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Chu Fu Lin E - - 2003
Because of their resistance to environmental degradation, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most widespread environmental contaminants. PCBs have high bioaccumulation potential and may affect a number of biological/physiological processes including disruption of the endocrine system function, lipid metabolism and reproduction. The objective of this study was to test whether ...
Schecter Arnold - - 2003
Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in ...
Llerena J J - - 2003
In 2000, as part of a survey programme, the German authorities detected high levels of dioxins in a choline chloride (CC) premix used as animal food component. The contaminated additive consisted of different products of mineral and vegetable origin acting as a carrier. The CC was manufactured in Belgium. The ...
Falandysz J - - 2003
Chloronaphthalenes are dioxin-like environmental and food contaminants that for many years have undergone diffusion from dispersed emission sources of various types on a global scale. When released into ambient air like many other semivolatile organohalogen compounds, chloronaphthalenes undergo various processes and pathways including sequestering by plant vegetation and biota. Recently ...
Kunisue T - - 2003
Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-, mono-, and di-ortho congeners, were determined in migratory and resident birds collected from India and Lake Baikal in Russia. In the 11 different species examined, total PCBs concentrations were in the range of 11-4500 ng/g (wet wt). IUPAC 105, 118, 138, 153, and ...
Lung Shih-Chun Candice - - 2003
This study is to assess PCB levels in five frequently consumed fish species in Taiwan, tilapia, milkfish, white pomfret, hairtail, and cod. Seventeen congeners were measured in fillet samples purchased from major markets in northern, central, and southern Taiwan. All 136 samples had traces of PCBs. The median concentrations were ...
Petrovic Mira - - 2003
The elimination of nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylates (NP1EO and NP2EO), nonylphenol carboxylates (NP1EC and NP2EC) and their brominated and chlorinated derivatives during drinking water treatment process in Sant Joan Despf waterworks in Barcelona was investigated utilizing a recently developed, highly sensitive LC-MS-MS method. The concentration of these potentially ...
Hoekstra Paul F - - 2003
Concentrations of achiral and chiral organochlorine contaminants (OCs), including hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCH), chlordane congeners (cis- and trans-chlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, MC5, MC7, and U82), and related metabolites (oxychlordane [OXY] and heptachlor exo-epoxide [HEPX]), were quantified in seawater (100 L; n = 6) and biota from the coastal Beaufort-Chukchi Seas food ...
Lind Ylva - - 2003
The breast milk concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; sum of five congeners: BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154) were determined (by GC-ECD) in samples from 93 primiparous women collected from 1996 to 1999 in Uppsala County, Sweden. Dietary and lifestyle factors were also recorded. The mean PBDE concentration was ...
Anyanwu Ebere C - - 2003
Chlorinated dioxins are the group of environmental pollutants consisting of 210 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. They are highly toxic and persistent. They are lipophilic and can easily biomagnify in the food chain, hence posing a serious threat to human health. The daily consumption of low-level contaminated food, mainly of animal ...
Tame N W - - 2003
Ash residues from fires of radiata pine timber, both untreated and treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). Fire conditions were simulated using a cone calorimeter. The sensitivity of the magnitude and profile of PCDD/F in the ash under ...
Apostoli P - - 2003
The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been demonstrated to be inducers of hepatic microsomal enzymes and some of their effects such as hormonal imbalance, and alteration of lipid and porphyrin metabolism could be ascribed to this mechanism. For this reason, the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid (DGA), an indirect indicator of ...
Hale Robert C - - 2003
North America consumes over half of the world's production of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. About 98% of global demand for the Penta-BDE mixture, the constituents of which are the most bioaccumulative and environmentally widespread, resides here. However, research on the environmental distribution of PBDEs in North America has ...
Law Robin J - - 2003
In this paper, we review the available data for polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in wildlife, with the exception of fishes from Europe and North America which are covered in more detail elsewhere. More data are available for PBDEs than for other compounds, and these show that some ...
Fikslin Thomas J - - 2003
Traditional analyses for PCBs in environmental matrices have focused on commercial Aroclor mixtures with detection limits in the 100 to 1000 part per trillion range. This approach has recently been supplanted by analyses for specific PCB compounds called congeners with detection limits less than 0.5 ppt. At the national level, ...
Yeung H Y - - 2003
The differential expression of cytochrome P4501A1 gene expression (CYP1A1) in liver, intestine and gill of juvenile tilapia following oral exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor-1254 or Aroclor-1260 spiked food were investigated. The fish was fed with 0.1 g/g of body weight each day of the spiked food with a concentration ...
Watanabe Isao - - 2003
Recently, environmental problems relating to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have become a matter of greater concern than ever before, because of the recent marked increase in levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) found in human milk in Sweden and North America. The question that arises is whether environmental levels of ...
Schecter Arnold - - 2003
In this study the levels of dioxins and dioxinlike compounds, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in food exported from Vietnam to the United States. In the past, some Vietnamese fish was found to be contaminated with dioxin, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, or TCDD, from Agent Orange. U.S. commercial catfish farmers recently ...
Stapleton H M - - 2003
Levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) in Great Lakes salmonids and ambient air have been recently reported, but few studies worldwide have examined the accumulation of BDEs within aquatic food webs. Here we report some of the first measurements of six BDE congeners that are common components of the pentaBDE ...
Fossi M Cristina - - 2003
In the Mediterranean Sea, top predators, and particularly cetacean odontocetes, accumulate high concentrations of organochlorine contaminants and toxic metals, incurring high toxicological risk. In this paper we investigate the use of the skin biopsies as a non-lethal tool for evaluating toxicological hazard of organochlorines in Mediterranean cetaceans, presenting new data ...
Muntean Nigina - - 2003
A 1999 study heightened long-standing concerns over persistent organic pollutant contamination in the Aral Sea area, detecting elevated levels in breast milk and cord blood of women in Karakalpakstan (western Uzbekistan). These findings prompted a collaborative research study aimed at linking such human findings with evidence of food chain contamination ...
Schecter Arnold - - 2003
Recently, elevated dioxin levels, over 5 parts per trillion (ppt) 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), from Agent Orange was reported in 95% of 43 selected residents of Bien Hoa City, a city in southern Vietnam near a former air base used for Agent Orange-spraying missions. Agent Orange herbicide, contaminated with TCDD, was sprayed ...
Okumura Yutaka - - 2003
The concentrations of PCDD/F and Co-PCB congeners in seawater, sediment, Pacific oyster, Japanese anchovy, marbled sole, and Japanese flounder samples from Sendai Bay, Japan, were analyzed. The compositions of total PCDD/F and total Co-PCB concentrations in sediment and Pacific oyster reflected that in seawater--the compositions of total PCDD, PCDF, and ...
Braune Birgit M - - 2003
This is the first account of PCDDs, PCDFs, and non-ortho PCBs in Canadian Arctic seabirds. Livers and eggs of thick-billed murres, northern fulmars, and black-legged kittiwakes were collected in 1975 and 1993 from Prince Leopold Island in Lancaster Sound, Canada. Detectable concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and non-ortho PCBs were found ...
Kim Byung-Hoon - - 2003
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction from animal feed samples and analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). In all of the feed samples analysed, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were below the existing tolerance limit of 5 pg ...
Kenntner N - - 2003
The northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is a top predator in the terrestrial food web of large parts of the Holarctic. Due to its sedentary nature and well-investigated feeding ecology, it represents the most suitable bird of prey species in continental Europe for monitoring environmental pollutants. We analyzed the levels of ...
Martínez Elena - - 2003
Strategically designed sample composition (SSC) is a new technique that decreases the number of analytical determinations needed in routine screening to as few as the number of original sample specimens while providing information that is specific to them. Although this new technique has been applied to environmental studies, this paper ...
Kelly Barry C - - 2003
A model representing the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic terrestrial mammalian food-chains is developed, parametrized, tested, and analyzed. The model predicts concentrations of POPs in lichen, caribou (Rangifer tarandus), and wolf (Canis lupus) food-chains of Canada's central and western arctic region from measured concentrations in air and ...
Custer Christine M - - 2003
Hatching success of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) was assessed for three years in relation to chemical contamination along the Housatonic River, Berkshire County (MA, USA), in 1998, 1999, and 2000. Nest boxes were erected at five sites along the Housatonic River and its tributaries and at one reference location. Concentrations ...
Focant J-F - - 2003
Congener-specific analyses of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 4 non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs) were performed on 35 samples of commercial long-life pasteurised cows' milk issued from eight different brands available in Walloon supermarkets (Belgium). The observed congener profile was characteristic of milk samples issued from ...
Smithwick L Ashley - - 2003
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants, and their ubiquitous nature has prompted studies of their potential health hazards. As a result of their lipophilic nature, PCBs accumulate in breast milk and subsequently affect the health of offspring of exposed individuals. Biological effects of PCBs in animals have mostly been ...
Breitholtz Magnus - - 2003
The current knowledge concerning effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on aquatic organisms is very limited. A full life-cycle (< or =26 days exposure) ecotoxicity test with the particle-feeding copepod Nitocra spinipes was therefore used to study effects of BDE-47, -99 and -100 on larval development rate (LDR) and population ...
Lynch J W - - 2003
One source of both bias and "noise" in fecal steroid analysis is temporal change in steroid concentrations resulting from duration or conditions of fecal sample storage. However, no consensus currently exists regarding correct procedures or precautions necessary for fecal sample storage, and conditions vary widely within field endocrinology literature. This ...
Schell Lawrence M - - 2003
Most humans have detectable body burdens of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and p,p'-dichlorophenyldichloroethylene p,p'-DDE), a metabolite of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Native American communities may be at increased risk of exposure through subsistence-based diets and greater physical contact with contaminated soil and water. In this article we describe the levels of ...
Montone R C - - 2003
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous anthropogenic compounds found even in the polar regions, mainly due to long-range atmospheric transport. In order to assess the occurrence of atmospheric PCBs in the vicinity of the Brazilian Antarctic Research Station (62 degrees 05'S, 58 degrees 23'W), a sampling survey was undertaken in the ...
Roy Luke A - - 2003
In July 2000, 330 individuals of three flatfish species were collected from reference locations and nine sites surrounding the outfall of the Orange County (CA, USA) Sanitation District (OCSD) municipal wastewater discharge. Species included hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis), English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), and bigmouth sole (Hippoglossina stomata). Livers of sampled ...
Domingo Jose L - - 2003
Concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia, Spain. A total of 108 samples, belonging to 11 food groups (vegetables, tubers, fruits, cereals, pulses, fish and shellfish, meat and meat products, eggs, milk, dairy products, and oils and fats), were analyzed by ...
Branchi Igor - - 2003
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of widely used flame retardants, are becoming widespread environmental pollutants, as indicated by studies on sentinel animal species, as well as humans. Of particular concern are the reported increasingly high levels of PBDEs in human milk, as should be given that almost no information ...
Bocio A - - 2003
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a variety of materials, including synthetic polymers and textiles. Although these chemicals have been detected in environmental samples and human tissues, there is little information about human exposure to PBDEs through the diet. In the present study, we determined the ...
Muir Derek - - 2003
Persistent organochlorines (OC) contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT)- and chlordane (CHL) related compounds, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) isomers and chlorobenzenes (CBz) were determined in blubber of harp seals (Phoca groenlandica), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Eringnathus barbatus) as well as in fishes and invertebrates from the White ...
Tanabe Shinsuke - - 2003
To examine temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) contamination in Lake Baikal and the Caspian Sea, concentrations of persistent OCs, such as DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), in the blubber of female seals were determined. Collections were made ...
Porta Miquel - - 2003
In Spain, there are substantial gaps in available information about contamination of food, humans, and the environment by persistent toxic substances (PTSs), although studies have shown detectable concentrations of DDE, PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, or hexachlorocyclohexane in 80-100% of the population. Spain will soon try to implement the Stockholm treaty on persistent ...
Amakura Yoshiaki - - 2003
The cleanup procedure for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food samples using a disposable pre-packed multi-layer silica gel column (multi-layer dioxin tube; D-tube) was evaluated. The blank test showed the need for conditioning of the column with n-hexane. To compare the ...
Weiss J - - 2003
AIM: To investigate whether those who were exposed to high levels of the dioxin TCDD 25 years ago in Seveso, northern Italy still have higher than the expected levels of dioxins in their fat stores, and to investigate the concentrations of dioxins in the breast milk of mothers in Seveso ...
Laschi Serena - - 2003
In this work, a disposable electrochemical immunosensor, based on a competitive assay scheme, was applied to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food. For this purpose, antibodies against PCBs were directly immobilized onto the carbon surface of a disposable screen-printed electrode. A competition between the PCBs present in the sample and ...
Helm Paul A - - 2003
Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and mono- and non-ortho substituted PCBs were analyzed in air from two sites in Toronto, Ontario, Canada to determine whether current combustion-related sources contribute to the levels and profiles of PCNs found in urban air. High-volume air samples were collected periodically at the University of Toronto (UT, ...
Llobet Juan M - - 2003
From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities in Catalonia, Spain. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 108 samples of vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Levels of 11 PCB ...
Llobet Juan M - - 2003
The main objectives of this study were to estimate the dietary intake of dioxins by the population of Catalonia, Spain, to determine which food groups showed the greatest contribution to this intake, and to assess the health risks potentially associated with the dietary dioxin intake. From June to August 2000, ...
Chen Hsiu-Ling - - 2003
The study was conducted to correlate the consumption frequency of different food groups (milk, eggs, fish, and others) and the levels of serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations of residents living near a municipal waste incinerator. All selected subjects were between 18 and 65 years old and proportionally chosen ...
Gill Christopher E - - 2003
Food supply and contaminants were investigated as possible causes of low bald eagle productivity near a bleached kraft pulp and paper mill at Crofton on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Over a seven year period, 1992-1998, average productivity of five eagle territories situated south of the pulp mill at Crofton was ...
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