Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 545
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Foster L A - - 1998
Although animals eventually stop eating when only experiencing the oro-sensory stimuli from a food, they stop eating much more rapidly if they also receive postgastric stimuli simultaneously. This suggests that the postgastric effects of a nutrient influence the hedonic value of food or motivation to consume that food, and thus, ...
Bhavsar S - - 1998
Several gastrointestinal peptides which are secreted in response to nutrients have been reported to suppress food intake. Amylin is a peptide hormone co-secreted with insulin from pancreatic beta-cells in response to nutrient stimuli. Cholesystokinin (CCK) is secreted from duodenal and jejunal mucosal cells in response to fat and protein. Amylin ...
Castiglione K E - - 1998
Previous studies in humans and animals have shown that the presence of lipid in the small intestine can reduce food intake. Studies that have combined intraduodenal lipid infusions with gastric distension produced a greater reduction in food intake than when these two stimuli were separated. In this study, subjects received ...
Mottet C - - 1998
Because of their vasoactive effects, somatostatin and its analogs are increasingly used in the management of complications of chronic liver diseases such as variceal bleeding. Postprandial hyperemia augments splanchnic blood flow, subsequently increasing portal pressure. The aim of this study was to explore effects of the somatostatin analog, lanreotide, on ...
Lieverse R J - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether infusion of bombesin, when combined with a gastric preload, influence satiety and foot intake in obese and lean healthy women. DESIGN: Double blind, placebo controlled study. SETTING: Department of Gastroenterology, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Obese (n = ...
Brenner L A - - 1998
Suppression of sham feeding by exogenous CCK-8 or intraintestinal oleate infusion is attenuated by peripheral administration of the CCK-A receptor antagonist, devazepide, but not by the CCK-B antagonist, L365260. Likewise, systemically administered devazepide increases food intake by real feeding rats. These results suggest that endogenous CCK participates in the reduction ...
Cecil J E - - 1998
Previous studies using meal preloads have indicated that carbohydrate has a greater satiating power than fat. To investigate the effects of macronutrients on ingestion and satiety, without the influence of meal design and orosensory factors, two groups of ten healthy, fasted male volunteers took part in two separate experiments involving ...
Voigt J P - - 1998
The effects of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) and the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) on food intake are well established. Based on pharmacological studies, an interactive model for 5-HT and CCK was proposed. The present microdialysis study was aimed to provide neurochemical evidence for a facilitatory effect of CCK-8S on 5-HT release ...
Muto N - - 1997
1. The effects of imazalil, a food contaminant used as a fungicide, were investigated on the expression and activity of cytochrome P450 in the small intestinal mucosa and liver of mice. Imazalil was orally administered to mice daily at 1 or 10 mg/kg for 3 days. 2. Imazalil enhanced cytochrome ...
Barrachina M D - - 1997
Leptin is a circulating protein involved in the long-term regulation of food intake and body weight. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released postprandially and elicits satiety signals. We investigated the interaction between leptin and CCK-8 in the short-term regulation of food intake induced by 24-hr fasting in lean mice. Leptin, injected intraperitoneally ...
Schwartz G J - - 1997
To evaluate the role of subdiaphragmatic vagal afferent fibers in mediating the inhibition of food intake produced by peripheral administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), we assessed the ability of 100 micrograms/kg ip LPS and 2 micrograms/kg ip human recombinant IL-1 beta to ...
Blair-West J R - - 1997
Experiments in cattle compared the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of losartan and PD-123319 on water intake caused by water restriction, i.c.v. infusion of hypertonic NaCl, or i.c.v. infusion of angiotensin II (ANG II). The effects of these receptor antagonists on sodium intake caused by sodium depletion were also examined. ...
Weller A - - 1997
Nonvolumetric inhibitory control of food intake during independent ingestion was studied in rats on postnatal day 12. Pups received either sham intubation or equivolumetric (5% BW) preloads of 20% (w/v) glucose, 20% maltose, 20% 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), 0.9% NaCl, 200 mg soybean trypsin-inhibitor (SBTI) or distilled water, 5 min prior to ...
Ramirez I - - 1997
Ingestion-contingent infusions of 6% carbohydrate did not affect saccharin intake during the first ingestive bout, but later they greatly stimulated ingestion, slowed the rate of decline of ingestion during bouts, and increased the average bout size. This suggests that the intake-stimulating effect of carbohydrate infusions is partly attributable to conditioned ...
Trigazis L - - 1997
To test the hypothesis that only dietary protein (Pro; chicken egg albumin) and not amino acids (AA), carbohydrates (CHO; cornstarch), or fats (Fat; corn oil) produces a satiating effect via cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors, devazepide was coadministered with each macronutrient. Given alone (in 4 ml ig), Pro (0.75, 1.0, and 1.5 ...
Burggraf K K - - 1997
Glucose or lipid was infused intravenously (IV) or intragastrically (IG) 30 min before and also during the 17 h when rats were fed both a high-carbohydrate diet and a high-fat diet. Three-day infusions of 28.1 kcal of glucose reduced daily food intake by 19.7 +/- 1.9 kcal/day, representing an oral ...
Gomez G - - 1997
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of pancreastatin (PST) (400 pmol/kg/hr) and somatostatin (SRIF) (400 pmol/kg/hr) on food-induced release of gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and peptide YY (PYY) in conscious dogs. The present findings indicate that SRIF is more potent than PST on the inhibition of ...
Rodriguez M D - - 1997
To further investigate the possible role of apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) in the short-term control of food intake, we examined the kinetics of intestinal apo A-IV synthesis and release into lymph and plasma after intragastric delivery of physiological amounts of lipid. Within 30 min of intragastric administration of 0.1 g ...
Kalogeris T J - - 1997
Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV, a component of intestinally secreted, triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, has recently been proposed as a physiological controller of gastric function and food intake. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in the control of expression, synthesis and secretion of apo A-IV. Apo A-IV is a member of ...
Morley J E - - 1997
Amylin is a hormone produced by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Amylin decreased food pellet consumption. Amylin also decreased lever pressing for milk solution whether or not the mice were prefed. Amylin did not produce a conditioned taste aversion in a two bottle test, whereas lithium chloride did. In addition, ...
Rodríguez-Sinovas A - - 1997
The aim of this work was to study the involvement of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the control of food intake in chickens. The following aspects were studied: 1) the effects of intravenous and intracerebroventricular sulfated octapeptide of CCK (CCK-8s) on voluntary food intake; 2) the effects of two CCK-receptor antagonists. L-365,260 ...
Geiselman P J - - 1996
This article has examined the control of food intake as a physiologically complex, motivated behavioral system. During the past four decades, considerable progress has been made in understanding putative signals for hunger, satiation, and satiety, although hunger signals have proven to be more difficult to identify. The putative physiologic controls ...
Arnelo U - - 1996
Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a hormonal peptide that at high doses has been shown to reduce food intake. In the present study, the dose-response effects of subcutaneous infusion of IAPP (0, 2, 7, and 25 pmol.kg-1.min-1) for 8 days on food intake and meal patterns in rats were investigated. ...
Lutz T A - - 1996
Peripheral administration of the fructose analogue 2,5-anhydro-D-mannitol (AM), that inhibits hepatic glucose release and ATP formation, stimulates food intake in rats. This effect is partly generated in the hepato-portal area and transmitted to the central nervous system by the common hepatic vagus branch because hepatic branch vagotomy eliminated the feeding ...
Sakata Y - - 1996
We examined satiation after intraduodenal infusion of triglyceride with or without Pluronic L-81 (L-81) in rats. L-81 suppresses lipid transport into mesenteric lymph by preventing the formation of chylomicrons. Under unrestrained conditions, a lipid emulsion was infused into 24-h fasted rats intraduodenally for 8 h. After the infusion, food intake ...
Ebenezer I S - - 1996
The demonstration that intraperitoneal administration of the sulphated octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8S) inhibits food but not water intake in rats, has led to the hypothesis that endogenous peripheral CCK acts as a food-specific satiety factor. As water-deprived rats given free access to water can satisfy their thirst fairly rapidly, it ...
Furuse M - - 1996
The influence of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor antagonist, devazepide (DVZ), on the chicken digestive tract was investigated. The passage of food from the crops of birds treated with DVZ was not significantly different from that of the control. DVZ treatment did not inhibit the biliary flow stimulated by the CCK ...
Mei J - - 1996
Central and peripheral administration of enterostatin have been reported to reduce fat or high-fat food intake in rats. Enterostatin is formed in the intestinal lumen by tryptic cleavage of pancreatic procolipase during intraluminal fat digestion. The present experiments were designed to test if enterostatin following intraintestinal infusion would affect food ...
Lampman R L - - 1996
The number of egg rafts oviposited by Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in infusion-baited ovitraps varied with the type of infusion substrate, infusion age, method of infusion preparation, and calendar date. In one or more tests, more Culex egg rafts were collected from water infused with Kentucky bluegrass sod, mixed ...
Li A J - - 1996
Previous studies have shown that acidic and basic fibroblast growth fa ctor (aFGF and bFGF) and certain fragments of the aFGF N-terminal suppress food intake in rats due to their inhibitory actions on the glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). The present study was planned to determine the ...
Tordoff M G - - 1996
To examine whether the sodium-potassium pump (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) mediates food or NaCl intake, male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad lib access to food, water, and 300 mM NaCl solution were infused for 27 days with the Na+,K(+)-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (4, 8, 16, 32, or 64 micrograms/h, SC). Ouabain significantly decreased NaCl preference ...
Voigt J P - - 1996
The effects of CCK on food intake were investigated under fixed feeding conditions in comparison to a test meal taken after 16 h of food deprivation. The experiments were performed on young adult rats (8 weeks old) as well on aged rats (23 months old). Intraperitoneal CCK-8 (8 and 40 ...
Voits M - - 1996
The satiating effect of the selective cholecystokininA (CCKA) receptor agonist A71378 and the mixed A and B receptor agonist CCK-8S were compared in 24-h food-deprived rats. After systemic application of 1.6, 8.0, and 40 micrograms/kg A71378 or CCK-8S, respectively, food intake was measured for 24 h. During the first hour ...
Ebenezer I S - - 1996
The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretreatment with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen could prevent the inhibitory effect of systemically administered cholecystokinin (CCK) on food intake in rats. Baclofen (2 mg/kg, SC) administered 60 min prior to IP injection of CCK (5 micrograms/kg) significantly attenuated the suppressant ...
Tso P - - 1995
How fat feeding, especially lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, may affect food intake is unclear. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) is a protein associated with chylomicrons, and its synthesis by the small intestine is markedly stimulated following ingestion of fat. We explored the anorectic effect of chylous lymph on feeding behavior. Intestinal lymph ...
Walls E K - - 1995
The arrival of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract suppresses intake. To specify the neural pathways and receptor locations of this feedback, we examined the effects of intraduodenal infusions of 10 nutrients plus saline on short-term food intake of rats with selective deafferentations of vagal celiac branches. Three response profiles were ...
Sasaki K - - 1995
Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) has suppressive effects on food intake. In the present study, the effect of aFGF fragments on food intake were investigated in rats. Infusion of a carboxyl-terminal fragment of aFGF, aFGF-(114-140), did not affect food intake, whereas an amino-terminal fragment of aFGF, aFGF-(1-15), was significantly inhibitory. ...
Wen J - - 1995
To explore mechanisms whereby unabsorbed nutrients in the ileum inhibit the upper gut ("ileal brake"), we perfused the canine ileum or colon and monitored phase 3 in the duodenum. Fasting motility was recorded when the ileum or colon was perfused with 154 mM NaCl, a mixed isotonic nutrient solution (Ensure), ...
Ebenezer I S - - 1995
1. The demonstration that systemic administration of the CCKA receptor antagonist, devazepide, increases food intake in rats has provided the strongest support for the hypothesis that endogenous peripherally released cholecystokinin (CCK) acts as a satiety factor. However, interpretation of these results has been confounded by the fact that devazepide can ...
Porrini M - - 1995
The reproducibility of three questions, related to fullness, satiety and desire to eat, rated on an unmarked triangle was verified. In four sessions 12 volunteers ate pasta with tomato sauce (520 kcal) and were asked to rate the sensations felt. There was no difference in rating scores of the replications ...
Morley J E - - 1995
Amylin has been demonstrated to decrease food intake in mice and rats. Amylin is effective when delivered both peripherally and directly into the central nervous system. Amylin's effect on food intake is not aversive. Amylin may produce its effect on food intake by modulating nitric oxide synthesis. Calcitonin gene related ...
Balleine B - - 1995
The hypothesis that endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) reduces the incentive value assigned to food was examined by training undeprived rats to lever press and chain pull, with one action earning food pellets and the other maltodextrin solution. All animals were then food deprived and reexposed to one outcome after an injection ...
Denton D A - - 1995
Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) at 50 ng/h for 5 days in male BALB/c mice suppressed the daily intakes of water and food (n = 4). Intakes were reduced on the second day, and were suppressed until the second day after stopping the infusion. The same ...
Ihse I - - 1995
In the absence of causative therapy of acute pancreatitis the management of the disease focus on treatment and prevention of complications and symptoms. In mild acute pancreatitis intravenous fluid administration, analgetics and avoidance of oral fluid or food intake is sufficient in most cases. The treatment of severe pancreatitis involves ...
Lieverse R J - - 1995
Several studies have demonstrated that administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) reduces food intake in several species, including humans. In animal studies CCK-receptor antagonists have been reported to increase food intake, suggesting a physiological satiety effect of CCK in these animals. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect of the ...
Lieverse R J - - 1995
Somatostatin (ST) inhibits gastrointestinal motility and exocrine and endocrine secretions. In animals, ST has been demonstrated to decrease food intake. We investigated, in a randomized double-blind investigation in 10 healthy humans, the effects of an intravenous ST infusion compared to saline on subjective hunger feelings. After 1 h, a low ...
Brenner L - - 1995
An analogue of the C-terminal heptapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK) t-Boc-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-D-Trp-Nle-Asp-a-2-phenylethylester is a potent, specific CCK receptor antagonist. Intraperitoneal injection of the antagonist abolished suppression of real feeding and sham feeding by exogenous CCK-8 (1.8 nmol/kg), and significantly increased real feeding. Assuming an antagonist distribution like that of exogenous CCK-8, our ...
Lieverse R J - - 1995
Cholecystokinin 33 (CCK) was infused intravenously to eight healthy obese women and 10 healthy lean women of the same age, in doses that elicited plasma cholecystokinin concentrations in the physiological range. The effect of these infusions after a standardised banana 'shake' (preload) on food intake and satiety signals was compared ...
Meguid R A - - 1995
The relationship between surfeit caloric consumption during intravenous infusion of a parenteral nutrition solution providing 100% daily caloric needs (PN-100; glucose:fat:amino acid = 50:30:20), carcass adiposity, and postinfusion food intake was evaluated. Rats received saline (control) or PN-100 for 4 days via jugular vein. PN-100 rats were either allowed or ...
Zittel T T - - 1995
PURPOSE: To determine the cause of body weight loss after total gastrectomy. METHODS: We evaluated the acute effect of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) on food intake and the chronic effect of CCK receptor blockade on food intake and body weight after total gastrectomy in rats. RESULTS: Exogenous CCK significantly reduced food ...
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