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McDermott J R - - 2006
Gastrointestinal inflammation reduces food intake but the biological mechanisms explaining suppressed feeding during inflammation are unknown. We have used a model of upper gut infection (Trichinella spiralis in the mouse) to study the effect of inflammation on food intake, and explored the role of a key enteroendocrine cell (EEC) in ...
Mithieux Gilles - - 2005
Protein feeding is known to decrease hunger and subsequent food intake in animals and humans. It has also been suggested that glucose appearance into portal vein, as occurring during meal assimilation, may induce comparable effects. Here, we connect these previous observations by reporting that intestinal gluconeogenesis (i.e., de novo synthesis ...
Koegler Frank H - - 2005
Peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] is a hormone that is released after meal ingestion that is currently being investigated for the treatment of obesity; however, there are conflicting reports of the effects of PYY(3-36) on energy balance in rodent models. To shed light on this controversy, we studied the effect of PYY(3-36) ...
Degen Lukas L Division of Gastroenterology and Clinical Research Center, Department of Research, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, - - 2005
Studies in animals and humans suggest a role for peptide YY (PYY3-36) in regulating satiety. The physiologic role of PYY3-36, however, has not been investigated in detail. The present study was designed to examine PYY release in response to 2 meals differing in their calorie content and to relate the ...
Thavanathan Rajiv - - 2006
In mammals, amylin (AMY) is a peptide that is secreted from the pancreas in response to a meal. AMY inhibits food intake and may also contribute to the anorectic effects of the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK). In this study, we assessed the role of AMY in the regulation of food ...
Chelikani Prasanth K - - 2006
The gut hormone peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] decreases food intake when administered by intravenous infusion to lean and obese humans and rats. Whether chronic administration of PYY(3-36) produces a sustained reduction in food intake and adiposity is the subject of intense debate. Batterham et al. (R. L. Batterham, M. A. Cowley, ...
Wilson Wendy L - - 2005
The current study examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) infused aminopeptidase-resistant analogs of angiotensin II (AngII) and angiotensin III (AngIII) on thirst and sodium appetite. The analogs, [D-Asp1D-Arg2]AngII and [D-Arg1]AngIII, were further protected from degradation by pretreatment with the aminopeptidase A inhibitor, EC33, or the aminopeptidase N inhibitor, PC18. Prior ...
Bariohay Bruno - - 2005
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has recently been implicated as an anorexigenic factor in the central control of food intake. Previous studies focused on the hypothalamus as a probable site of action for this neurotrophin. It was demonstrated that BDNF is an important downstream effector of melanocortin signaling in the ventromedial ...
Allan Sandra A - - 2005
Gravid mosquito traps are commonly used for both arbovirus surveillance and population surveillance of mosquitoes of the genus Culex. Oviposition substrates, used as baits in these traps, were tested against Culex under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory all substrates tested as 1% and 10% dilutions in 2-choice bioassays ...
Missant C - - 2005
Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) is used to maintain epidural analgesia following initial intrathecal analgesia. This trial investigated whether a continuous background infusion with PCEA provides superior analgesia to PCEA alone among patients who received combined spinal-epidural (CSE) analgesia during labour Eighty parturients were randomized to either PCEA alone (PCEA) or ...
Banerjee Sarmistha - - 2005
Spices and flavouring agents are now receiving increasing attention as many of them have been shown to have anticarcinogenic properties. Cloves, sun-dried unopened flower buds from the plant Syzygium aromaticum L, are commonly used as a spice and food flavour. The present study was designed to investigate the chemopreventive action ...
Burton-Freeman Britt - - 2005
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of preloads differing in fatty acid composition, content, and delivery form on acute behavioral, subjective, and biological outcomes of satiety. Four energy- and volume-matched preloads were tested in normal weight men and women (n = 12 and 13, respectively), using ...
Oesch Sibylle - - 2005
The control of food intake and satiety requires a coordinated interplay. Oral protein and duodenal fat inhibit food intake and induce satiety, but their interactive potential is unclear. Our aim was therefore to investigate the interactions between an oral protein preload and intraduodenal (ID) fat on food intake and satiety ...
Date Yukari - - 2005
Ghrelin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are gastrointestinal hormones regulating feeding. Both transmitted via the vagal afferent, ghrelin elicits starvation signals, whereas CCK induces satiety signals. We investigated the interaction between ghrelin and CCK functioning in short-term regulation of feeding in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats, which have a disrupted CCK ...
Hayes Matthew R - - 2005
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and serotonin (5-HT) systems have been shown to cooperate interdependently in control of food intake. To assess mechanisms by which CCK and 5-HT systems interact in control of food intake we examined: (1) participation of CCK-1 and 5-HT3 receptors in 5-HT-induced suppression of sucrose intake; (2) the interaction ...
Lutz Thomas A - - 2005
This review summarizes the present knowledge concerning the anorectic action of the pancreatic hormone amylin. It focuses mainly on the role of amylin as a short term satiating peptide. Since there is some evidence however that basal amylin levels might play a role in the long term control of food ...
Arsenijevic Denis - - 2005
This study investigated the chronic effect of enterostatin on body weight and some of the associated changes in postprandial metabolism. Rats were adapted to 6 h of food access/day and a choice of low-fat and high-fat (HF) food and then given enterostatin or vehicle by an intraperitoneally implanted minipump delivering ...
Young Andrew - - 2005
Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, ...
Tso Patrick - - 2004
Apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) is secreted by the intestine associated with chylomicron. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is stimulated by fat absorption, which is probably mediated by chylomicron formation. The stimulation of apo A-IV synthesis in the jejunum and ileum is attenuated by intravenous leptin infusion. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is ...
Beglinger Christoph - - 2004
The present review summarizes the appetite-suppressing effects of intestinal fat in the regulation of food intake in humans, with a special focus on the role of cholecystokinin (CCK). Current evidence supports a role for intestinal fat (especially long-chain free fatty acids) acting via the peptide CCK as a physiological satiety ...
Ishii Y - - 2005
Acute systemic treatment with the selective orexin-1 (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 reduces food intake in rats, an effect associated with an acceleration in behavioural satiety and unrelated to gross behavioural disruption, alterations in palatability, or toxicity. However, as enhanced satiety is behaviourally indexed by an earlier-than-normal transition from eating to resting, ...
Chelikani Prasanth K - - 2005
Peptide YY (3-36) [PYY (3-36)] is postulated to act as a hormonal signal from the gut to the brain to inhibit food intake and gastric emptying. A mixed-nutrient meal produces a prolonged 2-3 h increase in plasma levels of both PYY (3-36) and PYY (1-36). We determined the dose-dependent effects ...
Sutton Gregory M - - 2004
Increased food intake is a major factor in the development of obesity, and the control of meal size is a valid approach to reduce food intake in humans. Meal termination, or satiety, is thought to be organized within the caudal brainstem where direct signals from the food handling alimentary canal ...
Butera Peter C - - 2004
Proinflammatory cytokines released during the course of infection elicit numerous behavioral and metabolic changes. The decrease in food intake that accompanies infection is mediated in part by interleukin-1 (IL-1). Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a neuropeptide released during a meal, decreases food intake, and previous research suggests that CCK mediates the anorectic ...
Aledort L M - - 2004
Thrombosis is a rare but well-recognized potential complication of Factor VIII Inhibitor Bypass Activity (FEIBA) infusion. Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is increasingly used as an alternative to FEIBA; however, the thrombotic safety profile of rFVIIa remains incompletely characterized. To determine the incidence rates of thrombotic adverse events (AEs) after infusion ...
Yang Zhijian - - 2004
Recombinant methioninase (rMETase) has been shown to target the elevated methionine (MET) dependence of tumor cells and arrest their growth as well as make tumors more sensitive to standard chemotherapy agents. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified rMETase (PEG-rMETase) has reduced antigenicity compared with unmodified rMETase. However, PEG-rMETase has a limited active circulating ...
Moran Timothy H - - 2004
The demonstration of the ability of exogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) to inhibit food intake began a series of investigations into whether and how gut and brain peptides affected ingestive behavior. In that original demonstration, Gerry Smith and colleagues both established criteria for evaluating roles for gut peptides in food intake and ...
Hayes Matthew R - - 2004
Serotonin type 3 (5-HT(3)) receptors have been shown to participate in the negative-feedback control of food intake. We previously reported that cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced suppression of food intake is partly mediated through 5-HT(3) receptors when rats were tested on a preferred liquid diet, but whether such an effect occurs when they ...
Reidelberger Roger D - - 2004
Amylin is postulated to act as a hormonal signal from the pancreas to the brain to inhibit food intake and regulate energy reserves. Amylin potently reduces food intake, body weight, and adiposity when administered systemically or into the brain. Whether selective blockade of endogenous amylin action increases food intake and ...
Li Yue - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Atrial electrical remodeling (AER) contributes to the maintainance of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was to compare the effects of Losartan with those of Diltiazem on tachycardia-induced acute AER in rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-one rabbits paced with maximal atrial capture rate for 3 hours in the right atrium (RA) were ...
Tso Patrick - - 2004
Apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) is secreted by the intestine associated with chylomicron. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is stimulated by fat absorption, probably mediated by chylomicron formation. The stimulation of apo A-IV synthesis in the jejunum and ileum is attenuated by intravenous leptin infusion. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is also stimulated ...
Mollet Andrea - - 2004
According to previous studies, the area postrema (AP) of the hindbrain may play an important role in mediating the anorectic effect of the pancreatic hormone amylin. Peripheral amylin has been suggested to directly act on AP neurons to bring about its anorectic effect. Cyclic GMP may act as second messenger ...
Cox James E - - 2004
Two experiments investigated mechanisms underlying the decrease in food intake produced by lipid infusions into the jejunum. In Experiment 1, male Sprague-Dawley rats with truncal abdominal vagotomy (TVx), selective hepatic-branch vagotomy (HVx), or sham vagotomy received repeated 7 h infusions of linoleic acid (LA), corn oil (CO), or saline through ...
Woods Stephen C - - 2004
An overview is presented of those signals generated by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract during meals that interact with the central nervous system to create a sensation of fullness and satiety. Although dozens of enzymes, hormones, and other factors are secreted by the GI tract in response to food in the ...
Reidelberger Roger D - - 2004
CCK type 1 (CCK1) receptor antagonists differing in blood-brain barrier permeability were used to test the hypothesis that satiety is mediated in part by CCK action at CCK1 receptors on vagal sensory nerves innervating the small intestine. Devazepide penetrates the blood-brain barrier; A-70104, the dicyclohexylammonium salt of N alpha-3-quinolinoyl-D-Glu-N,N-dipentylamide, does ...
Hart Carl L - - 2003
The effects of zolpidem, a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic, on psychomotor task performance, subjective effects, and food intake were examined during simulated shift work. Seven participants completed this 23-day, within-participant design, residential laboratory study. They received a single oral zolpidem dose (0, 5, or 10 mg) 1 hr before bedtime for 3 ...
Kauffman Alexander S - - 2004
GnRH is an evolutionarily conserved peptide of which there are multiple structural variants. One form, GnRH II, is the most widespread in vertebrates, but its primary function remains unclear. In female musk shrews, administration of GnRH II, but not GnRH I, reinstates mating behavior previously inhibited by food restriction. Because ...
Anderson G Harvey - - 2003
This review examines the relation between the consumption of sugars and their effects on short-term (ie, to 2 h) satiety and food intake in humans. Many factors need to be considered in the evaluation of reported studies and the conclusions derived from this body of literature. These factors include evaluation ...
Trifunovic Radmila - - 2003
We examined the effect of lateral (visceral) and medial (gustatory) parabrachial nucleus (PBN) lesions on the suppression of milk intake induced with cholecystokinin (CCK) in 24 h food-deprived rats. Irrespective of CCK dose, each type of PBN lesion significantly elevated the consumption of milk. Neither medial nor lateral PBN lesions ...
Kissileff Harry R - - 2003
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that gastric distension can enhance the effect of cholecystokinin (CCK) on reduction of food intake in men and women. Eight normal-weight subjects of each gender were tested four times each with either CCK or saline infusion crossed with gastric distension ...
Stratton Rebecca J - - 2003
Tube feeding (TF) provides a model with which to study appetite when nutrient delivery bypasses the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated cephalic phase response. Nocturnal, diurnal and 24-h TF schedules are used clinically, but their effects on satiety have not been distinguished. This study tested two hypotheses: 1) bypassing ...
Batterham R L - - 2003
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a gut hormone released from the pancreas in response to ingestion of food. Plasma PP has been shown to be reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake and elevated in anorexia nervosa. In addition peripheral administration of PP has been shown to decrease food intake ...
Sinnayah P - - 2003
The influence of urocortin (UCN) on ingestive behaviours and brain neural activity, as measured immunohistochemically by the presence of Fos protein, was determined in mice. Rat UCN was administered by continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) or subcutaneous (SC) infusion. ICV infusion of UCN (100 ng/h, 14 days) transiently reduced daily food and ...
Fosset Sophie - - 2003
N-acetyl-muramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine or muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is the minimally active subunit of bacterial peptidoglycan. During a systemic infection, the involvement of MDP has been demonstrated in food intake depression by the macrophage hydrolysis of Gram-positive bacteria. Under normal conditions, mammals are constantly exposed to the release of endogenous MDP from degraded ...
Reidelberger Roger D - - 2003
Type A cholecystokinin receptor (CCKAR) antagonists differing in blood-brain barrier permeability were used to test the hypothesis that satiety is mediated, in part, by CCK action at CCKARs located peripheral to the blood-brain barrier. At dark onset, non-food-deprived rats received a bolus injection of devazepide (2.5 micromol/kg iv), a 3-h ...
Balslev-Clausen Andreas - - 2003
Pancreatic enzyme levels in mammals are influenced by food intake and dietary composition. In this study, we examined the activity and expression of pancreatic amylase in a hibernating mammal, a natural model for long-term fasting. Pancreatic tissues were obtained from summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels and hibernating squirrels that had not ...
Ebenezer Ivor S - - 2003
The observation that systemic administration of the peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits food intake in mammalian species has led to the hypothesis that endogenous peripheral CCK released from the small intestine during a meal acts as a satiety factor. It was predicted that if CCK does play an important role in ...
Nishi Takashi - - 2003
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an important physiologic mediator that regulates satiety and gastric emptying. We demonstrated previously that soybean peptone acts directly on rat small intestinal mucosal cells to stimulate CCK release. In the present study, we examined the effects of beta-conglycinin, a major component of soy protein, and its peptone ...
Feinle Christine - - 2003
The presence of nutrients in the small intestine slows gastric emptying and suppresses appetite and food intake; these effects are partly mediated by the release of gut hormones, including CCK. We investigated the hypothesis that the modulation of antropyloroduodenal motility, suppression of appetite, and stimulation of CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 ...
Shade R E - - 2002
The synergy between ANG II and aldosterone (Aldo) in the induction of salt appetite, extensively studied in rats, has been tested in baboons. ANG II was infused intracerebroventricularly at 0.5 or 1.0 microg/h; Aldo was infused subcutaneously at 20 microg/h. Separate infusions over 7 days had no significant effect on ...
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