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Gizzi G - - 2005
Maximum levels for dioxins in food and feedstuffs have been recently established by the European Commission through two regulations. Dioxin-monitoring programmes of food and feedstuffs will therefore be undertaken by the European Member States to implement these regulations, which would be facilitated by fast and low-cost screening methods. Commission Directives ...
Danis B - - 2005
Adult Paracentrotus lividus were exposed to a 14C-labelled PCB congener (PCB#153) using two different exposure modes: (1) the surrounding sea water and (2) the food (viz. the phanerogam Posidonia oceanica and the brown alga Taonia atomaria). Uptake kinetics from water and loss kinetics after single feeding were followed in four ...
Charnley G - - 2005
In response to aggressive attempts to control dioxin emissions over the last 35 years, human exposures to dioxins from the environment have declined significantly. The primary source of human exposure to dioxins at present is food. The sources of dioxins in food are not well understood and are probably varied. ...
Chovancová Jana - - 2005
The levels of 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 73 foodstuff samples of animal origin collected from shops and small farms in selected districts of Slovak Republic are presented in this paper. The concentrations expressed as WHO-TEQ in analysed ...
Vrecl Milka - - 2005
This study employed the gas chromatography with electron capture detection to determine residual levels and excretion patterns of two pairs of structurally diverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC Nos. 54, 80, 155, and 169) administered to lactating sheep by intramuscular injection. PCB levels and excretion patterns in blood, milk, and ...
Wan Yi - - 2005
Many investigations have highlighted the bioaccumulation of dioxins in animals, but little is known about the trophodynamics of dioxins in the food web. In this study, the trophic transfer of nine dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) congeners, eleven dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and twelve non-, mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyl (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) congeners in ...
Schecter Arnold - - 2005
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a type of brominated flame retardant chemically and toxicologically similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are a class of emerging environmental and human contaminants. They have recently been detected in U.S. milk, blood, and food at the highest levels in the world. This pilot study was undertaken ...
Fitzgerald Sharon A - - 2006
The association of PCBs and live algal cells in rivers was studied at four locations during four seasons in two Wisconsin rivers. Positive relations between particle-associated PCBs and both chlorophyll-a and algal carbon concentrations indicated that live algal cells were a significant sorption phase for dissolved PCBs. Large Pennate diatoms ...
Jeong Sang-Hee - - 2005
Over the past several years, the numerous contamination incidents have raised concerns over the presence of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and related chemicals in foods and feeds. Here we applied a sensitive recombinant mouse hepatoma cell (H1L1.1c2) bioassay for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated dibenzofurans ...
Otchere Fred A - - 2005
The bivalves, Anadara (Senilia) senilis (n=95), Crassostrea tulipa (n=75) and Perna perna (n=30) from Ghana, were analyzed for their organochlorines (pesticides and PCBs) concentrations and the body burden. A comparison was done based on two different standard PCB mixtures (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) with the percentage individual congener contribution and ...
Gouteux Bruno - - 2005
Environmentally relevant chlorobornanes (CHBs) were measured in blubber samples of harbor (Phoca vitulina), gray (Halichoerus grypus), harp (Phoca groenlandica), and hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) sampled in different part of the St. Lawrence marine ecosystem (SLME) and ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled in the eastern Canadian Arctic waters. The purpose of ...
Rose Martin - - 2005
To control the outbreak of foot and mouth disease, which occurred in the UK in early 2001, a large number of farm animals were slaughtered. Where it was not possible to render or landfill the carcasses, they were destroyed by burning on open pyres, with wood, coal and other materials. ...
Brevini Tiziana A L - - 2005
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are exogenous environmental molecules that may affect the synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding, action, and catabolism of natural hormones in the body. EDs may thus interact with the endocrine system of animals and humans and can exert this effect even when present in minute amounts. EDs have ...
Reeder Amy L - - 2005
Exposure to anthropogenic endocrine disruptors has been listed as one of several potential causes of amphibian declines in recent years. We examined gonads of 814 cricket frogs (Acris crepitans) collected in Illinois and deposited in museum collections to elucidate relationships between the decline of this species in Illinois and the ...
Toschik Pamela C - - 2005
Despite serious water-quality problems and pollutant loading and retention, Delaware River and Bay (USA) provide important wildlife habitat. In 2002, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in Delaware River and Bay. Sample eggs were collected from 39 nests and analyzed for ...
Mazzoleni V - - 2005
Owing to the lipophilic character of some components of cork and the long periods in the open air (during growth and barks storage), there is a risk of the cork becoming environmentally polluted. Moreover, cork stoppers are in contact with wines for periods ranging from a few months to several ...
Danis B - - 2005
The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed for 17 days to environmentally realistic concentrations of (14)C-labeled 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB#153) (18 ng PCB l(-1) seawater; 30 ng PCB g(-1) dry wt sediments; Artemia salina ...
Bayen Stéphane - - 2005
Recent studies have raised concern over the presence of high levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in farmed fish relative to wild specimens of the same species, particularly salmon. Although cooking is known to reduce the burden of POPs in fish, the mechanisms of loss/degradation are not clearly understood. This ...
Gerecke Andreas C - - 2005
The environmental safety of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), a widely used flame retardant, has been the topic of controversial discussions during the past several years. Degradation of BDE-209 into lower brominated diphenyl ether congeners, exhibiting a higher bioaccumulation potential, has been a critical issue. Here, we report on the degradation of ...
Bayen Stéphane - - 2005
In this study, the levels of several heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were measured in the edible portions of 20 different seafood types consumed in Singapore (2 < n < 12). The mean heavy metal concentrations among the seafood types ranged from below detection limits (BLD) to 14.2 ...
Bloom Michael S - - 2005
Great Lakes sportfish consumption is a recognized human exposure source to environmental organochlorine compounds. Using data collected as part of the New York State Angler Cohort Study, 203 males were considered with regard to history of Lake Ontario sportfish consumption and sera levels of 57 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, ...
Chen Hsiu-Ling - - 2005
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants that are resistant to environmental and biological degradation and disperse into various environmental compartments throughout the atmosphere, water, soil, sediments, and food. Many factors, such as age, sex, lifestyle, and metabolism, can explain the distribution of serum levels after humans exposed ...
Pascall Melvin A - - 2005
The sorption of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (from tri to deca chlorinated) by three food-packaging plastic films [polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polystyrene] from an aqueous solution was investigated. From the data generated, PCB uptake, partition, and diffusion coefficients were calculated for the various films. Polyethylene exhibited the highest ...
Kim Byung-Hoon - - 2005
Analysis of blood samples is an effective way of evaluating contamination by persistent pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human population. Concentrations of PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured in the blood of laborers (n = 13) working full time in ...
Wethington David M DM - - 2005
A field study of atmospheric PCBs in Milwaukee, WI, U.S.A. was conducted on the shore of Lake Michigan. We believe this is the first report of atmospheric PCBs in Milwaukee, although PCBs are well-known to contaminate the sediments of the Milwaukee River and Outer Harbor. Concentrations of PCBs collected during ...
Kim Kicheol - - 2005
Thirty-one samples of baked-salt products used in commercial food additives were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Dioxins were highly detected in 12 samples of baked salts. The amount of dioxins found in the samples ranged from 12.47 pg/g to 406.56 pg/g (0.71 pg TEQ/g ...
Bocio Ana - - 2005
Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy ...
Fängström Britta - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in wildlife and humans remain a cause of global concern, both in regard to traditional POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and emerging POPs, such as the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To determine the time related concentrations, we analyzed human milk for these substances ...
Mai Bixian - - 2005
Despite the recent efforts to investigate the distribution and fate of persistent organic pollutants in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, very little was known about the temporal change of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environmental ecosystem of China. In this study, three dated sediment cores collected from the ...
Hauser Russ - - 2005
Toxicological studies and limited human studies have demonstrated associations between exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and adverse developmental and reproductive health effects. Given that children may be particularly susceptible to reproductive and developmental effects of organochlorines, and the paucity of information available regarding ...
Hayward Douglas G - - 2005
Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furans were determined in chicken-containing baby foods collected from an annually conducted total diet survey by the US FDA during the last half of fiscal year (FY) 1997 through the first half of FY 1998. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was found in 8 of 11 baby food samples. The levels were between ...
Glasius Marianne - - 2005
Mussels and marine fish (shorthorn sculpin and Greenland cod) were sampled at three locations with varying human activity. Fish livers and mussels were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and chlorinated pesticides including chlordane and toxaphene. Levels of chlorinated contaminants in shorthorn sculpins from the background location, [capital ...
Tomy Gregg T - - 2004
An eastern Arctic marine food web was analyzed for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C7F15COO-), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA, C8F17SO2NH2), and N-ethylperfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtPFOSA, C8F17SO2NHCH2CH3) to examine the extent of bioaccumulation. PFOS was detected in all species analyzed, and mean concentrations ranged from 0.28 +/- 0.09 ng/g (arithmetic mean +/- 1 ...
Naso Barbara - - 2005
Edible tissues from 10 marine species, collected from the Gulf of Naples in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy) between February and July 2003, were analysed for the presence of organochlorine pesticides hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDTs (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD), and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The PCB levels (calculated as the ...
de Solla Shane R - - 2004
PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in ...
Papadopoulos Athanasios - - 2004
Food intake is the main source of exposure to dioxin-like compounds for humans. The results of a surveillance programme on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar polychlorinated biphenyls (co-PCBs) in 77 food samples from the Greek market and producers are presented. The study included the analyses of milk and ...
Helm Paul A - - 2004
Archived extracts of weekly air samples collected at remote arctic monitoring stations at Alert and Tagish, Canada, and Dunai Island, Russia, in 1994-1995 were combined into 4-week composites and analyzed for levels and seasonal trends of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mean annual sigmaPCN concentrations ...
Domingo José L - - 2004
Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are a group of environmental pollutants, which contain one to eight chlorine atoms per naphthalene molecule, forming a total of 75 possible congeners. Several of the PCN congeners display toxicity similar to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) through AhR-mediated mechanisms. There are toxicological similarities between PCNs and other ...
Pettersson-Julander Anneli - - 2004
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been used extensively and are considered ubiquitous contaminants. To evaluate exposure to brominated flame retardants within an electronic recycling facility personal air monitoring was done during a two year period. A total of 22 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2 other bromine containing organic compounds ...
Schecter Arnold - - 2004
Elevated levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a type of brominated flame retardant, were recently detected in U.S. nursing mothers' milk. These halogenated compounds chemically and toxicologically resemble others such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whose route of intake is almost exclusively through food of animal origin. This study is the ...
Brevini T A L - - 2004
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most persistent and widespread groups of endocrine disrupting compounds in the ecosystem. These substances are present in sewage sludge that is spread in increasing amounts on arable land and pasture as fertilizer, and are ingested by farm animals with food and drinking water. ...
Lee Wei-Shan - - 2004
This study set out to identify possible PCDD/F emission sources for different atmospheric environments in a highly industrialized city located in southern Taiwan. We collected stack flue gas samples from five main stationary emission sources of the municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), medical waste incinerators (MWIs), electric arc furnaces (EAFs), ...
Hites Ronald A - - 2004
We have shown recently that levels of persistent, bioaccumulative contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and several chlorinated pesticides) are significantly higher in farmed than in wild salmon and that European farm-raised salmon have significantly greater toxic contaminant loads than those raised in North and South America. In this paper, we extend ...
Fernández M A - - 2004
Congener-specific analyses of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs, three non-ortho and 8 mono-ortho dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were performed on 258 Spanish foodstuff samples, mainly of animal origin, for 2000--03. Daily dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs, expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs), were estimated by combining food consumption data from the Spanish ...
Karademir Aykan - - 2004
A multimedia risk assessment procedure was conducted to determine the fate and transport of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from the Izmit Hazardous and Medical Waste Incinerator (IZAYDAS) in Turkey and their potential health risks. Congener concentrations in ambient air and their deposition rates were determined by an ...
Tang Kai M - - 2004
The destruction of the buildings at the World Trade Center (WTC) complex dispersed dust and debris into the surrounding area. Pulverized building material made up most of the fallout and was intermixed with combustion byproducts of the aircraft and building contents. A study was conducted to confirm the effectiveness of ...
Gadomski Damien - - 2004
In this study, we report the PCDD and mineralogical results from the analyses of 27 different samples from three ball clay cores from different locations in Kentucky and Tennessee. One goal of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between the mineralogy of the ball clay samples ...
Johansen Poul - - 2004
The traditional diet is a significant source of contaminants to people in Greenland, although contaminant levels vary widely among species and tissue from very low in many to very high in a few. Our study has included cadmium, mercury, selenium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes, dieldrin ...
Deutch Bente - - 2004
Human exposure to pollution in the Arctic presents a potential future health risk for the local populations. Epidemiological studies in Greenland have shown that human blood levels of several organic contaminants are very high, especially in the North where people depend on local food. In East Greenland (Ittoqqortoormiit (Scoresbysund)) the ...
Martin Michael - - 2004
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used fire retardant compounds which, like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have become ubiquitous in environmental media. Time trend analyses of PBDE levels in sediments and biota generally show an increasing trend. The lower (tetra- and penta-) PBDEs accumulate and predominate in biota, whilst the higher ...
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