Search Results
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Papp Zsuzsanna - - 2007
Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are widely used as indicators of local polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in North America. Although determining total PCB residues in tissues is useful in environmental monitoring, analysis of PCB congener profiles may reveal sources of contamination and thus prove to be a more refined tool to ...
Deutch Bente - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to monitor and assess human exposure to pollution in the Arctic which presents a potential future health risk for the local populations. Epidemiological studies in Greenland have shown that human blood levels of several organic contaminants are very high, especially in the North ...
Needham Larry L - - 2007
Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in dietary sources for humans have been declining over the previous two decades. These declines have been accompanied by decreases in concentrations of these compounds in humans, as evidenced by measurements in blood and milk. Because of the decreasing concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs ...
Zhang Jianqing - - 2007
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations in 31 fish samples from 19 commonly consumed freshwater and saltwater species from the Pearl River Delta Area were analyzed. The PCDD/Fs dietary intake from fish for the local population was evaluated to provide a database for setting the national PCDD/F limits in fish ...
Van den Brink Nico W - - 2006
In the current study, the use of spraints for monitoring levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in individual otters was experimentally validated. On the basis of a detailed pattern analysis, it is concluded that in the current study, PCB concentrations in spraints that contain relatively high concentrations of nonmetabolizable PCB congeners ...
Loutfy N - - 2007
Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been determined using GC/HRMS in food (butter, seafood and meat) and feed samples (chicken, cattle and fish) purchased from Ismailia city, Egypt. PCDD/F concentrations in food samples ranged between 0.12 and 3.35 pg WHO ...
Fattore Elena - - 2006
This study deals with an assessment of dietary exposure to polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs) for the Italian general population, obtained by combining data from a national food consumption survey with contamination concentrations of European foodstuffs available on the market. The distribution of PCDD, PCDF, and DL-PCB ...
Fuchsman Phyllis C - - 2006
Cause-effect sediment-quality benchmarks for the protection of benthic invertebrates are needed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to support predictive risk assessments and retrospective evaluations of the causes of observed sediment toxicity. An in-depth evaluation of PCB aquatic toxicity and organic carbon partitioning was conducted to predict sediment effect concentrations using the ...
Schecter Arnold - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives in this study were to expand a previously reported U.S. market basket survey using a larger sample size and to estimate levels of PBDE intake from food for the U.S. general population by sex and age. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 13 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners ...
Hoogenboom Ron - - 2006
The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a ...
Fürst Peter - - 2006
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF), together simplified termed "dioxins", polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) and organochlorine pesticides constitute lipophilic, persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the food chain and consequently can be found in humans at considerable concentrations. During the past 30 years our institute analyzed far more ...
Larsen John Christian - - 2006
The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCB) are ubiquitous in food of animal origin and accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and humans. The most toxic congener is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The toxic responses include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Toxic ...
Lundqvist Christofer - - 2006
BACKGROUND/EXPOSURE: Dioxins and PCBs are highly persistent and highly toxic environmental pollutants which at present are derived mainly from waste incineration and food contamination. They are widespread in nature and pollute human food, including breast milk so that basically all children in Europe are exposed to measurable levels. RESULTS/TOXICITY IN ...
Minh Nguyen Hung - - 2006
Commercial feeds for aquaculture and catfish samples were collected from the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam, for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected persistent organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The most abundant contaminants were DDTs, ...
Voorspoels Stefan - - 2007
A food market-basket, representative for the general Belgian population, containing various meat, fish and dairy food products, was assembled and analysed for its polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) content. Additionally, fast food samples were also investigated. Based on the measured PBDE levels, an average daily dietary intake estimate of PBDEs was ...
Peng Jui-Hwa - - 2007
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used extensively over the past two decades as flame retardants in many types of polymers, and have been found to be a class of contaminants of concern. Measurements of PBDEs in various environmental matrices from Sweden, Holland, Japan, North America, and elsewhere have been ...
Vetter Walter - - 2007
The marine halogenated natural product 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1) is widely distributed in the environment. In this study, we screened samples which have previously been found to contain remarkably high residues of Q1 (blubber of marine mammals from Australia, samples from Antarctica, human milk from the Faroe Island) for the additional presence ...
Fernandes A R - - 2006
Commercially available fish oil supplements sourced from retail outlets in the UK, as well as by mail order, were surveyed in 2000-02 for dioxin (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content. Sampled products were representative of market share. The WHO-TEQ values for these products ranged from 0.18 to 8.4 ng kg-1 ...
Sørmo Eugen Gravningen - - 2006
Concentrations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were investigated in an arctic marine food chain consisting of four invertebrate species: polar cod (Boreogadus saida), ringed seals (Pusa hispida), and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The most abundant BFR, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47, was found in ...
Santos F J - - 2006
Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs), also known as chlorinated paraffins (CPs), are highly complex technical mixtures that contain a huge number of structural isomers, theoretically more than 10,000 diastereomers and enantiomers. As a consequence of their persistence, tendency to bioaccumulation, and widespread and unrestricted use, PCAs have been found in aquatic and ...
Pozo Karla - - 2006
The Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of using passive samplers to assess the spatial distribution of persistent organic pollutants on a worldwide basis. The GAPS network includes more than 40 sites on 7 continents, mainly in background locations, with some representation of urban and ...
Steffen Cecilie - - 2006
The aim of this study was to determine the role of cold condensation and fractionation on the occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in avian marine top predators along a latitudinal gradient. We measured 24 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and six pesticide OCs in blood of great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) ...
Deutch Bente - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The fatty acid composition and other nutrients in traditional Inuit food appear to provide some protection against diseases of affluent industrialized societies, such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. A transition towards increased amounts of imported food might increase the occurrence of these diseases among Inuit. However, since ...
Tsydenova Oyuna V - - 2007
Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ...
Fernie Kim J - - 2006
Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) concentrations are increasing exponentially in biota. We studied the growth of American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings exposed in ovo and during development to environmentally relevant PBDE congeners and concentrations. Eggs within each clutch, divided between groups by laying sequence, were injected into the air cell at ...
Leblanc Lawrence A - - 2006
A field-based study regarding uptake of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) by young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) was initiated to test a steady-state model of bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in a rapidly growing fish. Determination of prey composition as well as size-dependent growth and specific consumption rates for YOY bluefish from ...
Witczak Agata - - 2006
The study involved determination of changes in the content of toxic dioxin-like coplanar non-ortho (PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 169) and mono-ortho (PCB 156, PCB 157, PCB 114) congeners in mackerel slices during cold and hot smoking. In addition, the risk of toxicological exposure of the consumers of examined smoking ...
Tejima Hajime - - 2007
Dioxin concentrations from municipal waste incinerators in Japan and elsewhere often show low concentrations that comply with legal limits (in this paper, the term "dioxin" designates WHO-TEQ: PCDD/Fs+dioxin-like PCB). However, such data is usually generated under normal steady state operational conditions, and there has been little investigation of releases occurring ...
Choi Ki-In - - 2007
Wet scrubber is one of the most conventional types of air pollutant control devices (APCDs), which is specially designed to treat dust and acidic gases in the flue gas simultaneously. In spite of its outstanding ability to control them, however, wet scrubbers have been considered as potential contaminant sources that ...
Nomiyama Kei - - 2007
The oxidative photodegradation behaviors of selected three coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), (CB77, CB81, and CB169) using titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) in water were investigated. The main purposes were to clarify the structural relation between the original PCBs and the intermediates derived by TiO(2) oxidation and to evaluate the estrogenic and thyroid ...
Cunliffe Adrian M - - 2007
A municipal solid waste incinerator flyash was heated to between 200 and 400 degrees C under nitrogen in a bench-scale, static bed reactor for 4 days soak time. The influence of temperature on the levels of PCDD and PCDF remaining in and desorbed from the ash were investigated using GC-MS/MS. ...
Hanari Nobuyasu - - 2006
The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations and compositions of polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) as contaminants in the commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures DE-71, DE-79, and DE-83 and to ascertain the lot-to-lot variations in the proportions of these contaminants. Commercial ...
Kuiper R V - - 2006
The present study addresses the toxicity of a commercial pentabrominated diphenylether (PeBDE) flame retardant mixture, DE-71, in a model aquatic vertebrate. Four weeks' exposure of juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) to water-borne DE-71 resulted in dose-dependent induction of CYP1A immunoreactivity, predominantly in the endocardium and the endothelium of larger blood vessels, ...
Van den Berg Martin - - 2006
In June 2005, a World Health Organization (WHO)-International Programme on Chemical Safety expert meeting was held in Geneva during which the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for dioxin-like compounds, including some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were reevaluated. For this reevaluation process, the refined TEF database recently published by Haws et al. (2006, ...
Warner Nicholas A - - 2006
Accumulation and elimination of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides by the opossum shrimp, Mysis relicta, was investigated to determine if zooplankton can stereoselectively process chiral OC contaminants. Concentrations and enantiomer fractions were measured within mysids over a 10-day exposure followed by a 45-day depuration period. Rapid accumulation ...
Loutfy N - - 2006
Although dietary intake studies have been carried out extensively in most developed countries, to evaluate the health risks of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, no data of this kind exists for Egypt. In this study, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were measured using HRGC/HRMS in the most contributing foodstuffs (dairy products, fish/seafood, ...
Leem J H - - 2006
The contamination sources of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), such as industrial incinerators, can potentially change the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near the incinerators. In this study, we estimated whether the blood levels and isomer patterns of PCDD/DFs in residents living near ...
Zhu Lingyan - - 2006
Brominated flame retardants were measured in 87 tree bark samples from 29 locations in North America. The concentrations of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) ranged from 2.3 to 5700 ng/g lipid weight, with the highest concentrations found near or in Arkansas. A simple radial dilution model nicely describes the distribution ...
Hsu Jing-Fang - - 2007
Food is the major source for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) accumulation in human body. In infant period, breast milk and formula milk are the major food sources. Congener-specific analyses of 17 PCDD/PCDFs were performed on 10 brands of formula milk samples which were milk-based and 37 breast milk ...
Borrell A - - 2007
We collected blubber samples from bottlenose dolphins stranded on Spain's Mediterranean coasts over a 25-year period (1978-2002). Samples were analyzed to determine time trends in levels of: HCB (hexachlorobenzene), PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and tDDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites). Overall, levels were high relative to other areas. This reflects both the ...
Santos J S - - 2006
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most toxic environmental pollutants. Food, especially animal based, has been described as the major source for human exposure to PCBs. We investigated PCB levels (congeners 10, 28, 52, 153, 138, and 180) in cheese from 14 cities of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The ...
Bragigand Virginie - - 2006
Previous studies have shown the worldwide presence of six congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine biota (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153 and -154). The objective of the present study was to document their presence, their level and their transfer in the food web of two major estuaries in ...
Dirtu Alin Constantin - - 2006
Human serum samples (n=142) from Iassy county (Eastern Romania) collected in 2005 were analyzed for p,p'-DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane and metabolites and 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. In all samples, p,p'-DDE (principal metabolite of p,p'-DDT) and beta-HCH (most persistent HCH isomer) were the most abundant ...
Joung Hyun-Tae - - 2006
End-of-life vehicles are dismantled to recover reusable parts and then sent to a shredding facility for steel material recovery. The residue generated from the shredding process, so-called automobile shredder residue, is now being mostly disposed in landfill, however landfill will be prohibited in the near future. More recycling and energy ...
Mackintosh Cheryl E - - 2006
Dialkyl phthalate esters (DPEs) are widely used industrial chemicals with octanol-seawater partition coefficients ranging between 10(1.80) for dimethyl phthalate to 10(10.0) for diiso-decyl phthalate, indicating a propensity to sorb strongly to particulate matter in aquatic environments. Sorption plays a key role in controlling the long-term fate of DPEs in aquatic ...
Houde Magali - - 2006
Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFSs) are used in industrial and commercial products and can degrade to persistent perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs). Temporal trend studies using human, fish, bird, and marine mammal samples indicate that exposure to PFSs has increased significantly over the past 15-25 years. This review summarizes the biological ...
Murvoll Kari Mette - - 2006
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), some organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), were analyzed in yolk sacs of kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) hatchlings from Kongsfjorden at Svalbard (Norwegian Arctic; 79 degrees N) and from Runde, an island on the coast of Norway (62 ...
Zhao Gaofeng - - 2006
Samples of groundwater, river water, river sediment, paddy soil, rice seeds, hen eggs, fish, umbilical cord blood, and newborn meconium were collected from October 2002 to October 2003 near a large site in China used for the disassembly of obsolete transformers and other electronic or electrical waste. Six indicator PCB ...
Shih Shun-I - - 2006
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the surrounding environment (outdoor) and workplace air of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs, T and M) were characterized and compared. T and M represented two typical municipal solid waste incinerators in the north of Taiwan, which have different processes for controlling the PCDD/F ...
Kucklick John R - - 2006
Since 1987, the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project (AMMTAP) has collected tissues from 18 marine mammal species. Specimens are archived in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NIST-NBSB). AMMTAP has collected blubber, liver and/or kidney specimens from a number of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) ...
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