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Fernie K J - - 2001
While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally ...
Yasuhara A - - 2001
Exhaust gases from the combustion of newspaper alone, from branches of London plane tree alone, and from newspapers mixed with sodium chloride (NaCl), polyethylene, or poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) were collected. The samples were analyzed for dioxins by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total amounts of dioxins found in the samples were 0.186 ...
Wu W Z - - 2001
Bioaccumulation of PCDD/F in the foodweb was investigated in the Ya-Er Lake area, which was heavily polluted by PCDD/F. The high concentrations of PCDD/F in sediment can be transferred and bioaccumulated by aquatic organisms and humans through various pathways. Benthonic invertebrate animals and aquatic plants with a lot of fibers ...
Kalantzi O I - - 2001
In this study we explored the use of butter as a sampling matrix to reflect the regional and global scale distribution of PCBs and selected organochlorine pesticides/metabolites in air. This was because persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentrate in dairy fats, where concentrations are controlled by feed intake (primarily from pasture/silage), ...
van Larebeke N - - 2001
In January 1999, 500 tons of feed contaminated with approximately 50 kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1 g of dioxins were distributed to animal farms in Belgium, and to a lesser extent in the Netherlands, France, and Germany. This study was based on 20,491 samples collected in the database ...
Wittsiepe J - - 2001
'Kieselrot' (red slag), a highly PCDD/F-contaminated leaching residue from a copper production process, has been used as surface layer for more than 1,000 sports fields, playgrounds and pavements in Germany and neighbouring countries. Children can ingest this material directly by hand-to-mouth activities or soil-pica behaviour. Furthermore secondary contamination of farm ...
Guruge K S - - 2001
Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and butyltin compounds (mono-, di- and tributyltin) were determined in biota and sediments collected from locations on the west coast of Sri Lanka. The PCB concentrations found in fish from ...
Darnerud P O - - 2001
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in plastics (concentration, 5--30%) and in textile coatings. Commercial products consist predominantly of penta-, octa-, and decabromodiphenyl ether mixtures, and global PBDE production is about 40,000 tons per year. PBDEs are bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the environment, and comparatively high levels ...
Schepens P J - - 2001
We found that 12.1% of Belgian export meat samples from chicken or pork, unrelated to the PCB/dioxin crisis from 1999, contained more than 50 ng polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)/g fat and that 6.5% of samples contain more than 20 ng/g fat for the sum of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its metabolites. Part ...
Bjerregaard P - - 2001
High organochlorine concentrations have been found among the Inuit in eastern Canada and in Greenland. The present study was undertaken to assess the exposure to organochlorines in relation to age, sex, and diet in a general population sample of Inuit from Greenland. Survey data and plasma concentrations of 14 polychlorinated ...
Andersen G - - 2001
Blubber was collected from live-captured, adult male white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) from Svalbard, Norway, and analysed for levels and patterns of organochlorine (OC) contaminants. The OC compounds analysed were HCB, dieldrin, sigmaHCH (alpha-HCH, beta-HCH and gamma-HCH), sigmaChl (heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, trans-nonachlor, and cis-nonachlor), sigmaDDT (pp'-DDT, pp'-DDE and pp'-DDD) and ...
Müller J F - - 2001
Nine samples of butter from producers in various states of Australia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Detectable concentrations of 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDD/Fs were found in all samples. The mean PCDD/F concentration expressed as 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQs) was 0.19 pg TEQ g-1 fat. The highest concentration ...
Fisk A T - - 2001
Samples of Calanus hyperboreus, a herbivorous copepod, were collected (n = 20) between April and July 1998, and water samples (n = 6) were collected in May 1998, in the Northwater Polynya (NOW) to examine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a high Arctic marine zooplankton. Lipid content (dry weight) doubled, ...
Roos A - - 2001
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) has been suggested as the major cause of the European otter (Lutra lutra) population decline. This study investigates temporal and geographical changes in otter numbers as well as total PCB and sigma DDT concentrations in otters and their food in different parts of Sweden with various pollution ...
Wong C S - - 2001
Enantiomeric ratios (ERs) for eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were measured in aquatic sediment from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonracemic ERs for PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, and 176 were found in sediment cores from Lake Hartwell, SC, which confirmed ...
Büchert A - - 2001
Dioxin and PCB monitoring programs for food and feeding stuff in most countries of the world, including many European Countries are currently inadequate. Better control of food production lines and food processing procedures is needed to minimize entry of dioxin to the food chain and will help to avoid dioxin ...
Borgå K - - 2001
To trace the biomagnification of organochlorines in marine food chains near Svalbard, which may lead to the high organochlorine concentrations in top predators from the area, we compared concentrations and patterns of organochlorines in selected taxa. The pelagic crustaceans, Calanus spp. (copepods), Thysanoessa spp. (euphausiids), Parathemisto libellula (amphipod), and the ...
Tittlemier S A - - 2001
Subcooled liquid vapor pressures (PLo) of six polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners containing three to seven bromine atoms were determined using the gas chromatograph retention time technique. Values ranged from 2.3 x 10(-7) to 1.45 x 10(-4) Pa at 25 degrees C. An increase in the number of bromine atoms ...
Borrell A - - 2001
Blubber of free-ranging common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) from the northwestern coast of Spain (Atlantic), sampled in 1984 and 1996, and of common dolphins entangled in fishing nets in the southwestern Mediterranean, sampled during 1992 1994, was analysed for organochlorine pollutants. In the Atlantic, concentration of all pollutants was significantly higher ...
Nhan D D - - 2001
The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs were determined in surface sediments and freshwater molluscs (Angulyagra sp.) from water canals in the region of Hanoi city. Results obtained show that the concentration of sigma DDT compounds in sediments range from 7 to 80 ng/g (dry weight) and from 6 to ...
Alcock R E - - 2000
We have developed a model which successfully reconstructs the lifetime polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-101 burden of the UK population for individuals born between 1920 and 1980. It not only follows burdens and clearance of persistent organic contaminants throughout a human lifetime--taking changes in age and body composition into account--but also, importantly, ...
Minh T B - - 2000
To elucidate the global distribution and toxicological impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on cetaceans, the present study determined the concentrations of individual PCB congeners, including toxic non-ortho (IUPAC Nos. 77, 126, 169) and mono-ortho (IUPAC Nos. 105, 118, 156) coplanar congeners, in the blubber of 10 species of adult male ...
Liang X - - 2000
The retention equations In k' = A + B/T of 49 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and 4 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) in gas chromatography (GC) have been investigated to evaluate the properties of regression coefficients A and B. The quantitative relationships between A and B values of PCDDs and those of PBDDs ...
Durand B - - 2000
A national survey was carried out in order to assess the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in long-life half-skimmed drinking milk produced and consumed in France. 151 Samples were collected from 33 dairy establishments selected for their production amounts following a random sampling scheme. 148 of ...
Sukdolová V - - 2000
PCBs are a family of 209 chemical compounds, each of which consists of two benzene rings and 1 to 10 chlorine atoms. Their long-term stability and dispersion into the environment and the food chain have caused concern about their impact on humans and the environment. Native American communities are believed ...
Konstantinou I K - - 2000
This study contributed to identifying the current levels of organochlorine pollutants in four Greek wetlands of international importance (the Evros and Axios Deltas, and Kerkini and Prespa Lakes), using the cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis as a suitable bioindicator in a region where such information is scarce. Residue levels of eight ...
Puntarić D - - 2000
The aspiration of the countries in transition to join the developed European countries resulted in opening their borders and several-fold increase in import, especially of food products. The imported foods are less expensive than domestic foods, but their quality is often highly questionable. In analyzing the safety of these products ...
Golka K - - 2000
Thirty workers who had been exposed to combustion products for several years due to testing of flame retarding qualities of building materials and 30 controls from the same facility were investigated. Concentrations found in samples taken from different places of the facility were up to 14,660 microg/kg for polybrominated dibenzofurans ...
Norén K - - 2000
The investigations of organochlorine compounds in breast milk from women living in the Stockholm region started in 1967. The present study summarises the investigations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), naphthalenes (PCNs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and pesticides (DDT, DDE, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin) as well as methylsulfonyl metabolites of ...
Malisch R - - 2000
In Germany from 1993 to 1997, the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/F) contamination of food decreased slowly but constantly. However, for milk and butter, this trend was gradually reversed beginning in September 1997: From summer 1997 to February 1998 the average PCDD/F contamination of dairy products increased from a low ...
Evans R G - - 2000
PURPOSE: To determine whether living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator that was burning material contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increased TCDD and toxicity equivalencies (TEQ) in individuals living near the incinerator. METHODS: Participants were randomly chosen from an area close to the incinerator and compared to participants outside ...
Malisch R - - 2000
Elevated PCDD/F levels in four butter samples and one milk sample had to be confirmed under considerable time pressure. These samples should demonstrate a raising dioxin contamination in different regions of Germany caused by the use of Brazilian citrus pulp as feedstuff. Above all, the increase of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD ...
Hell K - - 2000
We performed experiments on two different matrices with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as precursor to Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD)/F. A municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) and a model fly ash were spiked in two different ways. The experiments demonstrated a three times higher formation potential of the trichlorophenol to PCDD on MSWI ...
Deutch B - - 2000
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study has been to analyse data, collected for surveillance purposes under the Human Health Programme of AMAP (Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, in Greenland, regarding geographical differences and lifestyle versus pollution load from persistent organic pollutants (POP), and to make possible exposure assessments. It comprises ...
Liem A K - - 2000
The present situation with respect to the exposure of the general human population to PCDDs, PCDFs and (dioxin-like) PCBs and specific issues that should be taken into consideration for a risk assessment of these exposures have been summarized. The information is based on studies performed in The Netherlands and Germany ...
Kannan K - - 2000
Concentrations of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides were measured in tissues of map turtles collected from two locations in the Pascagoula River drainage of Mississippi, USA. PCBs were most predominant among the organochlorines with a concentration of up to 99 ng/g, wet weight (580 ng/g, lipid ...
Severinsen T - - 2000
Blubber samples, taken through the entire blubber column, were collected from three different anatomical locations on ringed seals (Phoca hispida). The outer and inner layers of these samples were analysed for concentrations of sigma PCBs (sum of the analysed congeners, polychlorinated biphenyls) and p,p'-DDE (4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene). No significant differences were found ...
Feeley M - - 2000
Global contamination by a variety of anthropogenic persistent organic chemicals, such as dioxins and PCBs, has resulted in human exposure throughout all phases of development. Detectable concentrations of PCBs and dioxins have been found in amniotic fluid, placenta and foetal tissue samples while infants who are breast-fed can obtain blood ...
Brunström B - - 2000
Concentrations of such persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are high in certain Arctic animal species. The polar bear, Arctic fox, and glaucous gull may be exposed to PCB levels above lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level (LOAEL) values for adverse effects on reproduction in mammals and birds. However, the dioxin-like congeners seem ...
Glynn A W - - 2000
Results from the Swedish control programme regarding organochlorines in food were used to determine time trends of organochlorine concentrations in adipose tissues from swine (4-8 months old) and bovines (non-dairy, 12-36 months) slaughtered between 1991 and 1997. Moreover, possible regional differences in concentrations were studied, as well as differences in ...
Menone M L - - 2000
A freshwater fish species, silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) from Mar Chiquita coastal lagoon, Argentina, was analyzed for concentrations of several organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat and muscle, and the contents of the digestive tract over several stages of sexual maturation. PCBs and OCs were ...
Stewart P - - 2000
We examined the relationship between prenatal (cord blood) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) performance in babies born to women who consumed contaminated Lake Ontario fish. Cord blood PCBs, DDE, HCB, Mirex, lead, and hair mercury levels were determined for 152 women who reported never consuming Lake ...
Przyrembel H H Federal Institute for Health Protection of Consumers and Veterinary Medicine, Berlin, - - 2000
A great variety of drugs, cosmetics, food ingredients as well as environmental contaminants are secreted with human milk as a result of actual exposure or the accumulated body burden of the mother. Of great concern and least amenable to short-term intervention are persistent substances in the environment with long half-lives ...
Ashida H - - 2000
Dioxin type chemicals such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) cause a variety of toxicity. Most of the toxicity of TCDD has been attributed to a mechanism by which TCDD is bound to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and transforms the receptor. Thus, suppression of the AhR transformation by food factors can suppress the ...
Gamberg M - - 1999
Kidney, liver and bone samples were taken from 19 wolves (Canis lupus) collected from two locations in the Yukon Territory. Liver samples pooled by age and sex were analyzed for 22 organochlorine pesticides and 101 PCB congeners. Individual kidney and liver samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total ...
Angulo R - - 1999
The degree of exposure by nursing mothers to individual polychronated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was studied and an estimate made of the daily intake by their infants. Epidemiological data from 100 nursing mothers were collected; 11 individual PCB congeners were determined in samples of the mothers' milk and the toxicity equivalent ...
Geusau A - - 1999
Two patients with chloracne had concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) of 144,000 and 26,000 pg/g blood lipids. Olestra, a non-digestible, lipophilic dietary fat substitute accelerated the patients' intestinal excretion of TCDD by eight to ten fold. This is sufficient to reduce the normally observed elimination half life of TCDD from about ...
Thomas G O - - 1999
This paper uses data from a detailed 4 month PCB mass balance study on lactating cows fed a naturally contaminated background diet to quantify the metabolism and body-burdens of a range of PCB congeners. Dietary intake fluxes and milk and faecal output fluxes reported previously are combined with subcutaneous fat ...
Bargar T A - - 1999
Recent papers have investigated the utility of chemical analysis of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as a nonlethal indicator of avian and reptilian exposure to persistent environmental contaminants. This study was undertaken to evaluate the chemical distribution among fat, CAM, and residual yolk tissues of live neonatal American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) ...
Dang D N - - 1999
Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments and clams collected from the coast of the north of Vietnam during the rainy season (August-September 1997). Results show that the organochlorine pesticides of major concern are HCHs (1.2-33.7 ng g-1 dry wt.), DDTs (6.2-10.4 ng g-1 dry wt.) and ...
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