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Guard D B - - 2009
Previous work has shown that blockade of NMDAR by non-competitive (MK-801) and competitive (AP5) antagonists increase food intake by acting in the dorsal hindbrain. NMDAR are heteromeric complexes composed of NR1, NR2 and NR3 subunits. Competitive NR2B antagonists potently increase feeding when injected into the hindbrain. NR2 immunoreactivity is present ...
Smedh Ulrika - - 2009
AIM: The long-term effects of reconstructions of the gastrointestinal tract after gastrectomy on plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones that contribute to food intake controls were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Domestic pigs were randomly assigned to sham-surgery or total gastrectomy followed by reconstruction with oesophagojejunostomy on a Roux-en-Y loop (OJRY), jejunal ...
Gillum Matthew P MP Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, - - 2008
N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) are a relatively abundant group of plasma lipids of unknown physiological significance. Here, we show that NAPEs are secreted into circulation from the small intestine in response to ingested fat and that systemic administration of the most abundant circulating NAPE, at physiologic doses, decreases food intake in rats ...
Verbaeys Isabelle - - 2009
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a short acting satiating peptide hormone produced in the proximal small intestine. Daily CCK injection in rats initially inhibits food intake, but after several days, food intake is no longer affected, suggesting development of tolerance. Previously, we covalently coupled CCK to a 10kDa polyethylene glycol (mPEG-OH) and ...
Lo Chun-Min - - 2009
CCK and apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) are gastrointestinal satiety signals whose synthesis and secretion by the gut are stimulated by fat absorption. Intraperitoneally administered CCK-8 is more potent in suppressing food intake than a similar dose administered intravenously, but the reason for this disparity is unclear. In contrast, both intravenous ...
Vuletic Simona - - 2008
We assessed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE), phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, cholesterol, secreted amyloid-beta protein precursor alpha and beta (sAbetaPPalpha, sAbetaPPbeta), amyloid-beta peptides 1-40 (Abeta_{40}) and 1-42 (Abeta_{42}), total tau and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (pTau) in neurologically healthy, cognitively intact adults. ApoE significantly correlated ...
Perez Gydmer A - - 2008
In a limited number of studies modafinil has been shown to decrease food intake by laboratory animals and humans. The present study represents a secondary data analysis, in which the effects of modafinil on several measures of food intake were determined in humans living in a residential laboratory during simulated ...
Yokel Robert A - - 2008
The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated ...
Brunstrom Jeffrey M JM Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Bristol BS8 1TU, United Kingdom. - - 2009
Previously, we have used a 'method of constant stimuli' to quantify the satiety that different foods are expected to deliver. Our data indicate that foods differ considerably (some are expected to deliver 5-6 times more satiety than others [per kcal]). In the present study we explored the relative importance of ...
Merino Beatriz - - 2008
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin act coordinately in the brain to regulate food intake and energy balance. Recently we have reported that CCK enhances the permeability of brain barriers to leptin and we have proposed that CCK enhances energy expenditure in rats by activating in the hypothalamus the janus kinase/signal transducer ...
Raboin Shannon J - - 2008
It has been shown in the rat that endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK), released in response to the non-nutrient trypsin inhibitor camostat, reduces food intake at meals and increases Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI; a marker for neuronal activation) in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the hindbrain but not the myenteric plexus of ...
Guard, Douglas Brent
Blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the caudal brainstem delays satiation and increases food intake. NMDA receptors are heterodimers made up of distinct, but different ion channel subunits. The NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor contain the binding site for glutamate. About half of vagal afferents express immunoreactivity for NMDA ...
Brunstrom Jeffrey M - - 2008
Humans have expectations about the satiety that is likely to develop after consuming particular foods. These expectations are potentially important, because they may influence decisions about meal size. Despite this, very little is known about the basis on which satiety expectations are formulated. This work introduces a methodology (based on ...
Glatzle Joerg - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Several cholecystokinin (CCK) forms have been detected in plasma, but most studies on food intake investigated the effects of CCK-8 only. Recently, it has been demonstrated that CCK-58 is the only endocrine-active form of CCK in rats. METHODS: CCK-58 was synthesized with a peptide synthesizer using FMOC chemistry and ...
Cooper Marvis S - - 2008
The enteric nervous system (ENS: myenteric and submucosal plexuses) of the gastrointestinal tract may have a role in the reduction of food intake by cholecystokinin (CCK). Exogenous cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) activates the myenteric plexus and the feeding control areas of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) of the brainstem. An increasing number ...
Cooper Marvis S - - 2008
We compared the abilities of cholecystokinin-33 (CCK-33) and CCK-8 to reduce food intake and to activate feeding-related areas of the nervous system. (1) Overnight food-deprived rats were presented with a 10% sucrose solution, and intake was measured at 5-min intervals throughout a 90-min test beginning immediately after intraperitoneal injections of ...
Lõhmus Mare - - 2008
Seasonal variation in daily food intake is a well-documented phenomenon in many organisms including wild-type coho salmon where the appetite is noticeably reduced during periods of decreased day length and low water temperature. This reduction may in part be explained by altered production of cholecystokinin (CCK) and growth hormone (GH). ...
Chen J - - 2008
Within the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), cholecystokinin (CCK) has been proposed to modulate neuropeptide Y (NPY) signaling to affect food intake. However, the neural circuitry underlying the actions of this CCK-NPY signaling system in the controls of food intake has yet to be determined. We sought to characterize the feeding inhibition ...
You Young-jai YJ Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. - - 2008
Despite the prevalence of obesity and its related diseases, the signaling pathways for appetite control and satiety are not clearly understood. Here we report C. elegans quiescence behavior, a cessation of food intake and movement that is possibly a result of satiety. C. elegans quiescence shares several characteristics of satiety ...
Führer Dagmar - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To explore neuroanatomical sites of eating behavior, we have developed a simple functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm to image hunger vs. satiety using visual stimulation. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Twelve healthy, lean, nonsmoking male subjects participated in this study. Pairs of food-neutral and food-related pictures were presented in a ...
Ogawa Nobuya - - 2008
Intestinal infusion of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) strongly suppresses food intake and gut motility. Vagal afferents and cholecystokinin (CCK) signaling pathway are considered to play important roles in intestinal LCFA-induced satiety. Here, we first investigated the influence of vagus nerve on satiety following intestinal LCFA infusion in rats. Jejunal infusion ...
le Roux Carel W - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Peptide YY (PYY(3-36)) infused to levels within the physiological range reduces appetite and food intake in humans without nausea. However, PYY(3-36) has previously been shown to cause nausea at higher doses. METHODS: We studied the relationship of PYY(3-36), nausea and food intake in six volunteers, using three different PYY(3-36) ...
Maletínská Lenka - - 2008
CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide and cholecystokinin (CCK) are neuromodulators involved in feeding behavior. This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation ...
Hughes Georgina M - - 2008
Certain free fatty acids have been shown to have potent effects on food intake and self-reported changes in appetite; effects associated with increases in the release of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the current study, the effects of a Korean pine nut oil product, PinnoThin, at ...
Lo Chun-Min - - 2008
CCK acts peripherally as a satiating peptide released during meals in response to lipid feeding and centrally functions in the modulation of feeding, exploratory, and memory activities. The present study determined metabolic parameters, food intake, anxiety-like behaviors, and cognitive function in mice lacking the CCK gene. We studied intestinal fat ...
Maljaars J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tract elicits numerous signals regulating food intake and satiety, and recently many studies have been performed to elucidate the mechanisms regulating these signals. AIM: To describe the effects of the gastrointestinal tract on satiety, satiation and food intake. METHODS: A PubMed search was performed to identify and ...
Moran Timothy H - - 2008
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a brain gut peptide that plays an important role in satiety. CCK inhibits food intake by reducing meal size. CCK's satiety actions are mediating through its interaction with CCK1 receptors. Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats are a CCK1 receptor knockout model that allows the study ...
Whited K L - - 2007
Peptide YY (PYY)(3-36), released by intestinal lipid elicits functional effects that comprise the intestinal feedback response to luminal nutrients, but the pathway of action is not fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of the apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV-cholecystokinin (CCK)(1) receptor (CCK(1)R) pathway in exogenous ...
Lo Chun Min - - 2007
Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are peptides that act both peripherally and centrally to reduce food intake by decreasing meal size. The present study examined the effects of intraperitoneally administered bolus doses of recombinant apo AIV, CCK-8, and a combination of subthreshold doses of apo AIV and CCK ...
Sedeh F M - - 2007
Gamma irradiation can be used as one of the most efficient methods to reduce microorganisms in food. The irradiation of food is used for a number of purposes, including microbiological control, insects control and inhibition of sprouting and delay of senescence of living food. The aim of this study was ...
Albertsson Per-Ake - - 2007
Human obesity is a global epidemic, which causes a rapidly increased frequency of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One reason for obesity is the ready availability of refined food products with high caloric density, an evolutionarily new event, which makes over-consumption of food inevitable. Fat is a food product with high ...
Sullivan Cherese N - - 2007
We hypothesized that endogenous CCK reduces food intake by activating the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and the myenteric neurons of the gut. To test this hypothesis, adult rats were given camostat mesilate; a nonnutrient releaser of endogenous CCK, by orogastric gavage, and Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) was quantified in the DVC ...
Berthoud Hans-Rudolf - - 2006
Ingestive behavior is controlled by a complex interplay between signals conveying availability of (1) potentially ingestible food in the environment, (2) digestible food in the alimentary canal, (3) circulating fuels and (4) stored fuels. Each of these four classes of signals interact with specific sensors and neural circuits whose integrated ...
Asarian Lori - - 2006
Several sex differences in eating, their control by gonadal steroid hormones and their peripheral and central mediating mechanisms are reviewed. Adult female rats and mice as well as women eat less during the peri-ovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle (estrus in rats and mice) than other phases, an effect under ...
Weller Aron - - 2006
Cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibits food intake in adults. This paper describes research examining the ability of CCK to affect feeding in infant rats and the role of CCK in the developmentally emerging ability of the rat pup to inhibit ingestion in response to sensory characteristics of food. First, data will be ...
Hayes Matthew R - - 2006
We have previously shown that systemic administration of ondansetron, a selective serotonin type-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, attenuates cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced suppression of food intake. The exact location of 5-HT3 receptors mediating this action is not clear and may involve hindbrain 5-HT3 receptors. In this study, we first examined sucrose intake in ...
Murray Charles D - - 2006
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients receiving parenteral nutrition (PN) still feel hungry despite adequate provision of calories intravenously. It is not known whether PN or its constituent macronutrients acutely affect appetite and to what degree this may be mediated by ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY). METHODS: Six medically stable patients (four ...
Lutz Thomas A - - 2006
Amylin is a pancreatic B-cell hormone that plays an important role in the regulation of nutrient fluxes. As such, amylin reduces food intake in laboratory animals and man, slows gastric emptying and it reduces postprandial glucagon secretion. Amylin deficiency which occurs concomitantly to insulin deficiency in diabetes mellitus, may therefore ...
Chua A S B - - 2006
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder of yet uncertain etiology. Dyspeptic symptoms are usually meal related and suggest an association to gastrointestinal (GI) sensorimotor dysfunction. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an established brain-gut peptide that plays an important regulatory role in gastrointestinal function. It inhibits gastric motility and emptying via a ...
Backus R C - - 2006
An overweight or obese body condition commonly develops after gonadectomy (GX) in domestic cats. The cause appears to be a rapid, quantal (approximately 12%), increase in food intake that is sustained and probably mediated by withdrawal of gonadal hormone. Recently, an interaction of gonadal hormone and cholecystokinin (CCK) effectiveness has ...
Nelson Laura E - - 2006
Metabolism of vertebrates integrates a vast array of systems and processes, including the pursuit and capture of food, feeding and digestion of ingested food, absorption and transport of nutrients, assimilation, partitioning and utilization of energy, and the processing and elimination of wastes. Fish, which are the most diverse group of ...
Romer Michael - - 2006
Alimentary sensory pleasure is an important factor in ingestive behavior. Renewal of olfacto-gustatory pleasure by introducing new foods or through seasoning of previously consumed food might increase intake. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether sensory-specific satiety (SSS) for a food could be modulated, either by introducing a novel food or by a ...
Degen Lukas - - 2006
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) inhibits food intake in animals and humans. Whether GLP-1 interacts with other satiety signals to modulate food intake is unknown. We investigated therefore in healthy volunteers the potential interactions of GLP-1 with signals from the stomach in regulating food intake. METHODS: Three sequential, double-blind, crossover studies ...
Jackson Bryan T - - 2005
Field studies were conducted in southwestern Virginia to determine the ovipositional preferences of Culex restuans and Culex pipiens by using ovitraps and gravid traps baited with selected infusions. For the ovitrap collections, 4 different infusions (manure, hay, grass, and rabbit chow) were used. Significant differences among infusions were detected on ...
McDermott J R - - 2006
Gastrointestinal inflammation reduces food intake but the biological mechanisms explaining suppressed feeding during inflammation are unknown. We have used a model of upper gut infection (Trichinella spiralis in the mouse) to study the effect of inflammation on food intake, and explored the role of a key enteroendocrine cell (EEC) in ...
Degen Lukas - - 2005
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Studies in animals and humans suggest a role for peptide YY (PYY3-36) in regulating satiety. The physiologic role of PYY3-36, however, has not been investigated in detail. METHODS: The present study was designed to examine PYY release in response to 2 meals differing in their calorie content ...
Mithieux Gilles - - 2005
Protein feeding is known to decrease hunger and subsequent food intake in animals and humans. It has also been suggested that glucose appearance into portal vein, as occurring during meal assimilation, may induce comparable effects. Here, we connect these previous observations by reporting that intestinal gluconeogenesis (i.e., de novo synthesis ...
Koegler Frank H - - 2005
Peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] is a hormone that is released after meal ingestion that is currently being investigated for the treatment of obesity; however, there are conflicting reports of the effects of PYY(3-36) on energy balance in rodent models. To shed light on this controversy, we studied the effect of PYY(3-36) ...
Thavanathan Rajiv - - 2006
In mammals, amylin (AMY) is a peptide that is secreted from the pancreas in response to a meal. AMY inhibits food intake and may also contribute to the anorectic effects of the brain-gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK). In this study, we assessed the role of AMY in the regulation of food ...
Chelikani Prasanth K - - 2006
The gut hormone peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] decreases food intake when administered by intravenous infusion to lean and obese humans and rats. Whether chronic administration of PYY(3-36) produces a sustained reduction in food intake and adiposity is the subject of intense debate. Batterham et al. (R. L. Batterham, M. A. Cowley, ...
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