Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 549
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Brenner L - - 1995
An analogue of the C-terminal heptapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK) t-Boc-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-D-Trp-Nle-Asp-a-2-phenylethylester is a potent, specific CCK receptor antagonist. Intraperitoneal injection of the antagonist abolished suppression of real feeding and sham feeding by exogenous CCK-8 (1.8 nmol/kg), and significantly increased real feeding. Assuming an antagonist distribution like that of exogenous CCK-8, our ...
Lieverse R J - - 1995
Cholecystokinin 33 (CCK) was infused intravenously to eight healthy obese women and 10 healthy lean women of the same age, in doses that elicited plasma cholecystokinin concentrations in the physiological range. The effect of these infusions after a standardised banana 'shake' (preload) on food intake and satiety signals was compared ...
Meguid R A - - 1995
The relationship between surfeit caloric consumption during intravenous infusion of a parenteral nutrition solution providing 100% daily caloric needs (PN-100; glucose:fat:amino acid = 50:30:20), carcass adiposity, and postinfusion food intake was evaluated. Rats received saline (control) or PN-100 for 4 days via jugular vein. PN-100 rats were either allowed or ...
Zittel T T - - 1995
PURPOSE: To determine the cause of body weight loss after total gastrectomy. METHODS: We evaluated the acute effect of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) on food intake and the chronic effect of CCK receptor blockade on food intake and body weight after total gastrectomy in rats. RESULTS: Exogenous CCK significantly reduced food ...
Cox J E - - 1995
We compared suppression of intake of 30% sucrose produced by continuous aortal (near celiac) and intravenous infusions of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8). Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats received 21-min infusions of saline or 100-1,600 ng CCK-8. Sucrose was available for 20 min, beginning 1 min after onset of infusions. Significant reductions in ...
Semple H A - - 1994
The large increase in propranolol (PL) bioavailability when administered with food cannot be entirely explained by a transient increase in hepatic blood flow. A change in metabolic capacity or tissue uptake induced by changes in insulin and/or glucagon associated with food ingestion may contribute to the food effect. This hypothesis ...
Reidelberger R D - - 1994
A cholecystokinin monoclonal antibody (CCK MAb) was used to immunoneutralize CCK to test the hypothesis that CCK produces satiety by an endocrine mechanism. We first characterized the effects of CCK MAb on pancreatic secretion. Conscious rats with jugular vein and bile-pancreatic duct cannulas received CCK MAb or control antibody intravenously ...
Salorio C F - - 1994
Peripheral administration of the brain/gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) has been demonstrated to inhibit food intake in a variety of species, and administration of the specific type A CCK receptor antagonist devazepide increases food intake in a variety of experimental paradigms. The potency of CCK to inhibit intake depends upon a ...
Ebenezer I S - - 1994
In order to investigate whether the inhibitory effect of systemically administered cholecystokinin (CCK) on food intake is dependent on an interaction with central 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) processes, we examined the effects of pretreating rats that were deprived of food for various periods of time (22 h in Experiments 1 and 3, ...
Rogers P J - - 1994
In 1987 Ryan-Harshman et al. reported finding no effects on food intake after administering high doses (up to 10.08 g) of phenylalanine and aspartame in capsules to human volunteers. However, this is contrary to the results of other studies, and trends in their tabulated data suggest that certain effects may ...
Sasaki K - - 1994
The effects of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), basic FGF (bFGF), and related peptides, such as aFGF fragments, on food and water intake were investigated. Infusion of aFGF and bFGF into the third cerebral ventricle significantly suppressed food intake. The potency of aFGF was 1.5 that of bFGF in food ...
Morley J E - - 1994
Amylin has been demonstrated to produce anorexia in rodents. Its mechanism of action is unknown. We have studied the effect of amylin on food intake in mice in a variety of paradigms to determine whether it inhibits food intake by a peripheral mechanism of action. In addition, we determined its ...
Covasa M - - 1994
Intraperitoneal injections of 3.5, 7.0, 14.0, and 28.0 micrograms/kg of CCK-8 into free-feeding broiler chickens significantly reduced food intake and delayed feeding (p < 0.05). To determine whether CCK can condition preference or aversion and to investigate the latency and the reversal of the effect, a low (2 micrograms/kg) and ...
Bakshi V P VP Department of Psychology, Northeastern University, Boston, MA - - 1994
The effects of repeated morphine infusions (10 micrograms/0.5 microliter) into the nucleus accumbens on feeding were studied in sated rats. As shown previously, intra-accumbens morphine infusions induced a large increase in food intake. After undergoing repeated morphine treatment, animals consumed significant quantities of food in response to a saline or ...
Ballinger A B - - 1994
Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) reduces food intake in humans; however, it is not clear if endogenous CCK is a true satiety hormone. The aim of this experiment was to manipulate endogenous release of CCK using L-phenylalanine (L-PA), a potent releaser of CCK, and to measure subsequent food intake. On ...
Pietrowsky R - - 1994
Animal and human studies have suggested a satieting effect of ceruletide, an analog of cholecystokinin. In humans, signs of a selectively diminished central nervous processing of food stimuli may provide a more valid measure of satiety than overt eating behavior. To assess the satieting effects of ceruletide in humans, effects ...
Washburn B S - - 1994
We investigated the roles of the vagus nerve and the serotonin3 (5-HT3) receptor in mediating the food intake depression associated with amino acid deficiency. The food intake of sham-operated (sham) rats given an isoleucine-imbalanced (IMB) diet was reduced to < 40% of control basal (BAS) diet intake (P = 0.0009), ...
Covasa M - - 1994
The cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist MK-329 (previously L-364,718) was administered intraperitoneally to free-feeding broiler chickens and tested for conditioning effects using the colored food paradigm. The 8.0, 16.0, and 32.0 micrograms/kg doses of MK-329 did not exert any effect on food intake and failed to condition a color preference or ...
Balleine B - - 1994
In 4 experiments, the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the motivational control of instrumental performance in rats was assessed. Following instrumental training with food rewards, injections of CCK (either 2 micrograms/kg or 4 micrograms/kg) had no effect on instrumental performance in extinction, even when the opportunity was given to learn ...
Gutzwiller J P - - 1994
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bombesin and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) are closely related peptides. Both have been proposed to serve as a satiety signal in animals. METHODS: To explore further the role of GRP in humans, its effects on satiety and eating behavior were investigated by infusion of GRP into healthy men at three ...
Ackroff K - - 1994
Prior studies have obtained strong conditioned preferences (> 90%) for flavors paired with intragastric (IG) infusions of Polycose (hydrolyzed starch) over different flavors paired with IG water infusions. These experiments used concentrated Polycose solutions (16-32%; 0.6-1.2 kcal/ml) that contributed 50% or more of the animals' daily caloric intake. The present ...
Lieverse R J - - 1994
Satiation, the process that brings eating to an end, and satiety, the state of inhibition over further eating, may be influenced by cholecystokinin (CCK). In animal and human studies, it has been shown that infusion of exogenous CCK decreases food intake, but the doses given may well have led to ...
Schick R R - - 1994
The neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK), which is localized within the hypothalamus in integrative centers of feeding regulation, can suppress feeding behavior when exogenously applied into the lateral hypothalamus. Moreover, the endogenous peptide can be released from the same brain locus by stimuli that physiologically are associated with satiety (i.e., gastric meal ...
Schwartz G J - - 1994
We have begun to identify and characterize the locations and response profiles of vagal afferent fibers sensitive to CCK in the rat upper gastrointestinal tract. We found gastric and duodenal vagal afferent fibers that respond to CCK and to intraluminal loads. CCK both sensitizes and amplifies the response to loads ...
Raybould H E - - 1994
Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates vagal afferent fiber discharge, both gastric and intestinal, which seems to result in reflex decrease in gastric motility, gastric acid secretion, and stimulation of pancreatic protein secretion. Endogenous release of CCK by fat or soybean trypsin inhibitor also alters function by way of a capsaicin-sensitive pathway. We ...
Murphy T M - - 1994
Adolescent guinea pigs (AGPs) demonstrate dry gas hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction (HIB) that shares key features with HIB in humans with asthma. The airways of immature animals exhibit enhanced reactivity to diverse types of stimulation. We tested whether dry gas HIB is also increased in newborn guinea pigs (NGPs). We quantified HIB ...
Read N - - 1994
In addition to various psychosocial and metabolic factors, food intake is also influenced by gastrointestinal mechanisms that trigger both the initiation and termination of eating behaviors. Although gastric distension is one of the most obvious signs of "fullness" and clearly plays a role in controlling food intake, its effects are ...
Choi Y H - - 1994
This study investigated whether or not endogenous cholecystokinin exerts satiety effects in chickens. After several doses (0, 1, 2 and 4 micrograms.kg body weight-1) of intravenous injection of caerulein, the bile flow was increased in a dose-dependent fashion. However, the pharmacological level of caerulein failed to suppress the food intake ...
Mei J J Department of Medical and Physiological Chemistry, University of Lund, - - 1993
Enterostatin is a peptide which has been found to decrease food intake with a specificity for the fat contained in the food. In this work we have investigated the effect of enterostatin (Val-Pro-Asp-Pro-Arg) and its proteolytic fragments, des-arg-enterostatin (Val-Pro-Asp-Pro) and the tripeptide Asp-Pro-Arg, on insulin secretion. It was found that ...
Carr B A - - 1993
Peripheral administration of sulfated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) potently reduces alcohol intake, preference, and blood levels in rats. MK-329 (L-364,718 or Devazepide) acts at peripheral cholecystokinin (CCKA) receptors to antagonize CCK-8's physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding. We determined whether CCKA receptor blockade would also ...
McHugh K - - 1993
Experimental colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal infusion of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and ethanol. Colitis was accompanied by a large suppression of food intake of 3 days duration. The reduction of food intake was effected through a reduction of meal size, with no change in meal frequency. Those same rats ...
McGowan M K - - 1993
This study examines whether chronic intrahypothalamic (IH) insulin infusions suppress body weight and food intake directly or via effects on water intake or activity. Insulin (15 microU/h) was infused into the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus of rats for 1 week. If IH insulin infusions primarily suppress water intake, animals should consume ...
Schwartz G J - - 1993
Both gastric preloads and exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) administration inhibit food intake, and combinations of preloads and CCK suppress feeding to a greater degree than either stimulus delivered alone. A role for the vagus nerve in mediating CCK's inhibition of food intake has been proposed, and gastric vagal afferent fibers respond ...
Hirosue Y - - 1993
To examine the mechanism of the satiety-producing effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the central nervous system, we compared the potency of intraperitoneally (ip) or intracerebroventricularly (icv) administered CCK-8 and its analogues on food intake in fasted mice. The icv administration of a small dose of CCK-8 (0.03 nmol/brain) or of ...
Merrill A H AH - - 1993
Chylomicrons have a suppressive effect on food consumption, which is attributed to apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV). This protein is found in cerebrospinal fluid in vivo, and its infusion into the third ventricle of the brain reduces food intake. These findings suggest that this apolipoprotein operates through the central nervous system ...
Lieverse R J - - 1993
1. A double-blind study was undertaken to determine whether the infusion of bombesin inhibits the intake of a carbohydrate-rich meal, consumed 15 min after a 300 ml banana shake, in nine lean healthy subjects and whether the possible inhibition of food intake by bombesin is mediated by cholecystokinin. 2. The ...
Moran T H - - 1993
The exogenous administration of the brain/gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits food intake in a variety of species, including subhuman primates and humans. To determine the role of endogenously released CCK in the control of food intake in rhesus monkeys, we examined the ability of the selective type A and type ...
Oomura Y - - 1993
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in rat CSF increased 1000 times in the 2-h period after food intake, or IP, or ICV glucose infusion. The ICV application of aFGF dose dependently depresses and anti-aFGF antibody facilitates food intake. aFGF is produced in the ependymal cells and released into the CSF ...
Holland A J AJ Academic Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, - - 1993
The behavioural, cognitive and metabolic response to food intake was studied in 13 adults with the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and compared to ten age-matched controls. Rates of eating were observed during one hour's access to food and feelings of hunger were assessed using a visual analogue scale. Blood was taken ...
Farningham D A - - 1993
Sheep fed ad lib. on a good-quality pelleted diet (g/kg; hay 500, barley 300, molasses, fish meal and minerals) were infused via the hepatic portal vein with mixtures of the sodium salts of volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate, and a variety of equivalent osmotic loads. Propionate infused at rates ...
Butera P C - - 1993
Data obtained from a wide variety of mammalian species indicate that feeding behavior can be influenced by changes in endogenous estrogens and by exogenous estrogenic treatments. The present experiment represents an initial investigation of the hypothesis that the suppression of food intake by estradiol is mediated by an enhancement of ...
Lieverse R J - - 1993
This double blind study was undertaken to determine whether infusion of bombesin (BBS) inhibits the intake of a carbohydrate-rich meal in nine lean healthy subjects and whether inhibition of food intake by BBS is mediated by cholecystokinin (CCK). During infusion of BBS, the amount of food eaten was decreased compared ...
Ebenezer I S - - 1993
The aim of the present study was to determine whether CCK released from the small intestine during a meal acts as a satiety factor. The effects of the novel CCKA antagonist A70104 (50-200 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) were investigated on operant food intake in 4 h food-deprived pigs. None of the ...
Melville L D - - 1993
We investigated the satiating potency of CCK-33 and of CCK-8 administered IP to rats prior to a 30-min food intake test using a high-carbohydrate liquid diet. CCK-33 and CCK-8 produced dose-related inhibitions of intake. The ID50S and the slopes of the dose-response functions of the two peptides were not significantly ...
Berntson G G - - 1993
Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by dramatic hyperphagia and morbid obesity, and is associated with a deficiency in basal and meal-stimulated serum pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels. Intravenous infusions of pancreatic polypeptide (90 min, 50 pmol/kg/h) restored normal serum PP levels, and a regimen of morning and afternoon PP infusions was found ...
Davidson T L - - 1993
A comparison of the interoceptive sensory consequences of cholecystokinin, bombesin, and 1-h food deprivation was conducted in rats. In two experiments, rats were first trained to use stimuli arising from different degrees of food deprivation (1 and 24 h or 1 and 4 h) as discriminative signals for shock, and ...
Fujimoto K - - 1993
The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether the anorectic effect of apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) after lipid feeding is mediated via the central nervous system. Infusion of 0.5 micrograms of apo A-IV into the third ventricle failed to suppress food intake. Higher doses (1 micrograms or higher) of ...
Morley J E - - 1993
Amylin is a pancreatic peptide hormone that has been demonstrated to antagonize a number of the effects of insulin. This study demonstrated that amylin, when administered IP, decreased food intake in 4-month-old rats at doses of 50, 75, and 100 micrograms/kg. Amylin was slightly more potent at suppressing food intake ...
Weatherford S C - - 1993
Cholecystokinin-JMV-180 (JMV-180) is an analogue of cholecystokinin C-terminal octapeptide (CCK-8), which has been shown to be an agonist at the proposed CCK pancreatic high-affinity site and a functional antagonist at the pancreatic low-affinity site in rats and to have agonist activity at both high- and low-affinity sites in the mouse. ...
Lieverse R J - - 1993
CCK-33 was infused intravenously to groups of 9 lean and 9 obese volunteers in doses that elicited plasma CCK concentrations in the physiological range. The effect of these infusions on food intake and satiety signals was compared with the effect of saline infusions in the same subjects. Food intake (486 ...
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