Search Results
Results 1 - 50 of 1041
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >
Bodicoat Danielle H DH 1University of Leicester,Diabetes Research Centre and Leicester Diabetes Centre,Leicester General Hospital,Gwendolen Road,Leicester LE5 - - 2014
We investigated whether a higher number of fast-food outlets in an individual's home neighbourhood is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and related risk factors, including obesity. Cross-sectional study. Three UK-based diabetes screening studies (one general population, two high-risk populations) conducted between 2004 and 2011. The primary ...
Richardson Andrea S AS Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA; Carolina Population Center, 137 East Franklin St. Campus Box 8120, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, - - 2014
Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk ...
Tate Eleanor B EB University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA - - 2014
Objective. This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design. One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California elementary schools. Participants. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N ...
Heredia-Blonval Katrina K Unit of Nutrition and Health. Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud (INCIENSA). Tres Ríos, PO Box 4-2250. Costa Rica. Electronic address: - - 2014
Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular ...
Musaiger Abdulrahman O AO Arab Center for Nutrition. - - 2014
This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. ...
Bicudo Milene Oliveira Pereira MO Graduate Program in Food Engineer, Chemical Engineering Department, Paraná Federal University, 81531-980, Curitiba, PR, Brazil, - - 2014
Juçara (Euterpe edulis M.) fruits are an interesting source of phenolic compounds, mainly anthocyanins, making them valuable to the food and pharmaceutical industries. Juçara fruits were harvested along the on-tree ripening process between March and June as practiced in Paraná state, Brazil and examined for their total anthocyanin content (TAC), ...
Hollands Simon - - 2014
Frequent fast-food consumption is a well-known risk factor for obesity. This study sought to determine whether the availability of fast-food restaurants has an influence on body mass index (BMI). BMI and individual-level confounding variables were obtained from the 2007-08 Canadian Community Health Survey. Neighbourhood socio-demographic variables were acquired from the ...
Dominguez Ligia J LJ Geriatric Unit - Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, University of Palermo, Palermo, Sicily, - - 2014
Gestational diabetes prevalence is increasing, mostly because obesity among women of reproductive age is continuously escalating. We aimed to investigate the incidence of gestational diabetes according to the consumption of fast food in a cohort of university graduates. The prospective dynamic "Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra" (SUN) cohort included data of ...
Díaz Noelia N Institut de Ciències del Mar, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Barcelona, - - 2014
Food supply is a major factor influencing growth rates in animals. This has important implications for both natural and farmed fish populations, since food restriction may difficult reproduction. However, a study on the effects of food supply on the development of juvenile gonads has never been transcriptionally described in fish. ...
Bonnet Jonathan J 0000-0002-1917-0048 Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Health System, P.O. Box 104425, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2014
Childhood obesity is a complex problem that warrants early intervention. General recommendations for obesity prevention and nutrition counseling exist. However, these are notably imprecise with regard to early and targeted interventions to prevent and treat obesity in pediatric populations. This study examines family medicine primary care providers' (PCPs) perceived barriers ...
Waissi-Leinonen Greta C - - 2012
An environmentally realistic method to test fullerene (C(60) ) toxicity to the benthic organism Chironomus riparius was created by allowing suspended fullerenes to settle down, making a layer on top of the sediment. To test the hypothesis that higher food concentrations will reduce toxic responses, two food concentrations were tested ...
Kana Sop M Modestine - - 2012
In developing countries, complementary foods are based on local cereal porridges. These foods are poor in trace elements, with a high risk of inducing micronutrient deficiencies-the primary cause of mortality in children under the age of five. Inappropriate feeding of complementary foods is the major factor creating malnutrition and micronutrients ...
Fabris Clara - - 2012
Biolarvicides, such as microbial formulations based on Bacillus thuringiensis and B. sphaericus, have been found to be highly effective against mosquito larvae and are currently employed as eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides for vector control. Recently, a porphyrin of natural origin has been suggested as a sunlight-activatable larvicide against ...
Kahraman O - - 2012
Zinc-fortified Cheddar cheese containing 228mg of zinc/kg of cheese was manufactured from milk that had 16mg/kg food-grade zinc sulfate added. Cheeses were aged for 2 mo. Culture activity during cheese making and ripening, and compositional, chemical, texture, and sensory characteristics were compared with control cheese with no zinc sulfate added ...
Hopman N E M - - 2012
Background: Clostridium difficile is recognized as an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea in humans, especially in association with the administration of antibiotics. Furthermore, C. difficile can not only cause neonatal enteritis in pigs but can also be found in pigs without any clinical disease symptoms. Clostridium difficile had been found ...
Raybould Helen E - - 2012
The gut epithelium is a barrier between the 'outside' and 'inside' world. The major function of the epithelium is to absorb nutrients, ions and water, yet it must balance these functions with that of protecting the 'inside' world from potentially harmful toxins, irritants, bacteria and other pathogens that also exist ...
Gil de Los Santos João Rodrigo - - 2011
The probiotic properties of Pichia pastoris and of a recombinant P. pastoris containing the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene were evaluated in broilers. One-day-old chicks randomly divided in four groups were fed with commercial feed devoid of antibacterials. The control group (1) received plain food, while the other groups were ...
Date Kashmira - - 2011
Foodborne botulism is a potentially fatal paralytic illness caused by ingestion of neurotoxin produced by the spore-forming bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Historically, home-canned vegetables have been the most common cause of botulism outbreaks in the United States. During 2008 and 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state ...
Logan Niall A - - 2011
Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. These organisms have undergone huge taxonomic changes in the last 30 years, with numbers of genera and species now standing at 56 and over 545 respectively. Despite this expansion, relatively few ...
Bradley K K - - 2011
SUMMARYIn August 2008, a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O111:NM infections associated with a buffet-style restaurant in rural Oklahoma was identified. A case-control study of restaurant patrons and a retrospective cohort study of catered event attendees were conducted coupled with an environmental investigation to determine the outbreak's ...
García M - - 2011
A laboratory study was carried out to assess the potential prey-mediated effects of Cry3Bb1-expressing Bt maize on the fitness and predatory ability of Atheta coriaria Kraatz (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), using Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) as prey. The concentration of Cry3Bb1 toxin through the trophic chain significantly decreased from Bt maize ...
Anderson N M - - 2011
As existing technologies are refined and novel microbial inactivation technologies are developed, there is a growing need for a metric that can be used to judge equivalent levels of hazard control stringency to ensure food safety of commercially sterile foods. A food safety objective (FSO) is an output-oriented metric that ...
Hennekinne Jacques-Antoine - - 2011
Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is one of the most common food-borne diseases and results from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) preformed in food by enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. To date, more than 20 SEs have been described: SEA to SElV. All of them have superantigenic activity whereas half ...
Kim Nam Hee - - 2011
Aims:  To investigate the presence of toxigenic S. aureus in ready-to-eat (RTE) Korean foods and determine the distribution of genes related to various types of toxin production. Methods and Results:  A total of 3,293 commercial RTE refrigerated foods (sushi, n = 1,882; kimbab, n = 975; California rolls, n = ...
Haneklaus A N - - 2011
The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) has a specific lethality performance standard for ready-to-eat products. To assist meat processing establishments in meeting the performance standard, USDA-FSIS developed Appendix A, which provides guidelines for cooking temperatures, times, and relative humidity. This project determined whether the USDA-FSIS ...
Santos C A - - 2011
Twenty-three Bacillus cereus isolates from food poisoning outbreaks associated with a diarrheal-type syndrome, fourteen foodborne isolates not associated with food poisoning and fifteen isolates from Brazilian soil samples were analyzed for the presence and genetic diversity (by RE-PCR) of the virulence genes ces (emetic toxin, cereulide), plcR-papR (pleiotropic regulator PlcR ...
Rundberget Thomas - - 2011
Fast-acting cyclic imines belonging to the pinnatoxin and pteriatoxin group of toxins were originally identified in shellfish of the genera Pinna and Pteria in Japan, after food poisoning events in China linked to consumption of Pinna spp. Recently, a range of new and known pinnatoxin analogs have been identified in ...
Felicio Joana D - - 2011
Mycotoxins are metabolites and toxic substances produced by certain filamentous fungi that frequently contaminate food and agriculture commodities and it may cause disease in animals or humans. The toxigenic fungi are responsible for mycotoxin production in food that belongs to mainly three genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The contamination of ...
Girardet Clémence - - 2011
Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant trichothecenes found on cereals, has been implicated in mycotoxicoses in both humans and farm animals. Low doses toxicity is characterized by reduced weight gain, diminished nutritional efficiency and immunologic effects. The levels and patterns of human food commodities contamination justify that DON consumption ...
Sharma I - - 2011
The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify Aeromonas (A.) species and assess their toxin producing ability in foods of animal origin from North East India. A total of 332 animal food samples (fish, poultry meat, pork and chevon) of which 38 (11.44%) isolates were identified by ...
Lim S L - - 2011
The biodiversity and the killer activity of yeasts isolated from various types of fermented food in Malaysia were investigated in this study. Of 252 yeasts isolated from 48 fermented food samples in this study, 19 yeast species were identified based on sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 partial fragments of the ...
Duncan-Lewis Christopher A - - 2011
Intranasal application of zinc gluconate has commonly been used to treat the common cold. The safety of this treatment, however, has come into question recently. In addition to a United States recall of a homeopathic product that contains zinc gluconate, abundant literature reports cytotoxic effects of zinc on the olfactory ...
Ginane Cécile - - 2011
Taste is one of the five senses that give ruminants and other animals an awareness of their environment, especially for food selection. The sense of taste, which recognizes sweet, bitter, salty, sour and umami basic tastes, is often considered of paramount importance as it is the last sense in use ...
Cangemi John R - - 2011
Transmission of foodborne pathogens remains a growing concern despite increasing public awareness and heightened federal measures to control infection. Over 76 million cases of acute diarrhea secondary to ingestion of contaminated food occur annually in the United States. Fortunately, most are self-limited and resolve without therapy, but up to 6000 ...
Gehring Andrew G - - 2011
Incidental contamination of foods by pathogenic bacteria and/or their toxins is a serious threat to public health and the global economy. The presence of food-borne pathogens and toxins must be rapidly determined at various stages of food production, processing, and distribution. Producers, processors, regulators, retailers, and public health professionals need ...
Barton Behravesh Casey - - 2011
Foodborne diseases are typically mild and self-limiting but can cause severe illness and death. We describe the epidemiology of deaths associated with bacterial pathogens using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) in the United States. We analyzed FoodNet data from 1996-2005 to determine the numbers and rates ...
Daminelli Paolo - - 2011
The study provides data on two cases of foodborne botulism caused by consumption of commercial vegetable products: artichoke preserve and cream of vegetable soup. By mouse bioassay, Clostridium botulinum toxin in both the suspected food samples was detected and identified as type B toxin. The detection of C. botulinum toxin ...
Batchoun Raymond - - 2011
Abstract Background: Bacillus cereus is increasingly recognized as one of the causative agents of food poisoning in different parts of the world. Methods: In this study, molecular characterization of B. cereus toxigenic strains isolated from food in Jordan was performed. A total of 202 food samples were collected from local ...
Al-Abri Seif S - - 2011
To investigate the course of a hospital acquired outbreak of Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis outbreak, and the interventions that were taken to prevent such an outbreak from occurring again. On May 3-5 2008, 58 cases of gastroenteritis were reported among patients and their attendants in a referral hospital in Oman. All ...
Asakura H - - 2011
SUMMARYRecent epidemiological data suggest a link between the consumption of bovine offal products and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection in Japan. This study thus examined the prevalence of STEC in various types of these foods. PCR screened 229 bovine offal products for the presence of Shiga toxin (stx) gene. ...
Rode Tone Mari - - 2011
Bacteriophages (phages) carrying Shiga toxin genes constitute a major virulence attribute in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Several EHEC outbreaks have been linked to food. The survival of such strains in different foods has received much attention, while the fate of the mobile Shiga toxin-converting phages (Stx phages) has been less ...
Jard G - - 2011
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites present worldwide in agricultural commodities and produced by ļ¬lamentous fungi that cause a toxic response (mycotoxicosis) when ingested by animals. Prevention of mycotoxicoses includes pre- and post-harvest strategies. The best way to reduce the mycotoxin content in food and feed is the prevention of mycotoxin formation ...
Bandelj Petra - - 2011
Clostridium difficile is an important bacterial pathogen of humans and a variety of animal species, where it can cause significant medical problems. The major public health concern is the possibility of inapparent animal reservoirs of C. difficile and shedding of bacteria to non infected individuals/populations, as well as being a ...
Karasov William H - - 2011
Digestive physiology links physiology to applications valued by society, such as understanding ecology and ecological toxicology and managing and conserving species. Here I illustrate this applied and integrative perspective with several avian case studies. The match between digestive features and diet provides evidence of tradeoffs that preclude doing well on ...
Schüller Stephanie - - 2011
After ingestion via contaminated food or water, enterohaemorrhagic E. coli colonises the intestinal mucosa and produces Shiga toxins (Stx). No Stx-specific secretion system has been described so far, and it is assumed that Stx are released into the gut lumen after bacterial lysis. Human intestinal epithelium does not express the ...
Caserta Justin A JA Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219, - - 2011
Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE) is responsible for causing the gastrointestinal symptoms of C. perfringens type A food poisoning, the second most commonly identified bacterial food-borne illness in the United States. CPE is produced by sporulating C. perfringens cells in the small intestinal lumen, where it then causes epithelial cell damage ...
Dowsett Natalie - - 2011
Farmed greenlip abalone Haliotis laevigata were fed commercial seaweed-based food pellets or feed pellets supplemented with 8 × 10(5)Alexandrium minutum dinoflagellate cells g(-1) (containing 12 ± 3.0 μg STX-equivalent 100 g(-1), which was mainly GTX-1,4) every second day for 50 days. Exposure of abalone to PST supplemented feed for 50 days did not affect behaviour or ...
Döll Susanne - - 2011
The contamination of cereal grains with toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, mycotoxins, is a permanent challenge in animal nutrition as health and performance of the animals may be compromised as well as the quality of animal derived food. Therefore the present article reviews the issue of mycotoxins in animal nutrition. ...
Talon Régine - - 2011
Food safety is a major concern for consumers and a major issue for industry which has become aware of the importance of the starter safety assessment. In the European Union, the Food Safety Authority has introduced the Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach for safety assessment of microorganisms throughout the ...
Flannery Brenna M BM Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1224, - - 2011
A short-term mouse model was devised to investigate induction of food refusal by the common foodborne trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON). DON dose-dependently induced anorexia within 2 h of exposure when administered either by intraperitoneal (ip.) injection or by oral gavage. The no observed adverse effect and lowest observed adverse effect levels ...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >