Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1038
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Rolls Barbara J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We tested the effect on energy intake of increasing the portion size of all foods and beverages served over 2 consecutive days. DESIGN: The study used a randomized crossover design. SUBJECTS/SETTING: Subjects were 32 adults from a university community. INTERVENTION: For 2 consecutive days in each of 3 weeks, ...
Sudo N - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate gender differences in dietary intake among adults in lowland Nepalese communities. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For 122 male and 195 female subjects aged 20 years and over from 94 randomly selected households, interviews using a 19-item food frequency questionnaire were conducted. To determine the portion sizes of these ...
Wiecha Jean L JL Departments of Society, Human Development, and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2006
To test whether increased television viewing is associated with increased total energy intake and with increased consumption of foods commonly advertised on television, and to test whether increased consumption of these foods mediates the relationship between television viewing and total energy intake. Prospective observational study with baseline (fall 1995) and ...
Mazlan N - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of energy density and food weight (volume) on subsequent intake. DESIGN: Sixteen lean men were each studied four times during a 2-d protocol at the Rowett's Human Nutrition Unit. On day 1, subjects were fed a mandatory diet at ...
Logan C M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Olibra fat emulsion on medium-term food intake and appetite in non-obese subjects. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover. SETTING: University of Ulster, Coleraine. SUBJECTS: A total of 28 subjects (14 male, 14 female). INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either a 200 g portion ...
Norton G N M - - 2006
Volume has been shown to be an important direct control of food intake, since larger volumes of food consumed prior to a meal can inhibit subsequent intake. Variety of food is known to stimulate food intake. The present study was designed to examine the relative effects of manipulating the volume ...
Roy Jean-Pierre R - - 2006
PURPOSE: It has been shown that mechanical energy is dissipated at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint during running and jumping. Furthermore, increasing the longitudinal bending stiffness of the midsole significantly reduced the energy dissipated at the MTP joint and increased jump performance. It was hypothesized that increasing midsole longitudinal bending stiffness ...
Argmann Carmen A - - 2006
Body mass and composition reflect the combined effects of three processes: energy intake, energy partitioning (storage), and energy expenditure. Energy is released from food as it is combusted to carbon dioxide and water, and is expended as heat and work within a cell. The energy stores, mainly in adipose tissue, ...
McCrory Megan A - - 2006
The relative effects of energy density and palatability on energy intake, and whether there are familial influences on these effects, are not known. We investigated this issue in 7 pairs of healthy, male monozygotic twins (mean+/-SD age 26.3+/-8.6 years, BMI 23.7+/-3.2 kg/m(2)) in a clinical study involving covert ad libitum ...
Martin Niamh M - - 2006
Recent studies of transgenic mice and humans have provided compelling evidence for the importance of the hypothalamic melanocortin system in the regulation of energy balance. Energy homeostasis is a balance between food intake (energy input) and energy expenditure. The melanocortin system regulates feeding via effects of the endogenous agonist, alpha-melanocyte ...
Stanton Rosemary A - - 2006
Many claims about nutrition and weight loss stem from small, short-term studies, incorrect interpretations or distortions of evidence. Our knowledge of what people eat is poor; difficulties include accurate assessment of consumption, the complex composition of foods and individual variations in nutrient bioavailability. When advice appears to be ineffective, poor ...
Fox Mary Kay - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether dietary intakes of infants and young toddlers show evidence of energy self-regulation. DESIGN: Data from 24-hour recalls collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study were analyzed. Multivariate regressions were used to explore the relationship between portion size and usual energy intake as well as ...
Agostoni Carlo - - 2006
The possible role of early dietary habits as the origin of later consequences on health has raised questions on the optimal macronutrient intakes of the growing infant. Infants and toddlers in developed countries usually show a high dietary protein: energy ratio during the complementary feeding period, averaging 2.5-3, because of ...
Raffoul Wassim W Chirurgie Plastique et Reconstructive, CHUV, Lausanne, - - 2006
Chronic low-limb ulcers and pressure ulcers are a serious and costly issue. Malnutrition is a risk factor. Searching for intervention strategies in elderly patients referred for surgical closure of their ulcers, the trial aimed at investigating the micronutrient status, determining the food intake of such patients, and the role of ...
Rolls Barbara J BJ Nutrition Department, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6501, USA. - - 2006
When the portion size and energy density (in kcal/g) of a food are varied simultaneously in a single meal, each influences energy intake independently. We aimed to determine how the effects of portion size and energy density combine to influence energy intake and satiety over multiple meals for 2 d. ...
Kelley Ann E AE Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison Medical School, Madison, Wisconsin 53719, USA. - - 2005
We elaborate herein a novel theory of basal ganglia function that accounts for why palatable, energy-dense foods retain high incentive value even when immediate physiological energy requirements have been met. Basal ganglia function has been studied from the perspective of topographical segregation of processing within parallel circuits, with primary focus ...
Lillegaard I T L - - 2005
The objective of the present study was to compare energy intake (EI) assessed from a pre-coded food diary (PFD) with energy expenditure (EE) measured by a validated position-and-movement monitor (ActiReg); PreMed AS, Oslo, Norway) in a group of Norwegian 9-year-olds. Moreover, we examined whether and how under-reporters (UR), identified with ...
Andersen Lene F LF Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, POB 1046 Blindern, Norway. - - 2005
To validate energy intake (EI) estimated from pre-coded food diaries against energy expenditure (EE) measured with a validated position-and-movement monitor (ActiReg) in groups of 13-year-old Norwegian schoolchildren. Two studies were conducted. In study 1 the monitoring period was 4 days; participants recorded their food intake for four consecutive weekdays using ...
de Castro John M - - 2006
Dietary energy density has been shown to have large effects on short-term food intake. Little is known, however, about its origins. We investigated the influence of heredity, shared (familial) environment, and individual environment on dietary energy density and its relationship to food intake with 110 identical and 102 fraternal same-sex ...
Kral Tanja V E - - 2006
The portion size of foods has been identified as an important environmental factor known to affect short-term energy intake. Experiments that were conducted both in the free-living environment and in laboratory-based settings to investigate the effects of portion size on energy intake unanimously showed that as the portion size of ...
Balthasar Nina - - 2005
Activation of melanocortin-4-receptors (MC4Rs) reduces body fat stores by decreasing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. MC4Rs are expressed in multiple CNS sites, any number of which could mediate these effects. To identify the functionally relevant sites of MC4R expression, we generated a loxP-modified, null Mc4r allele (loxTB Mc4r) that ...
Woods Stephen C - - 2005
Energy homeostasis is a complex on-going process that includes maintaining immediately available as well as stored nutrient levels at optimal levels given the environment. To accomplish this, the brain receives continuous information about stored energy and current and anticipated fluxes in critical organs, as well as about food that is ...
Loos Ruth J F - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The Agouti-related protein (AGRP), an appetite modulator, induces hyperphagia when administered intracerebroventricularly or when overexpressed in transgenic mice. Exogenous administration of AGRP in rodents predisposes to high fat and high sugar intakes. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the potential associations of 2 ethnic-specific polymorphisms in the AGRP gene ...
Rolland Y - - 2005
PURPOSE: Recreational physical activity, which increases energy expenditure, may help to maintain proper food intake. To compare the nutritional intake of inactive, active and very active healthy elderly women. METHODS: Eighty-two women were recruited in the community. Participants had to be > or = 65 years and in good health ...
Berti Cristiana - - 2005
Recent findings suggest that Western diets based on highly palatable foods are likely to be much less satiating than more traditional diets or those typical of less developed countries. In particular, some alternative crops (for example, buckwheat, oat, barley, spelt, rye, quinoa, amaranth) seem to be of great nutritional interest ...
Wiersma Popko - - 2005
Knowledge of the physiological consequences of variation in food availability may be essential for understanding behavioural and life history responses to such variation. To study the physiological consequences of food availability animals are generally subjected to caloric restriction or starvation, thereby reducing the upper limit to the energy budget. The ...
Uauy Ricardo - - 2005
This paper discusses possible consequences of energy excess throughout the life cycle. Firstly we consider the effects of foods on hunger, satiety and satiation. Also, the changes in food availability and consumption in relation to changes in social and economic determinants of energy excess. The relationship between physical activity and ...
Robertson Kimberly L - - 2005
For animals that cannot be housed socially for scientific reasons, such as rodents on food intake-energy expenditure studies, the provision of environmental enrichment may alleviate stress. However, the influence of environmental enrichment on food intake and energy expenditure is unresolved. The authors tested the effects of two environmental enrichment options ...
Shetty Prakash - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To describe issues related to energy requirements of free living adults and discuss the importance of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and their relationships to total energy expenditure (TEE ) and physical activity level (PAL, derived as TEE/BMR) and to determine the influence of body weight, height, age and sex. ...
Kurpad A V - - 2005
Energy deficiency is probably best measured in adults by the body mass index (BMI). Acute energy deficiency (AED) is associated with body weight loss, along with changes in body composition, as well as a reduced BMR and physical activity. Chronic energy deficiency (CED) is an inadequacy in food to which ...
Ziegler Paula J - - 2005
Dietary energy density (kcal/g) is defined as available dietary energy per unit weight or volume of food. The consumption of energy-dense foods has been associated with increased obesity risk and with excessive weight gain. The objectives of this study were to compare how dietary energy density, calculated using three different ...
Ferro-Luzzi Anna - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: In anticipation of the revision of the 1985 Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (FAO/ WHO/UNU) Expert Consultation Report on 'Energy and Protein Requirements', recent scientific knowledge on the principles underlying the estimation of energy requirement is reviewed. DESIGN: This paper carries out a historical review of ...
Rutishauser Ingrid H E IH School of Health Sciences, Deakin University Geelong, Victoria, Australia. - - 2005
To provide a concise summary of field and laboratory methods for the measurement of dietary intake with particular reference to the assessment of energy and protein intake and to the pitfalls and difficulties that may be encountered in practice when implementing the methods both in the field and under laboratory ...
de Castro John M - - 2006
The influence of the composition of foods, their macronutrient contents and the dietary energy densities on intake, were investigated by analyzing 7-day diet diary reports from 669 free-living normal adult humans who adequately reported intake. The analyses revealed subtle but small macronutrient specific relationships with intake. Dietary energy density, however, ...
Nawrocki Andrea R - - 2005
The adipocyte has pleiotropic functions beyond the storage of energy in times of nutrient abundance. Considerable efforts in adipocyte biology within the past ten years have emphasized the important role of adipose tissue in processes as diverse as energy metabolism, inflammation and cancer. Adipocytes are able to communicate with the ...
de Castro John M - - 2005
The energy density of the diet has been demonstrated to be a significant influence on the daily intakes of humans which has led to the hypothesis that intake control is based upon the weight and volume of food and not its energy content. The study explored the roles of the ...
Yeomans Martin R - - 2005
The present report explored firstly how palatability modified the effects of energy density (ED) on short-term food intake and changes in rated appetite within a single test meal, and secondly how repeated consumption altered these relationships. Experiment 1 contrasted disguised high (HED) and low (LED) versions of a food presented ...
Koebnick C - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Estimating dietary intake is important for both epidemiological and clinical studies, but often lacks accuracy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the accuracy and validity of energy intake estimated by an easy-to-use semiquantitative food record (EI(SQFR)) compared to total energy expenditure (TEE) estimated by doubly labelled water technique (EE(DLW)). DESIGN: TEE was ...
Nicklaus Sophie - - 2005
AIM: Modelling the evolution between the ages of 2 and 3 y of the energy intake and the variety of free food choices at lunch time in relation to children's and context variables. METHODS: One-year follow-up from 2 to 3 y old. In a nursery canteen, food choices at lunch ...
Herbeth Bernard - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is a key mediator in the control of food intake and is probably involved in the etiology of anorexia nervosa. An association between a polymorphism of the 5-HT receptor (5-HT2A) gene promoter (-1438G/A) and anorexia nervosa has been reported. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between the ...
Speakman John R JR Aberdeen Centre for Energy Regulation and Obesity, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB24 2TZ, UK. - - 2005
Several lines of evidence indicate that animals in the wild may be limited in their maximal rates of energy intake by their intrinsic physiology rather than food availability. Understanding the limits to sustained energy intake is important because this defines an envelope within which animals must trade-off competing activities. In ...
Adair Linda S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which child dietary patterns and trends are changing globally. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Diets of children 2 to 19 years of age were studied with nationally representative data from Russia and the United States, nationwide data from China, and regional data from metropolitan Cebu, ...
Huang Terry T-K - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We present an updated method for identifying physiologically implausible dietary reports by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) with predicted energy requirements (pER), and we examine the impact of excluding these reports. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Adult data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994 to 1996 ...
Drewnowski Adam - - 2005
Highest rates of obesity and diabetes in the United States are found among the lower-income groups. The observed links between obesity and socioeconomic position may be related to dietary energy density and energy cost. Refined grains, added sugars, and added fats are among the lowest-cost sources of dietary energy. They ...
Ello-Martin Julia A - - 2005
The increase in the prevalence of obesity has coincided with an increase in portion sizes of foods both inside and outside the home, suggesting that larger portions may play a role in the obesity epidemic. Although it will be difficult to establish a causal relationship between increasing portion size and ...
Lorefält B - - 2005
The purpose of the present study was to investigate if smaller but energy and protein enriched meals could improve energy and nutrient intakes in elderly geriatric patients. Ten patients, between 77 and 87 years of age were included in the study, performed at a Geriatric rehabilitation ward. The first week ...
Castellano J M - - 2005
Activation of the gonadotropic axis critically depends on sufficient body energy stores, and conditions of negative energy balance result in lack of puberty onset and reproductive failure. Recently, KiSS-1 gene-derived kisspeptin, signaling through the G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), has been proven as a pivotal regulator in the control of ...
Boudville Amanda - - 2005
Undernutrition contributes to poor clinical outcomes in hospitalised elderly patients but the potential impact of oral nutritional supplements may be reduced by suppressing subsequent food intake. We investigated this possibility in elderly female patients recovering mainly from hip fracture by studying the effect of oral supplements on subsequent food intake ...
Belza A A Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark. - - 2005
Bioactive food ingredients influence energy balance by exerting weak thermogenic effects. We studied whether the thermogenic effect of a combination of capsaicin, green tea extract (catechins and caffeine), tyrosine, and calcium was maintained after 7-day treatment and whether local effects in the gastric mucosa were involved in the efficacy. The ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2005
Humans appear to have a genotype that permits, or even encourages, an energy intake that is greater than energy expenditure when food is available. This was functional throughout most of human evolution but is less so in the current environment of inexpensive, palatable, and readily available foods. To achieve dietary ...
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