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Inmaculada Sanz-Gallardo M - - 1999
To identify the determinants of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE) in adipose tissue in subjects who participated in a cross-sectional study, we analyzed fatty acids, antioxidants, and p,p'-DDE in aspirates of adipose tissue of 328 postmenopausal women from 5 European countries. The overall mean of p,p'-DDE concentration was 1.66 microg/g of fatty acids ...
Domingo J L - - 1999
Food samples from local markets and supermarkets of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) were analyzed for PCDD/F concentrations. On lipid basis, PCDD/F levels in meat, fish, eggs, and fats and oils were similar or lower than those found in other countries. By contrast, in general terms PCDD/F levels in milk, vegetables, and ...
Rohde S - - 1999
A digestive tract mass balance was performed on six men with high body burdens of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Intake via food was measured by analyzing duplicate portions of the food consumed by the volunteers and excretion via feces was determined by quantitative collection and analysis of the feces. ...
Giesy J P - - 1999
Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in dorsal muscle and eggs of coho salmon, lake trout, and chinook salmon collected from Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron (Michigan waters). Absolute and relative concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs varied among sampling locations (inter- and intralake) and fish species. ...
Wiegel J - - 1999
Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium ...
Levengood J M - - 1999
Breast muscle samples, with or without overlying adipose tissue and skin, were obtained from Canada geese collected in northeastern illinois while undergoing feather molt. Specimens were evaluated for contaminant concentrations to determine if they would be acceptable as human food provided through government-subsidized programs. Samples were baked, allowing fat to ...
Valters K - - 1999
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT-related substances, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were analysed in perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Latvian lakes and rivers. DDE is present in the highest concentrations in all samples; 62-170 ng/g lipid weight in perch from rural areas and 460 ng/g in perch from the Riga area. ...
Lindström G - - 1999
Nineteen tetra- to hexabrominated diphenyl ethers were identified at ppb concentration in the blubber of pilot whale caught off the coast of the Faroe Islands in 1994 and 1996. Higher total concentrations were found in the pooled samples of young males (3,160 ng/g lipid) and females (3,038 ng/g lipid) compared ...
Casey A C - - 1999
PCBs have been considered to be almost nonvolatile and insoluble in water. However, recent studies have shown the importance of their slight solubility in water and capability to enter the atmosphere and disperse throughout the global environment. This preliminary study was designed to measure uptake and observe any physiological changes ...
Headrick M L - - 1999
Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins are shown to have toxic potential in food animals and humans through laboratory research and investigation of accidental exposures. This article discusses the ball clay incident, as well as other examples of known accidental exposures to PBBs and PCBs. Background information regarding ...
Schantz S L - - 1999
Exposure to contaminants in Great Lakes fish has been linked to impaired neuropsychological functioning in children, but neurological function of exposed adults has not been evaluated. This report describes a cross-sectional analysis of the effects of PCB/DDE exposure from contaminated fish on fine motor function in older adults. The subjects ...
Schuhmacher M - - 1999
Concentrations of 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been determined in pooled samples of breast milk from 15 mothers living in two residential areas (Tarragona downtown and an industrial area) in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), now under construction in Tarragona ...
Wiesmüller T - - 1999
In 1996 forty-nine eels were caught from different locations along the rivers Oder (Hohenwutzen and Schwedt) and from 11 locations along the Havel river. They were analysed for PCDDs/PCDFs and the coplanar PCBs (PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 169). Their contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents were estimated. In case of PCDDs/PCDFs ...
Zabik M E - - 1999
This chapter presents information on the levels of environmental contaminants found in recent market basket surveys as well as the effect of processing and cooking on the reduction of these contaminants. Although consumers have expressed concern over the level of environmental contaminants in the food supply, market basket surveys involving ...
Patandin S - - 1999
Food is the major source for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin accumulation in the human body. Therefore, investigating food habits from early ages until reproductive age (25 years) is important in order to assess exposure risk for the next generation. The objective of this study was to assess the PCB/dioxin ...
Ott M - - 1999
Human milk samples from women in Middle Hesse, Germany were chemically analyzed for contamination levels of alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH, HCB, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT as well as the PCB-congeners no. 28, 31, 49, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 156, 170 and 180. Changes in concentrations of these compounds in human ...
Alcock R E - - 1998
Dioxin-like PCBs represent an important component of the Sigma-TEQ in many environmental media. Specifically, in animal produce and in fish PCBs dominate the Sigma-TEQ ingested by humans. This in turn leads to high background body burdens in humans with PCB-TEQ greater than that associated with PCDD/Fs. High fish consumers are ...
Schrey P - - 1998
A mass balance of human dietary PCDD/F-intake and fecal PCDD/F-excretion was carried out. The participants of the study were seven male and seven female adults between the ages of 24 to 64 years, living in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The PCDD/F-intake was measured using the duplicate method. Sampling time of each ...
Maystrenko V - - 1998
The paper summarises systematic 5-year monitoring of the environment, drinking water and food for PCDDs and PCDFs levels in industrial centres and in rural areas of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia. It also presents selected data on dioxin concentrations in gas emissions of toxic waste incinerators at chemical plants. The ...
Schecter A - - 1998
The primary source of dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs for the general population is food, especially meat, fish, and dairy products. However, most data on the levels of these chemicals is from food in the raw or uncooked state. We report here the effect of one type of ...
Klopov V - - 1998
Under the auspices of Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), a Russian-Norwegian co-operation project was established to assess the exposure of delivering women to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic areas of Russia. In the period 1993-95 blood and breast milk samples were collected from 94 delivering women in Yamal ...
Strandberg B - - 1998
Four species of harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and one herring (Clupea harengus) sample from the southern Baltic Sea were analysed in an attempt to study the concentration and biomagnification of 17 chlordane related compounds (CHLs) including 12 components present in technical chlordane, the toxic metabolites oxychlordane and cis-hepatchlorepoxide and the ...
Rigo H G - - 1998
Extensive laboratory, bench and pilot scale research highlights the role chlorine plays under carefully controlled, high concentration conditions. Commercial data, more than 1,900 tests, however, indicate that there is no strong relationship between chlorine feed and flue gas PCDD/. The majority of the data shows no relationship between PCDD/F and ...
Malisch R - - 1998
Between 1993 and 1996, 1414 food samples were collected in the south-western part of Germany and analysed for PCDD/PCDF contamination. The mean daily intake was calculated as 0.88 pg I-TEQ/kg b.w/day. The results show that the actual PCDD/PCDF intake is about half of the intake calculated for Germany between 1986 ...
Rantalainen A L - - 1998
Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in the water column and in the sediments of the Lower Fraser River (B.C., Canada) to compare the levels and the congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-chlorinated biphenyls (N-o,o1-PCBs) against those sampled by an Infiltrex resin column water sampler. Also ...
Schlummer M - - 1998
Gastrointestinal absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from food was investigated in seven individuals aged 24 to 81 years with different contaminant body burdens using a mass balance approach. The difference between the ingested and excreted amounts of the chlorinated compounds was defined as ...
Lohmann R - - 1998
This paper is a comprehensive, critical review of the levels, behaviour and processes affecting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) in air and deposition. Aspects of sampling, analysis and quality assurance/control are discussed initially, before a review of the PCDD/F concentrations in ambient air is presented. The general trend in sigma ...
She J - - 1998
We have characterized the spectrum of PCB contaminants in human milk samples from 95 women in Kazakhstan using GC/MS congener specific analysis. In these samples, 12 PCBs comprised 83% of total PCB concentration, and were similar to the major PCBs reported in other published human milk studies. By summing concentration ...
Schuhmacher M - - 1998
In 1996, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined by HRGC/HRMS in 24 vegetation samples collected in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain). In the present study 24 vegetation samples were again taken at the same sampling points and analyzed for ...
Li M - - 1998
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the labile 2,3,6-substitution are important components of atmospheric and certain food chain exposures, but little is known about their biological activities. Chlorobiphenyl 110 (2,3,3',4',6-pentaCB) was investigated in weanling female rats dosed ip on days 21 and 22 and killed on day 23 of age. The initial ...
Troisi G M - - 1998
The levels of PCBs and PCB methyl sulphone metabolites were determined in the blubber of six species of cetaceans that originated from the Irish Sea and the Aegean Sea (Mediterranean). Burdens ranging from 2.80 to 27.80 microg g-1 (lipid weight) total PCBs and 0.03 to 0.58 microg g-1 (lipid weight) ...
Strandberg B - - 1998
Zooplankton, mysis (Mysis sp.) and herring (Clupea harengus) were collected at two pelagic locations in the northern part of the Baltic Sea, one in Bothnian Bay (BB) and the other in the Bothnian Sea (BS), in order to investigate concentrations, composition profiles, biomagnification features and spatial differences of organochlorine contaminants. ...
Rappe C - - 1998
One combined catfish feed sample from Arkansas, USA, and its eight ingredients were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. One of the ingredients, soybean meal, was highly contaminated by PCDDs, especially the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, e.g., 7.3 pg/g dry weight or 370 pg/g lipid for the 2,3,7,8-tetra CDD. The I-TEQ value ...
Jin A - - 1998
As part of a larger study of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) pollution, to describe and compare Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal residents' recalled diets. We surveyed a stratified random sample aged 25 to 64 years: forest products mill employees (n = 84), Aboriginal reserve residents (n = 78), and other ...
Anderson H A - - 1998
To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan (n = 10), Lake Huron (n = ...
Strandberg B - - 1998
Herring (Clupea harengus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were collected in the northern and southern Baltic Sea and analyzed for the presence of the cyclodiene pesticides chlordane (CHL), heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin, endosulfan and mirex, as well as other organochlorine contaminants, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDTs, hexachlorobenzene (HCBz) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ...
Garner C E - - 1998
The fate of selected mono-, di-, tetra-, and hexachlorobiphenyls was investigated following single dermal administration (0.4 mg/kg) to determine the effects of chlorine substitution on the dermal absorption and disposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Single dermal doses of 14C-labeled mono-, di-, tetra-, and hexachlorobiphenyls were administered to 1-cm2 areas on ...
Päpke O - - 1998
This paper gives an overview of the development of the environmental or background exposure of humans to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Germany. To determine the background exposure, adipose tissue, human milk, or blood can be used. The good comparability of the matrices analyzed is demonstrated. The ...
Hong C S - - 1998
Four non-ortho-, eight mono-ortho-, and two di-ortho-chlorinated congeners have been determined in fresh water and salt water mussels, fish, snapping turtles, mallard, seals, and in human milk and adipose tissue. The planar PCB congeners are separated from the remainder of PCBs by activated carbon chromatography or HPLC on porous graphitic ...
Atuma S S - - 1998
Ten human milk samples, collected from two towns, Uppsala and Sundsvall, in Sweden in 1994 were analysed for selected chlorinated pesticides (HCB, alpha- and gamma-HCH, DDT, DDD and DDE) and PCB congeners (PCBs 28, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 138, 153, 156, 158, 167, 169 and 180), PCDDs and PCDFs. ...
Newsome W H - - 1998
Market basket samples representative of food from six Canadian cities were surveyed from 1992 to 1996. Fifty composites of fatty foods, prepared for consumption were analysed for 40 PCB congeners by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fish and butter contained the highest total PCB concentrations, while milk and infant foods contained the ...
Roeder R A - - 1998
Dioxin is the common name for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) but is also used for the structurally and chemically related polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), and the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). There are 75 PCDD congeners, 135 PCDF, and 209 PCB. Seven PCDD and 10 PCDF with substitutions at the 2,3,7, and ...
Klopov V P - - 1998
Within the framework of a joint Russian-Norwegian project on human health assessment under the eight-nation Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program, a study of persistent organic compounds was conducted in 42 non-indigenous women who delivered in the hospitals of Norilsk and Salekhard during February and March 1995. Samples of venous blood, ...
Drane W K - - 1997
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed regulating 222Rn in public drinking water. When implemented, the regulation will require periodic sampling to demonstrate compliance. The work reported in this paper was conducted to evaluate how reliably grab samples can be used to characterize the average 222Rn concentration in a groundwater ...
Hooper K - - 1997
Organochlorine pesticides (OC) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in samples of breast milk taken from 92 donors representative of regional populations in southern Kazakstan. The World Health Organization protocol for assessing levels of chlorinated contaminants in breast milk was followed. The most prevalent OC residues were beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH), p,p'-DDE, ...
Krishnan V K - - 1997
Four long-chain aliphatic organic diluents, triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA), triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TEGDA) and tetraethylene glycol diacrylate (TTEGDA) were used as diluents for preparing a visible-light-cured dental composite. Cured samples of pastes prepared using the above diluents were stored separately for a period of 60 days in ...
Kang Y S - - 1997
Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) were determined in human adipose tissue samples collected from western Kyungnam, Korea. The residue levels of organochlorine compounds were in the order of DDTs followed by PCBs > HCHs > HCB > ...
Falandysz J - - 1997
Black cormorants, Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis (the breast muscles and liver) originating from the colony near Katy Rybackie on the south coast of the Gulf of GdaƄsk, Baltic Sea, were collected in 1992 and analysed for polychlorinated naphthalenes. PCNs were determined employing a multi-residue procedure including a non-destructive wide-bore open-tube extraction ...
Koistinen J - - 1997
Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in seals from the Gulf of Finland and in sediments from the Gulf of Finland and near Gotland. The sediments included one surface core from both sampling sites. The seal material consisted of ...
Metcalfe T L - - 1997
The distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the food-web of Lake Ontario was studied to determine the parameters that control the trophodynamics of PCB congeners; including toxic non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs. 'Biomagnification' of PCBs was evident in the food-web as total PCBs increased through trophic levels when concentrations were calculated ...
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