food intake and thermogenesis, respectively, have been described in rats and, to a lesser extent, in humans. To examine further the role of the sympathetic nervous system in energy balance modulation during glucoprivation, the alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine was ...
Telegdy G - - 1984
The effects of intraperitoneally (ip.) and intracerebroventricularly (icv.) administered sulfated and nonsulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8-SE and CCK-8-NS) and their N- and C-terminal fragments on the tail-pinch-induced feeding behavior of rats were investigated. After ip. administration, only CCK-8-SE inhibited tail-pinch-induced food intake. After icv. administration, both CCK-8-SE and CCK-8-NS, in doses ...
Shurlock T G - - 1984
The hepatic portal veins of cockerels were catheterised to study the effects of 3-h infusions of nutrient solutions on voluntary food intake. An amino acid mixture, infused at rates up to 800 mg N/3 h, depressed intake of a standard diet in a significant linear manner (intakes with the highest ...
Levine A S - - 1984
Although the incidence of obesity in the domesticated dog is high, few studies have investigated the regulation of food intake in this species. In the present study we investigated the response of the dog to a number of putative satiety agents including cholecystokinin (CCK), bombesin, calcitonin and naloxone. CCK significantly ...
Gosnell B A - - 1984
Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) reduced the amount consumed or the number of licks of several concentrations of sucrose in short-term tests with rats that were hungry, satiated, or fed ad lib. The suppressive effect of CCK-8 was generally smaller in the hungry than in the satiated or ad-lib condition. In the ...
Marks-Kaufman R - - 1984
The effects of chronic naltrexone infusions on food intake and energy balance were examined in male rats. Animals were fed either Purina Chow, or chow plus a 32% sucrose solution. After one week of being maintained on these diets, animals were implanted (intrascapularly) with osmotic minipumps infusing either 200 micrograms/kg/hr ...
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